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Failure Analysis and Fractography of Polymer Composites

Failure Analysis and Fractography of Polymer Composites
  • Author : Emile Greenhalgh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-09-28
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9781845696818
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Summary : The growing use of polymer composites is leading to increasing demand for fractographic expertise. Fractography is the study of fracture surface morphologies and it gives an insight into damage and failure mechanisms, underpinning the development of physically-based failure criteria. In composites research it provides a crucial link between predictive models and experimental observations. Finally, it is vital for post-mortem analysis of failed or crashed polymer composite components, the findings of which can be used to optimise future designs. Failure analysis and fractography of polymer composites covers the following topics: methodology and tools for failure analysis; fibre-dominated failures; delamination-dominated failures; fatigue failures; the influence of fibre architecture on failure; types of defect and damage; case studies of failures due to overload and design deficiencies; case studies of failures due to material and manufacturing defects; and case studies of failures due to in-service factors. With its distinguished author, Failure analysis and fractography of polymer composites is a standard reference text for researchers working on damage and failure mechanisms in composites, engineers characterising manufacturing and in-service defects in composite structures, and investigators undertaking post-mortem failure analysis of components. The book is aimed at both academic and industrial users, specifically final year and postgraduate engineering and materials students researching composites and industry designers and engineers in aerospace, civil, marine, power and transport applications. Examines the study of fracture surface morphologies in uderstanding composite structural behaviour Discusses composites research and post-modern analysis of failed or crashed polymer composite components Provides an overview of damage mechanisms, types of defect and failure criteria

Fractography in Failure Analysis of Polymers

Fractography in Failure Analysis of Polymers
  • Author : Michael Hayes,Dale Edwards,Andy Shah
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-08
  • Total pages :252
  • ISBN : 9780323297998
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Summary : Fractography in Failure Analysis of Polymers provides a practical guide to the science of fractography and its application in the failure analysis of plastic components. In addition to a brief background on the theory of fractography, the authors discuss the various fractographic tools and techniques used to identify key fracture characteristics. Case studies are included for a wide range of polymer types, applications, and failure modes, as well as best practice guidelines enabling engineers to apply these lessons to their own work. Detailed images and their appropriate context are presented for reference in failure investigations. This text is vital for engineers who must determine the root causes of failure when it occurs, helping them further study the ramifications of product liability claims, environmental concerns, and brand image. Presents a comprehensive guide to applied fractography, enabling improved reliability and longevity of plastic parts and products Includes case studies that demonstrate material selection decisions and how to reduce failure rates Provides best practices on how to analyze the cause of material failures, along with guidelines on improving design and manufacturing decisions

Plastics Failure Analysis and Prevention

Plastics Failure Analysis and Prevention
  • Author : John Moalli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-12-31
  • Total pages :345
  • ISBN : 9780815518655
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Summary : This book contains analysis of reasons that cause products to fail. General methods of product failure evaluation give powerful tools in product improvement. Such methods, discussed in the book, include practical risk analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, preliminary hazard analysis, progressive failure analysis, fault tree analysis, mean time between failures, Wohler curves, finite element analysis, cohesive zone model, crack propagation kinetics, time-temperature collectives, quantitative characterization of fatigue damage, and fracture maps. Methods of failure analysis are critical to for material improvement and they are broadly discussed in this book. Fractography of plastics is relatively a new field which has many commonalities with fractography of metals. Here various aspects of fractography of plastics and metals are compared and contrasted. Fractography application in studies of static and cycling loading of ABS is also discussed. Other methods include SEM, SAXS, FTIR, DSC, DMA, GC/MS, optical microscopy, fatigue behavior, multiaxial stress, residual stress analysis, punch resistance, creep-rupture, impact, oxidative induction time, craze testing, defect analysis, fracture toughness, activation energy of degradation. Many references are given in this book to real products and real cases of their failure. The products discussed include office equipment, automotive compressed fuel gas system, pipes, polymer blends, blow molded parts, layered, cross-ply and continuous fiber composites, printed circuits, electronic packages, hip implants, blown and multilayered films, construction materials, component housings, brake cups, composite pressure vessels, swamp coolers, electrical cables, plumbing fittings, medical devices, medical packaging, strapping tapes, balloons, marine coatings, thermal switches, pressure relief membranes, pharmaceutical products, window profiles, and bone cements.

Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics

Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics
  • Author : ASM International,Steve Lampman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :489
  • ISBN : 9781615030736
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Summary : The selection and application of engineered materials is an integrated process that requires an understanding of the interaction between materials properties, manufacturing characteristics, design considerations, and the total life cycle of the product. This reference book on engineering plastics provides practical and comprehensive coverage on how the performance of plastics is characterized during design, property testing, and failure analysis. The fundamental structure and properties of plastics are reviewed for general reference, and detailed articles describe the important design factors, properties, and failure mechanisms of plastics. The effects of composition, processing, and structure are detailed in articles on the physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Other articles cover failure mechanisms such as: crazing and fracture; impact loading; fatigue failure; wear failures, moisture related failure; organic chemical related failure; photolytic degradation; and microbial degradation. Characterization of plastics in failure analysis is described with additional articles on analysis of structure, surface analysis, and fractography.

Fractography and Failure Mechanisms of Polymers and Composites

Fractography and Failure Mechanisms of Polymers and Composites
  • Author : Anne C. Roulin-Moloney
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989-06-06
  • Total pages :540
  • ISBN : UOM:39015047335479
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Summary :

Failure Analysis of Engineering Materials

Failure Analysis of Engineering Materials
  • Author : Charles R. Brooks,Ashok Choudhury
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :602
  • ISBN : 0071357580
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Summary : This text introduces the important aspects associated with the failure analysis of engineering components; and provides a treatment of both macroscopic and microscopic observations of fracture surfaces. --

Fractography

Fractography
  • Author : Derek Hull
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999-09-23
  • Total pages :366
  • ISBN : 0521646847
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Summary : Fracture surfaces are produced by breaking a solid. The appearance of the surface, particularly the topography, depends on the type of material - metal, polymer, ceramic, biomaterial, composite, rock - and on the conditions under which it was broken - stress (tensile, shear, creep, fatigue, impact), temperature, environment (air, water, oil, acid), etc. This 1999 book describes ways of studying the surface topography, and the interpretation of the topographical features in terms of the microstructure and the way it was tested. Fractography has numerous applications in a range of materials, and is particularly relevant in materials science and to inter-disciplinary subjects involving materials science, including physics, chemistry, engineering, biomimetics, earth sciences, biology and archaeology. This book provides the basis for an understanding of deformation and fracture in all solids, for interpreting fracture surface topography, and for the design of clear and unambiguous experiments involving many aspects of fracture in a wide range of solids.

Failure Mechanisms in Polymer Matrix Composites

Failure Mechanisms in Polymer Matrix Composites
  • Author : Paul Robinson,Emile Greenhalgh,Silvestre Pinho
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-19
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9780857095329
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Summary : Polymer matrix composites are increasingly replacing traditional materials, such as metals, for applications in the aerospace, automotive and marine industries. Because of the relatively recent development of these composites there is extensive on-going research to improve the understanding and modelling of their behaviour – particularly their failure processes. As a consequence there is a strong demand among design engineers for the latest information on this behaviour in order to fully exploit the potential of these materials for a wide range of weight-sensitive applications. Failure mechanisms in polymer matrix composites explores the main types of composite failure and examines their implications in specific applications. Part one discusses various failure mechanisms, including a consideration of manufacturing defects and addressing a variety of loading forms such as impact and the implications for structural integrity. This part also reviews testing techniques and modelling methods for predicting potential failure in composites. Part two investigates the effects of polymer-matrix composite failure in a range of industries including aerospace, automotive and other transport, defence, marine and off-shore applications. Recycling issues and environmental factors affecting the use of composite materials are also considered. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors Failure mechanisms in polymer matrix composites is a valuable reference for designers, scientists and research and development managers working in the increasing range of industries in which composite materials are extensively used. The book will also be a useful guide for academics studying in the composites field. Discusses various failure mechanisms, including manufacturing defects Reviews testing techniques and modelling methods for predicting potential failure Investigates failure in aerospace, automotive, defence, marine and off-shore applications

Fatigue and Fracture

Fatigue and Fracture
  • Author : F. C. Campbell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :685
  • ISBN : 9781615039760
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Summary : "This book emphasizes the physical and practical aspects of fatigue and fracture. It covers mechanical properties of materials, differences between ductile and brittle fractures, fracture mechanics, the basics of fatigue, structural joints, high temperature failures, wear, environmentally-induced failures, and steps in the failure analysis process."--publishers website.

3D Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

3D Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites
  • Author : L. Tong,A.P. Mouritz,M. Bannister
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-11-20
  • Total pages :254
  • ISBN : 0080525822
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Summary : Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are used in almost every type of advanced engineering structure, with their usage ranging from aircraft, helicopters and spacecraft through to boats, ships and offshore platforms and to automobiles, sports goods, chemical processing equipment and civil infrastructure such as bridges and buildlings. The usage of FRP composites continues to grow at an impessive rate as these materials are used more in their existing markets and become established in relatively new markets such as biomedical devices and civil structures. A key factor driving the increased applications of composites over the recent years is the development of new advanced forms of FRP materials. This includes developments in high performance resin systems and new styles of reinforcement, such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles. This book provides an up-to-date account of the fabrication, mechanical properties, delamination resistance, impact tolerance and applications of 3D FRP composites. The book focuses on 3D composites made using the textile technologies of weaving, braiding, knitting and stiching as well as by z-pinning.

Creep and Fatigue in Polymer Matrix Composites

Creep and Fatigue in Polymer Matrix Composites
  • Author : Rui Miranda Guedes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-14
  • Total pages :586
  • ISBN : 9780081026021
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Summary : Creep and Fatigue in Polymer Matrix Composites, Second Edition, updates the latest research in modeling and predicting creep and fatigue in polymer matrix composites. The first part of the book reviews the modeling of viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior as a way of predicting performance and service life. Final sections discuss techniques for modeling creep rupture and failure and how to test and predict long-term creep and fatigue in polymer matrix composites. Reviews the latest research in modeling and predicting creep and fatigue in polymer matrix composites Puts a specific focus on viscoelastic and viscoplastic modeling Features the time-temperature-age superposition principle for predicting long-term response Examines the creep rupture and damage interaction, with a particular focus on time-dependent failure criteria for the lifetime prediction of polymer matrix composite structures that are illustrated using experimental cases

Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Polymer Materials

Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Polymer Materials
  • Author : Wolfgang Grellmann,Beate Langer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-12
  • Total pages :533
  • ISBN : 9783319418797
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Summary : This book covers the most recent advances in the deformation and fracture behaviour of polymer material. It provides deeper insight into related morphology–property correlations of thermoplastics, elastomers and polymer resins. Each chapter of this book gives a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art methods of materials testing and diagnostics, tailored for plastic pipes, films and adhesive systems as well as elastomeric components and others. The investigation of deformation and fracture behaviour using the experimental methods of fracture mechanics has been the subject of intense research during the last decade. In a systematic manner, modern aspects of fracture mechanics in the industrial application of polymers for bridging basic research and industrial development are illustrated by multifarious examples of innovative materials usage. This book will be of value to scientists, engineers and in polymer materials science.

Handbook of Plastics Testing and Failure Analysis

Handbook of Plastics Testing and Failure Analysis
  • Author : Vishu Shah
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-03-05
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780470100417
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Summary : Written in easy-to-read and -use format, this book updates and revises its bestselling predecessor to become the most complete, comprehensive resource on plastics testing. This book has an emphasis on significance of test methods and interpretation of results. The book covers all aspects of plastics testing, failure analysis, and quality assurance - including chapters on identification analysis, failure analysis, and case studies. The book concludes with a substantial appendix with useful data, charts and tables for ready reference. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

Brittle Fracture and Damage of Brittle Materials and Composites

Brittle Fracture and Damage of Brittle Materials and Composites
  • Author : Jacques Lamon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-16
  • Total pages :296
  • ISBN : 9780081011614
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Summary : Flaws are the principal source of fracture in many materials, whether brittle or ductile, whether nearly homogeneous or composite. They are introduced during either fabrication or surface preparation or during exposure to aggressive environments (e. g. oxidation, shocks). The critical flaws act as stress concentrators and initiate cracks that propagate instantaneously to failure in the absence of crack arrest phenomena as encountered in brittle materials. This book explores those brittle materials susceptible to crack arrest and the flaws which initiate crack induced damage. A detailed description of microstructural features covering numerous brittle materials, including ceramics, glass, concrete, metals, polymers and ceramic fibers to help you develop your knowledge of material fracture. Brittle Failure and Damage of Brittle Materials and Composites outlines the technological progress in this field and the need for reliable systems with high performances to help you advance the development of new structural materials, creating advantages of low density, high resistance to elevated temperatures and aggressive environments, and good mechanical properties. The effects of flaw populations on fracture strength The main statistical-probabilistic approaches to brittle fracture The use of these methods for predictions of failure and effects induced by flaw populations The application of these methods to component design The methods of estimation of statistical parameters that define flaw strength distributions The extension of these approaches to damage and failure of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites

The Fracture of Brittle Materials

The Fracture of Brittle Materials
  • Author : Stephen W. Freiman,John J. Mecholsky, Jr.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-07
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9781118769706
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Summary : Provides a modern, practical approach to the understanding and measurement procedures relevant to the fracture of brittle materials This book examines the testing and analysis of the fracture of brittle materials. Expanding on the measurement and analysis methodology contained in the first edition, it covers the relevant measurements (toughness and strength), material types, fracture mechanics, measurement techniques, reliability and lifetime predictions, microstructural considerations, and material/test selection processes appropriate for the analysis of the fracture behavior of brittle materials. The Fracture of Brittle Materials: Testing and Analysis, Second Edition summarizes the concepts behind the selection of a test procedure for fracture toughness and strength, and goes into detail on how the statistics of fracture can be used to assure reliability. It explains the importance of the role of microstructure in these determinations and emphasizes the use of fractographic analysis as an important tool in understanding why a part failed. The new edition includes a significant quantity of material related to the fracture of biomaterials, and features two new chapters—one on thermal shock, the other on the modeling of the fracture process. It also expands on a discussion of how to treat the statistics of fracture strength data to ensure reliability. Provides practical analysis of fracture toughness and strength Introduces the engineering and materials student to the basic concepts necessary for analyzing brittle fracture Contains new statistical analysis procedures to allow for the prediction of the safe design of brittle components Contains real-world examples to assist the reader in applying the concepts to their own research, material development, and quality-control needs The Fracture of Brittle Materials: Testing and Analysis, Second Edition is an important resource for all students, technicians, engineers, scientists, and researchers involved in the study, analysis, creation, or testing of ceramics.

Mechanical Testing of Advanced Fibre Composites

Mechanical Testing of Advanced Fibre Composites
  • Author : J M Hodgkinson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-10-27
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781855738911
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Summary : Testing of composite materials can present complex problems but is essential in order to ensure the reliable, safe and cost-effective performance of any engineering structure. This essentially practical book, complied from the contributions of leading professionals in the field, describes a wide range of test methods which can be applied to various types of advanced fibre composites. The book focuses on high modulus, high strength fibre/plastic composites and also covers highly anisotrpoic materials such as carbon, aramid and glass. Engineers and designers specifying the use of materials in structures will find this book an invaluable guide to best practice throughout the range of industrial sectors where FRCs are employed.

Manufacturing of Polymer Composites

Manufacturing of Polymer Composites
  • Author : B. Tomas Astrom
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-04-27
  • Total pages :469
  • ISBN : 9781351433792
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Summary : The potential application areas for polymer composites are vast. While techniques and methodologies for composites design are relatively well established, the knowledge and understanding of post-design issues lag far behind. This leads to designs and eventually composites with disappointing properties and unnecessarily high cost, thus impeding a wider industrial acceptance of polymer composites. Manufacturing of Polymer Composites completely covers pre- and post-design issues. While the book enables students to become fully comfortable with composites as a possible materials choice, it also provides sufficient knowledge about manufacturing-related issues to permit them to avoid common pitfalls and unmanufacturable designs. The book is a fully comprehensive text covering all commercially significant materials and manufacturing techniques while at the same time discussing areas of research and development that are nearing commercial reality.

Fatigue of Fiber-reinforced Composites

Fatigue of Fiber-reinforced Composites
  • Author : Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos,Thomas Keller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-07-14
  • Total pages :238
  • ISBN : 1849961816
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Summary : Fatigue has long been recognized as a mechanism that can provoke catastrophic material failure in structural applications and researchers are now turning to the development of prediction tools in order to reduce the cost of determining design criteria for any new material. Fatigue of Fiber-reinforced Composites explains these highly scientific subjects in a simple yet thorough way. Fatigue behavior of fiber-reinforced composite materials and structural components is described through the presentation of numerous experimental results. Many examples help the reader to visualize the failure modes of laminated composite materials and structural adhesively bonded joints. Theoretical models, based on these experimental data, are demonstrated and their capacity for fatigue life modeling and prediction is thoroughly assessed. Fatigue of Fiber-reinforced Composites gives the reader the opportunity to learn about methods for modeling the fatigue behavior of fiber-reinforced composites, about statistical analysis of experimental data, and about theories for life prediction under loading patterns that produce multiaxial fatigue stress states. The authors combine these theories to establish a complete design process that is able to predict fatigue life of fiber-reinforced composites under multiaxial, variable amplitude stress states. A classic design methodology is presented for demonstration and theoretical predictions are compared to experimental data from typical material systems used in the wind turbine rotor blade industry. Fatigue of Fiber-reinforced Composites also presents novel computational methods for modeling fatigue behavior of composite materials, such as artificial neural networks and genetic programming, as a promising alternative to the conventional methods. It is an ideal source of information for researchers and graduate students in mechanical engineering, civil engineering and materials science.

Application of Fracture Mechanics to Composite Materials

Application of Fracture Mechanics to Composite Materials
  • Author : K. Friedrich
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-02
  • Total pages :686
  • ISBN : 9780444597212
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Summary : This multiauthor volume provides a useful summary of current knowledge on the application of fracture mechanics to composite materials. It has been written to fill the gap between the literature on fundamental principles of fracture mechanics and the special publications on the fracture properties of conventional materials, such as metals, polymers and ceramics. The data are represented in the form of about 420 figures (including diagrams, schematics and photographs) and 80 tables. The author index covers more than 500 references, and the subject index more than 1000 key words.

Failure Analysis and Prevention

Failure Analysis and Prevention
  • Author : Aidy Ali
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-20
  • Total pages :216
  • ISBN : 9789535137139
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Summary : This book covers recent advancement methods used in analysing the root cause of engineering failures and the proactive suggestion for future failure prevention. The techniques used especially non-destructive testing such X-ray are well described. The failure analysis covers materials for metal and composites for various applications in mechanical, civil and electrical applications. The modes of failures that are well explained include fracture, fatigue, corrosion and high-temperature failure mechanisms. The administrative part of failures is also presented in the chapter of failure rate analysis. The book will bring you on a tour on how to apply mechanical, electrical and civil engineering fundamental concepts and to understand the prediction of root cause of failures. The topics explained comprehensively the reliable test that one should perform in order to investigate the cause of machines, component or material failures at the macroscopic and microscopic level. I hope the material is not too theoretical and you find the case study, the analysis will assist you in tackling your own failure investigation case.

Metal Failures

Metal Failures
  • Author : A. J. McEvily
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :324
  • ISBN : 0471414360
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Summary : comprehensive coverage of both the "how" and "why" of metal failures Metal Failures gives engineers the intellectual tools and practical understanding needed to analyze failures from a structural point of view. Its proven methods of examination and analysis enable investigators to: * Reach correct, fact-based conclusions on the causes of metal failures * Present and defend these conclusions before highly critical bodies * Suggest design improvements that may prevent future failures Analytical methods presented include stress analysis, fracture mechanics, fatigue analysis, corrosion science, and nondestructive testing. Numerous case studies illustrate the application of basic principles of metallurgy and failure analysis to a wide variety of real-world situations. Readers learn how to investigate and analyze failures that involve: * Alloys and coatings * Brittle and ductile fractures * Thermal and residual stresses * Creep and fatigue * Corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking This useful professional reference is also an excellent learning tool for senior-level students in mechanical, materials, and civil engineering.