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Brominated Flame Retardants

Brominated Flame Retardants
  • Author : Ethel Eljarrat,Damià Barceló
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-15
  • Total pages :290
  • ISBN : 9783642192692
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Summary : Brominated flame retardants are one of the last classes of halogenated compounds that are still being produced worldwide and used in large quantities in many applications. They are used in plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry, and other materials to prevent fires. This volume covers the state-of-the-art of the analysis, fate and behaviour of brominated flame retardants. Experts in the field provide an overview of the compounds’ physico-chemical properties and uses, their occurrence in the environment and biota, advanced chemical analytical methods, degradation studies, toxicological effects and human exposure. This book is a valuable and comprehensive source of information for environmental scientists interested in brominated flame retardant issues, and for authorities and producers.

Polymer Green Flame Retardants

Polymer Green Flame Retardants
  • Author : Constantine D. Papaspyrides,Pantelis Kiliaris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-14
  • Total pages :942
  • ISBN : 9780444538093
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Summary : Polymer Green Flame Retardants covers key issues regarding the response of polymers during fire, the mechanisms of their flame retardation, the regulations imposed on their use, and the health hazards arising from their combustion. Presenting the latest research developments, the book focuses in particular on nanocomposites, believed to be the most promising approach for producing physically superior materials with low flammability and ecological impact. The fire properties of nanocomposites of various matrixes and fillers are discussed, the toxicological characteristics of these materials are analyzed, addressing also their environmental sustainability. Edited by distinguished scientists, including an array of international industry and academia experts, this book will appeal to chemical, mechanical, environmental, material and process engineers, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines, and generally to researchers developing commercially attractive and environmentally friendly fire-proof products. Provides recent findings on the manufacture of environmentally sustainable flame retardant polymeric materials Covers legislation and regulations concerning flame retarded polymeric material use Includes tables containing the fire properties of the most common polymeric materials

Brominated Flame Retardants: A Burning Issue

Brominated Flame Retardants: A Burning Issue
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1230987654XX
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Summary :

Flame Retardants

Flame Retardants
  • Author : Johannes Karl Fink
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-18
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781119750611
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Summary : This book focuses on the chemistry and applications of flame retardants for polymers and other materials. It starts with a description and types of flame retardants, as well as their properties and chemical structures, to include chlorine- and bromine-containing flame retardants, phosphorus-based flame retardants, nitrogen-based flame retardants, and silicones. Inorganic materials that serve as flame retardants, such as boron-based additives, graphenes, and others are discussed in detail. In addition, the following subjects are discussed in detail: Flame retardant polymers The mechanisms of flame retardants, such as flame cooling, synergetic effects, degradation of flame retardants, and others Other flame retardant compositions, such as dripping inhibitors and smoke suppressants Testing methods for flame retardants, international standards, human health hazards, such as smoke toxicity and problems with wastes Synthesis and fabrication methods, as well as recycling methods The application of flame retardants to the coating material using 3D printing, reactive coating, and bulk addition methods Non-burning comonomers, foams, nanocomposites and bio-based materials Flame retardants with other textiles, such as wool and electrical applications such as batteries.

Fire Retardant Materials

Fire Retardant Materials
  • Author : A. Richard Horrocks,D. Price,Dennis Price
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-03-02
  • Total pages :429
  • ISBN : 1855734192
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Summary : The editors and contributors provide a comprehensive source of information on all aspects of fire retardancy, emphasizing the burning behavior and flame retarding properties of polymetric materials. They combine combustion, flame retardants, smoke and toxic products and material-specific aspects of combustion in relation to textiles, composites, and bulk polymers. The contributors include the latest research in the nanocomposites, making it an essential source for anyone working with, studying, and developing fire retardant materials. The text considers material properties first; why materials may need to be fire retarded; how this may be undertaken; and the consequences. It highlights the juxtaposition of increased demands for safety and increased concerns about the risks to health and the environment caused by using flame retardants and fire retardant materials. The book discusses the fundamental issues that determine whether or not a material is flammable and how flame retardancy may be conferred both mechanistically and by means of established flame retardant systems and explores emerging methods and anticipated changes for performance-based tests.

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials, Second Edition

Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials, Second Edition
  • Author : Charles A. Wilkie,Alexander B. Morgan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-12-10
  • Total pages :853
  • ISBN : 1420084003
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Summary : When dealing with challenges such as providing fire protection while considering cost, mechanical and thermal performance and simultaneously addressing increasing regulations that deal with composition of matter and life cycle issues, there are no quick, one-size-fits-all answers. Packed with comprehensive coverage, scientific approach, step-by-step directions, and a distillation of technical knowledge, the first edition of Fire Retardancy of Polymeric Materials broke new ground. It supplied a one-stop resource for the development of new fire safe materials. The editors have expanded the second edition to echo the multidisciplinary approach inherent in current flame retardancy technology and put it in a revised, more user-friendly format. More than just an update of previously covered topics, this edition discusses: additional fire retardant chemistry developments in regulations and standards new flame retardant approaches fire safety engineering modeling and fire growth phenomena The book introduces flame retardants polymer-by-polymer, supplemented by a brief overview of mode of action and interaction, and all the other ancillary issues involved in this applied field of materials science. The book delineates what, why, and how to do it, covering the fundamentals of polymer burning/combustion and how to apply these systems and chemistries to specific materials classes. It also provides suggested formulations, discusses why certain materials are preferred for particular uses or applications, and offers a starting point from which to develop fire-safe materials.

Occurrence and Distribution of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants and Plasticisers in the Coastal Environment

Occurrence and Distribution of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants and Plasticisers in the Coastal Environment
  • Author : Hendrik Wolschke
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1137009478
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Summary :

Regulation of Cancer-causing Flame-retardant Chemicals and Governmental Coordination of Testing of Toxic Chemicals

Regulation of Cancer-causing Flame-retardant Chemicals and Governmental Coordination of Testing of Toxic Chemicals
  • Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1977
  • Total pages :521
  • ISBN : UOM:39015005209666
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Summary :

Plastic Flame Retardants

Plastic Flame Retardants
  • Author : J. Innes,A. Innes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :152
  • ISBN : 1859574351
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Summary : This review sets out to describe the types of flame retardants available for compounding into plastics materials, mechanisms of action and uses. This review provides a clear overview of the state-of-the-art of flame retardancy for plastics. It highlights the new developments and the potential problems with legislation, together with the benefits to end users of protection from fire hazards. This review is accompanied by around 400 abstracts from papers and books in the Rapra Polymer Library.

Brominated Flame Retardants

Brominated Flame Retardants
  • Author : Ethel Eljarrat,Damià Barceló
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-15
  • Total pages :290
  • ISBN : 9783642192685
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Summary : Brominated flame retardants are one of the last classes of halogenated compounds that are still being produced worldwide and used in large quantities in many applications. They are used in plastics, textiles, electronic circuitry, and other materials to prevent fires. This volume covers the state-of-the-art of the analysis, fate and behaviour of brominated flame retardants. Experts in the field provide an overview of the compounds’ physico-chemical properties and uses, their occurrence in the environment and biota, advanced chemical analytical methods, degradation studies, toxicological effects and human exposure. This book is a valuable and comprehensive source of information for environmental scientists interested in brominated flame retardant issues, and for authorities and producers.

Ban on Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) Phosphate (chemical Flame Retardant)

Ban on Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) Phosphate (chemical Flame Retardant)
  • Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Tris Hearing Panel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1977
  • Total pages :140
  • ISBN : MINN:31951D00283332P
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Summary :

Some Flame Retardants and Textile Chemicals, and Exposures in the Textile Manufacturing Industry

Some Flame Retardants and Textile Chemicals, and Exposures in the Textile Manufacturing Industry
  • Author : IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1990
  • Total pages :345
  • ISBN : OCLC:22808185
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Summary :

Flame Retardants 101

Flame Retardants 101
  • Author : Frca
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-01-14
  • Total pages :220
  • ISBN : 1566764459
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Summary :

Flame Retardants

Flame Retardants
  • Author : P. M. Visakh,Yoshihiko Arao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-02-04
  • Total pages :314
  • ISBN : 9783319034676
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Summary : This book summarizes comprehensively many recent technical research accomplishments in the area of flame retardant research. It presents mainly flame retardant studies of polymer blends, composites and nano composites such as rubber, thermosets and thermoplastics. This book discusses different types of flame retardant using in polymers especially nano composites, as well as the role and chemistry. Leading researchers from industry, academy, government and private research institutions across the globe contribute to this book. Academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and students in research and development will benefit from an application-oriented book that helps them to find solutions to both fundamental and applied problems.

A commercial application of fire retardants to dry-formed hardboards

A commercial application of fire retardants to dry-formed hardboards
  • Author : Gary C. Myers,Carlton A. Holmes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1977
  • Total pages :8
  • ISBN : MINN:31951D02988774B
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Summary :

Polymer Green Flame Retardants

Polymer Green Flame Retardants
  • Author : Constantine D. Papaspyrides,Pantelis Kiliaris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-14
  • Total pages :942
  • ISBN : 9780444538093
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Summary : Polymer Green Flame Retardants covers key issues regarding the response of polymers during fire, the mechanisms of their flame retardation, the regulations imposed on their use, and the health hazards arising from their combustion. Presenting the latest research developments, the book focuses in particular on nanocomposites, believed to be the most promising approach for producing physically superior materials with low flammability and ecological impact. The fire properties of nanocomposites of various matrixes and fillers are discussed, the toxicological characteristics of these materials are analyzed, addressing also their environmental sustainability. Edited by distinguished scientists, including an array of international industry and academia experts, this book will appeal to chemical, mechanical, environmental, material and process engineers, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines, and generally to researchers developing commercially attractive and environmentally friendly fire-proof products. Provides recent findings on the manufacture of environmentally sustainable flame retardant polymeric materials Covers legislation and regulations concerning flame retarded polymeric material use Includes tables containing the fire properties of the most common polymeric materials

Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals

Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Toxicology,Subcommittee on Flame-Retardant Chemicals
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-07-06
  • Total pages :534
  • ISBN : 9780309171939
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Summary : Ignition of upholstered furniture by small open flames from matches, cigarette lighters, and candles is one of the leading causes of residential-fire deaths in the United States. These fires accounted for about 16% of civilian fire deaths in 1996. On average, each year since 1990, about 90 deaths (primarily of children), 440 injuries, and property losses amounting to 50 million dollars have resulted from fires caused by the ignition of upholstered furniture by small open flames. Certain commercial seating products (such as aircraft and bus seats) are subject to flammability standards and sometimes incorporate FR-treated upholstery cover materials, but there is no federal-government requirement for residential upholstered furniture, and it is generally not treated with FR chemicals. It is estimated that less than 0.2% of all U.S. residential upholstery fabric is treated with flame-retardant (FR) chemicals. The Consumer Product Safety Act of 1972 created the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent federal regulatory agency whose mission is to protect the public from unreasonable risks of injury and death associated with consumer products. CPSC also administers the Flammable Fabrics Act, under which it regulates flammability hazards and the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA), which regulates hazardous substances including chemicals. In 1993, the National Association of State Fire Marshals petitioned CPSC to issue a performance-based flammability standard for upholstered furniture to reduce the risk of residential fires. The Commission granted that portion of the petition relating to small open flame ignition risks. In response to concerns regarding the safety of FR chemicals, Congress, in the fiscal year 1999 appropriations report for CPSC, requested that the National Research Council conduct an independent study of the health risks to consumers posed by exposure to FR chemicals that are likely to be used in residential upholstered furniture to meet a CPSC standard. The National Research Council assigned the project to the Committee on Toxicology (COT) of the Commission on Life Sciences' Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. COT convened the Subcommittee on Flame-Retardant Chemicals, which prepared this report. Subcommittee members were chosen for their recognized expertise in toxicology, pharmacology, epidemiology, chemistry, exposure assessment, risk assessment, and biostatistics. Toxicological Risks of Selected Flame-Retardant Chemicals is organized into 18 chapters and two appendices. Chapter 2 describes the risk assessment process used by the subcommittee in determining the risk associated with potential exposure to the various FR chemicals. Chapter 3 describes the method the subcommittee used to measure and estimate the intensity, frequency, extent, and duration of human exposure to FR chemicals. Chapters 4-19 provide the subcommittee's review and assessment of health risks posed by exposure to each of the 16 FR chemicals. Data gaps and research needs are provided at the end of these chapters.

Influence of Moisture on Effectiveness of Fire Retardants

Influence of Moisture on Effectiveness of Fire Retardants
  • Author : Richard C. Rothermel,Charles E. Hardy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1965
  • Total pages :32
  • ISBN : MINN:31951D02988469G
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Summary :

Co-incineration of Brominated Flame Retardants and MSW in Small-scale Reactor

Co-incineration of Brominated Flame Retardants and MSW in Small-scale Reactor
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :29
  • ISBN : 9289305991
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Summary :

Brominated Flame Retardants (BFR) in the Nordic Environment

Brominated Flame Retardants (BFR) in the Nordic Environment
  • Author : Martin Schlabach
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :86
  • ISBN : 9789289322218
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Summary :

Modern Polymer Flame Retardancy

Modern Polymer Flame Retardancy
  • Author : Sergei M. Lomakin,Gennadiĭ Efremovich Zaikov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-12-27
  • Total pages :265
  • ISBN : 9067643904
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Summary : There are obvious benefits in using flame-retardants, as many human lives and property are saved from fire. A large number of compounds have been identified as being used as flame-retardants. At present, knowledge of long-term effects resulting from exposure to flame retardants and their breakdown products is limited. The aim of this volume in the book series New Concepts in Polymer Science is to provide a general overview of the nature, mechanism of action, use and environmental hazards for a number of flame-retardants.This monograph (together with the book by the same authors, Ecological Aspects of Polymer Flame Retardancy (1999) will valuable to anyone interested in the field of flame-retardant chemicals.