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Foaming with Supercritical Fluids

Foaming with Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Ernesto Di Maio,Salvatore Iannace,Giuseppe Mensitieri
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-11-01
  • Total pages :482
  • ISBN : 9780444637369
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Summary : Foaming with Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluid Foaming

Supercritical Fluid Foaming
  • Author : Matthew S. Purcell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1065035573
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Summary :

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids

Polymer Processing with Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Vannessa Goodship,Erich Okoth Ogur
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :138
  • ISBN : 1859574947
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Summary : SCFs are currently the subjects of intense research and commercial interest. Applications such as the RESS (rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions) process are part of standard industrial practice. In view of their ever-growing importance in the polymer industry there is a need to fully comprehend how supercritical fluids interrelate with polymeric materials to realise the potential that can be gained from their use. The authors review the basic principles of SCFs and their application within the polymer industry: characteristics and properties, extraction of unwanted residual products, polymerisation solvents, and polymer impregnation. Processing applications such as plasticisation, foaming and blending are also considered. There is discussion of the potential within the polymer recycling industry for use of SCFs as cleaning agents or within supercritical oxidation processes. Around 400 references with abstracts from recent global literature accompany this review, sourced from the Polymer Library, to facilitate further reading. A subject index and a company index are included.

Blend- and Surface-assisted Foaming of Polymers with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Blend- and Surface-assisted Foaming of Polymers with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
  • Author : Srinivas Siripurapu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :182
  • ISBN : OCLC:52722021
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Summary : Keywords: polymer surfactants, polymer blends, high pressure rheology, controlled foam nucleation, carbon dioxide, nanoporous polymers, microcellular foam, supercritical fluids.

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids

Advanced Nanotechnology and Application of Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Inamuddin,Abdullah M. Asiri
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-27
  • Total pages :245
  • ISBN : 9783030449841
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Summary : Globalization and industrialization involve a number of reactions, products, extractions, and separations that require the use of organic solvents. These solvents are responsible for a number of ecological concerns, including atmospheric and land toxicity. Conventional organic solvents are regarded as volatile organic compounds; some are even limited due to their potential for ozone layer depletion. While supercritical liquids exhibit physical properties that could make them ideal substitutes for these volatile compounds, there is particular interest in the use of carbon dioxide as a solvent of crude material. In particular, carbon dioxide has apparent ‘green’ properties, like its noncombustible nature, the fact that it is generally nonpoisonous, and its relative inertness. Thus, the use of supercritical carbon dioxide can provide practical improvements to the sustainability of industrial products and processes. This book provides in-depth literature in the area of industrial green processes, focusing on the separation, purification, and extraction of compounds utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent.

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies

Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies
  • Author : Igor Pioro
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-20
  • Total pages :222
  • ISBN : 9781838807085
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Summary : Using SuperCritical Fluids (SCFs) in various processes is not new, because Mother Nature has been processing minerals in aqueous solutions at critical and supercritical pressures for billions of years. Somewhere in the 20th century, SCFs started to be used in various industries as working fluids, coolants, chemical agents, etc. Written by an international team of experts and complete with the latest research, development, and design, Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies is a unique technical book, completely dedicated to modern and advanced applications of supercritical fluids in various industries.Advanced Supercritical Fluids Technologies provides engineers and specialists in various industries dealing with SCFs as well as researchers, scientists, and students of the corresponding departments with a comprehensive overview of the current status, latest trends and developments of these technologies.Dr Igor Pioro is a professor at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Canada, and the Founding Editor of the ASME Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science.

Polymer Nanocomposite Foams

Polymer Nanocomposite Foams
  • Author : Vikas Mittal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-18
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9781466558137
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Summary : Advancements in polymer nanocomposite foams have led to their application in a variety of fields, such as automotive, packaging, and insulation. Employing nanocomposites in foam formation enhances their property profiles, enabling a broader range of uses, from conventional to advanced applications. Since many factors affect the generation of nanost

Polymer-supercritical Fluid Systems and Foams (P-(SF)2)

Polymer-supercritical Fluid Systems and Foams (P-(SF)2)
  • Author : Japan Society of Polymer Processing,SPE Thermoplastic Materials & Foams Division
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :228
  • ISBN : OCLC:500235111
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Summary :

Continuous Microcellular Foaming of Polyvinyl Chloride and Compatibilization of Polyvinyl Chloride and Polylactide Composites

Continuous Microcellular Foaming of Polyvinyl Chloride and Compatibilization of Polyvinyl Chloride and Polylactide Composites
  • Author : Bhavesh Shah
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :334
  • ISBN : MSU:31293028458580
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Summary :

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Richard Smith Jr.,Hiroshi Inomata,Cor Peters
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-08
  • Total pages :752
  • ISBN : 9780080931302
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Summary : This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Research in Materials

Research in Materials
  • Author : Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : CORNELL:31924067685861
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Summary :

Cellular and Microcellular Materials

Cellular and Microcellular Materials
  • Author : Vipin Kumar,Karl A. Seeler
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994
  • Total pages :283
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105017667374
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Summary :

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
  • Author : Maartje F. Kemmere,Thierry Meyer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-05-12
  • Total pages :358
  • ISBN : 9783527607051
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Summary : Recently, supercritical fluids have emerged as more sustainable alternatives for the organic solvents often used in polymer processes. This is the first book emphasizing the potential of supercritical carbon dioxide for polymer processes from an engineering point of view. It develops a state-of-the-art overview on polymer fundamentals, polymerization reactions and polymer processing in supercritical carbon dioxide. The book covers topics in a multidisciplinary approach starting from polymer chemistry and thermodynamics, going through monitoring, polymerization processes and ending with polymer shaping and post-processing. The authors are internationally recognized experts from different fields in polymer reaction engineering in supercritical fluids. The book was initiated by the Working Party on Polymer Reaction Engineering of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering and further renowned international experts.

Cellular and Microcellular Materials

Cellular and Microcellular Materials
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015032317250
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Summary :

Polymer processing using supercritical fluids

Polymer processing using supercritical fluids
  • Author : Elena Aionicesei,Željko Knez,Mojca Škerget
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :183
  • ISBN : OCLC:755108769
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Summary : The traditional methods for polymer processing use environmentally hazardous volatile organic solvents and chlorofluorocarbons. Due to the increase of hazardous solvent emission and generation of aqueous waste streams, there is an obvious need of finding new and cleaner methods for the processing of polymers. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) has attracted particular attention for these applications due to its tremendous potential as a plasticizer in polymer processing. A particular interest is shown to the use of supercritical fluids for processing polymers destined for biomedical applications (as microspheres, microcapsules, foams, membranes, polymer/drug composites). The method offers important advantages related to the absence of harmful organic solvents or, when necessary, the efficient extraction of solvents and impurities, the mild processing conditions and the control of particle and foams morphology by simple variation of pressure and temperature. Despite the huge potential of scCO2 as a ʺgreenʺ solvent for processing biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, the phase equilibrium data, essential for process design, are quite scarce. Optimum processing techniques and parameters (pressure, temperature) still need consideration andstudy. The data are especially scarce regarding the scCO2 processing of polymer/ceramic composites for biomedical applications. On this basis, this thesis is aimed to open new perspectives over the use of scCO2 as a ʺgreenʺ solvent for the processing of biodegradable polymers and composites used as biomaterials. Two biodegradable polymers were chosen for this study, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Their composite with a bioactive ceramic powder, hydroxyapatite (HA), was also studied. The main idea followed by this thesis was the obtaining of porous polymeric or composite material scaffolds suitable for tissue engineering under mild temperature conditions and without the use of additional organic solvents. The behavior of the two polymers under dense CO2 had been studied and explained. More data about the polymer-gas phase equilibrium, necessary for understanding and optimizing the effect of processing parameters, were obtained by determining the solubility and diffusion coefficients of CO2 in the polymers for certain values of temperature and pressure. The solubility ofCO2 was measured for each polymer for three different temperatures (308, 313and 323 K) in the pressure range 10 - 30 MPa. The temperatures were chosen higher than the critical temperature for CO2, but still low enough so as not to affect the bioactivity of any drugs or proteins that could be introduced in the system during processing. The same range of temperature and pressure was employed for all tests involving the studied polymers or their composite materials. The efficiency of mixing in the presence of scCO2 for obtaining composite materials from PLLA and HA and respectively PLGA and HA was studied by comparison with coprecipitation. The solubility and diffusion coefficient of CO2 in the composite materials were afterward determined, and the results were compared with the ones obtained for the polymer alone in order to determine the effect of the ceramic filler on the gas uptake. The possibility of obtaining porous scaffolds was assessed by using a pressure quench technique using dense CO2 as blowing agent, with and without the presence of aporogen. The effect of pressure, temperature, depressurization rate and porogen on the final porous structure was investigated. The experimental results were compared with literature data and with data obtained by mathematical modeling, employing equations of state commonly used for polymersor polymer/solvent systems. The results indicate that gas foaming of biodegradable polymers represents a promising technique for obtaining tissue engineering scaffolds with the desired structure. Still the processing parameters need to be studied and optimized, according to the nature of the substrate and of the aimed final product.

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning
  • Author : Samuel P. Sawan,Samuel P Sawan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-12-31
  • Total pages :306
  • ISBN : 9780815519164
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Summary : Although supercritial fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. The objective is to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It is particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It is also useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature. The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.

Innovative and Emerging Technologies for Texile Dyeing and Finishing

Innovative and Emerging Technologies for Texile Dyeing and Finishing
  • Author : Luqman Jameel Rather,Aminoddin Haji,Mohd Shabbir
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-02-17
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 9781119710141
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Summary : With the public enhanced awareness towards eco-preservation, eco-safety and health concerns, environmentally benign, nontoxic and sustainable bioresource materials produced mainly from non-food crops have revolutionized all industrial sectors particularly textile industry. In recent years, textile industries in developed countries are getting increasing interest in global interest due to the varied and changing world market conditions in terms of price, durability and fiber mixtures as well as design, colors, weight, ease of handling and product safety. The increasing environmental and health concerns owing to the use of large quantities of water and hazardous chemicals in conventional textile finishing processes lead to the design and development of new dyeing strategies and technologies. Effluents produced from these textiles wet processing industries are very diverse in chemical composition, ranging from inorganic finishing agents, surfactants, chlorine compounds, salts, total phosphate to polymers and organic products. This aspect forced western countries to exploit their high technical skills in the advancements of textile materials for high quality technical performances, and development of cleaner production technologies for cost effective and value-added textile materials. Therefore, vast and effective research investigations have been undertaken all over the world to minimize the negative environmental impact of synthetic chemical agents through the sustainable harvest of eco-friendly bioresource materials. The book will discuss following research developments in academic and industry: Improvement in dye extraction and its applications Impact of textile dyeing on environment Textile finishing by natural and ecofriendly means Natural dyes as environmental-friendly bioresource products Textile effluent remediation via physical, chemical and biological processes.

Supercritical Fluid Engineering Science

Supercritical Fluid Engineering Science
  • Author : Erdogan Kiran,Joan F. Brennecke,American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Meeting
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :410
  • ISBN : UOM:39015026939994
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Summary : Current state of supercritical fluid science and technology, high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria in carbon dioxide and 1-alkanol mixture, phase behavior of supercritical fluid-entrainer systems, three-phase behavior in binary mixtures of near-critical propane and triglycerides multiphase equilibrium behavior of a mixture of carbon dioxide, 1-de canol, and n-tetradecane, group contribution method for estimating the solubility of selected hidrocarbon solutes in supercritical carbonequation-of-state analysis of phase behavior for water-surfactant-supercritical fluid mixture, diffusion in liquid and supercritical fluid mixtures, viscosity of polymer solutions in near-critical and supercritical fluids: polystyrene and n-butane thermophysical properties of natural gas mixtures derived from acoustic cavity measurements, competitive energetic and entropic effects describing solvation in near-critical solutions, chemical potentials in ternary supercritical fluid mixtures, aggregation of methanol in supercritical fluids, hidrogen bonding of simple alcohols in supercritical fluids, adsorption from supercritical fluids, spectroscopic investigations of reactions, fluorescence spectroscopy study of alcohol, effects of specific interactions in supercritical fluid solutions, applications of supercritical fluids of controlled release, dynamic fluorescence, light scattering, simulation and optimization, organic component kinect model, oxidation process, removal of hetero atoms, gas density.

Biofoams

Biofoams
  • Author : Salvatore Iannace,Chul B. Park
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-10-28
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9781466561809
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Summary : Addresses a Growing Need for the Development of Cellular and Porous Materials in Industry Building blocks used by nature are motivating researchers to create bio-inspired cellular structures that can be used in the development of products for the plastic, food, and biomedical industry. Representing a unified effort by international experts, Biofoams: Science and Applications of Bio-Based Cellular and Porous Materials highlights the latest research and development of biofoams and porous systems, and specifically examines the aspects related to the formation of gas bubbles in drink and food. The book offers a detailed analysis of bio-polymers and foaming technologies, biodegradable and sustainable foams, biomedical foams, food foams, and bio-inspired foams. Explores the Generation of New Materials with Wide-Ranging Technological Applicability This book introduces the science, technologies, and applications related to the use of biopolymers and biomaterials in the development of porous structures. It presents topics that include bio-based polymers for the development of biodegradable and sustainable polymeric foams, foams in food, foams in biomedical applications, biohybrids, and bio-inspired cellular and porous systems. It also includes recent studies on the design of polymer-based composites and hybrid scaffolds, weighs in on the challenges related to the production of porous polymers, and presents relevant examples of cellular architecture present in nature. In addition, this book: Focuses on materials compatible with natural tissues Discusses the engineering of bio-inspired scaffolds with the ability to mimic living tissue Reveals how to use renewable resources to develop more sustainable lightweight materials Illustrates the state of the art of porous scaffold and process techniques A book dedicated to material science, Biofoams: Science and Applications of Bio-Based Cellular and Porous Materials focuses on food technology, polymers and composites, biomedical, and chemical engineering, and examines how the principles used in the creation of cellular structures can be applied in modern industry.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction
  • Author : Mark McHugh,Val Krukonis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780080518176
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Summary : Supercritical Fluid Extraction is a technique in which CO2 is used under extremely high pressure to separate solution (e.g., removing caffeine from coffee). Separations is basic to all process industries and supercritical fluid extraction is a specific type which is receiving a high level of attention. The book will combine basic fundamentals with industrial applications. The second edition has been expanded and updated and includes new chapters on chromatography and food processing. "...this is an excellent book which is both instructive and amusing to read. Its true value is neatly summarised in one of the closing sentences: 'We have supplied you with the guidelines and criteria which you can now apply when considering supercritical fluids for your own needs.'' - Chemistry in Britain, February 1995

Nucleating Agents

Nucleating Agents
  • Author : Stuart Fairgrieve
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11
  • Total pages :144
  • ISBN : 1847350836
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Summary : A very important factor in obtaining optimised physical properties from a semi-crystalline polymer is the size of the crystalline structures present in the material, and this crucially depends on the initiation process of crystallisation of the polymer from the melt - nucleation. This review provides information on the development of materials and methods for influencing the nucleation of polymer crystallisation in commercial processing by means of addition of low levels of adjuvants specifically selected for this purpose.