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Forensic Epidemiology

Forensic Epidemiology
  • Author : Michael Freeman,Maurice Zeegers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-10
  • Total pages :434
  • ISBN : 9780124046443
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Summary : It is an inescapable fact that causation, both generally (in populations), and specifically (in individuals), cannot be observed. Rather, causation is determined when it can be inferred that the risk of an observed injury or disease from a plausible cause is greater than the risk from other plausible causes. While many causal evaluations performed in forensic medicine are simplified by the fact that the circumstances surrounding the onset of an injury or disease clearly rules out competing causes (eg, a death following a fall), there are many cases that present a more complicated picture. It is these types of investigations, in which an analysis of comparative levels of risk from competing causes is needed to arrive at a reliable and accurate determination of the most likely cause, that forensic epidemiology (FE) is directed at. In Forensic Epidemiology, the authors present the legal and scientific theories underlying the methods by which risk is used in the investigation of individual causation. Methods and principles from epidemiology are combined with those from a multitude of other disciplines, including general medicine, pharmacology, forensic pathology, biostatistics, and biomechanics, inter alia, as a basis for investigating the plausibility of injury and disease exposures and mechanisms. The ultimate determination of the probability of causation (PC) results from an assessment of the strength of association of the investigated relationship in the individual, based on a comparison between the risk of disease or injury from the investigated exposure versus the risk of the same disease or injury occurring at the same point in time in the individual, but absent the exposure. The principles and methods described in Forensic Epidemiology will be of interest to those who work and study in the fields of forensic medicine, epidemiology, and the law. Historical perspective on how epidemiologic evidence of causation has been used in courts in the US and Europe Theory and science underlying the use of risk to assess individual causation Primer on epidemiologic methods, and various measures used to arrive at individualized comparative risk assessments and PC The use of statistical methods applied to publicly available data for ad hoc analysis of PC applicable to the specific circumstances of a case Background on complementary disciplines, including forensic pathology, death investigation, biomechanics, and survival analysis Examples of applied FE in the investigation of traffic injury and death, automotive and other product defect litigation, medical negligence, and criminal prosecution and defense

Forensic Epidemiology

Forensic Epidemiology
  • Author : Steven A. Koehler,Peggy A. Brown
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-08-26
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 1420063286
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Summary : After 9/11, forensic epidemiology emerged as a leading investigative tool, partnering public health officers with law enforcement like never before. Based on the authors’ first-hand experience, Forensic Epidemiology brings to light the vast amounts of information collected by medical examiners that will be useful in advancing death investigation techniques among the forensic science, public health, and law enforcement fields. This practical resource begins with a brief overview of epidemiological science and the history of forensic epidemiology before examining the multiple functions of death certificates and the signature role of forensic epidemiologists in death investigations. Incorporating numerous illustrations and real-world examples, the book: Explains proven methods to collect, analyze, and interpret data for criminal investigations Defines the terminology, methodology, procedures, and goals of all sectors involved for more effective collaboration Examines deaths from natural, suicidal, accidental, homicidal, and undetermined causes Describes the various decomposition states and methods used to establish positive identity The increased frequency of criminal acts that involve deliberate biological and chemical agents underscores the need for collaboration between law enforcement investigators and public health professionals. As Forensic Epidemiology effectively demonstrates, when they work together, they can mount a powerful and successful response to threats to the American public. Dr. Steven A. Koehler was interviewed in Volume 12 of Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.

Case Studies in Forensic Epidemiology

Case Studies in Forensic Epidemiology
  • Author : Sana Loue
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-05-08
  • Total pages :203
  • ISBN : 9780306475245
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Summary : Epidemiology has often been defined as the study of the distribution of disease, together with the distribution of factors that may modify that risk of disease. As such, epidemiology has often been reduced to a methodology only, providing a mechanism for the study of disease that is somehow removed, separate and apart from the populations that serve as its focus. Epidemiology, however, is much more than that. The discipline p- vides a way of perceiving and knowing the world, and of relating to the c- munities whose health and disease patterns we are trying to understand. As such, its usefulness extends past the construction of questionnaires, the detective work inherent in tracing the source of an infection or the analysis of data. Rather, epidemiology serves as a point of reference and a linkage between various domains of reality: in the courtroom, between a com- nity’s injuries and those alleged to be responsible for those violations; between the community striving to effectuate changes to improve its health and environment and the lawmakers and policymakers whose actions may dictate or control the likelihood of that change; and between “mainstream” populations and those who become or remain marginalized and stigmatized due to disease or perceived disease.

Forensic Epidemiology

Forensic Epidemiology
  • Author : Sana Loue
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-10-25
  • Total pages :195
  • ISBN : 9780763738495
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Summary : Events on local, national, and international levels have highlighted the need for joint investigation and collaboration between public health and law enforcement. Domestic violence and partner homicide, intentional infection of individuals with HIV, and the anthrax attacks of 2001 are examples that underscore the need for forensic epidemiology in the investigation of criminal acts. Forensic Epidemiology focuses specifically on the integration of the principles and methods of epidemiology with law enforcement functions in the administrative and criminal contexts. Ideal for students and professi

Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context

Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context
  • Author : Sana Loue
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :157
  • ISBN : 9781461467380
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Summary : As globalization causes profound changes in business, industry, and trade,it can also have significant effects on populations, environments, and individuals.These effects may be harmful, resulting in injury or illness, prompting the critical question: How best to correct wrongs caused to individuals, communities, and/or the environment of one country by the actions of individuals or corporations of another? Possible answers lie in an emerging discipline. Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context opens meaningful windows onto the processes of forensic epidemiology, the roles of the epidemiologist in civil disputes, and the potential contribution of the field to legal and justice efforts worldwide. Case examples from the U.K., Nigeria, Ecuador, Romania, and Australia illustrate commonly used methodologies and the challenges involved in their use in U.S. and international courts of law. A chapter on expert testimony takes readers through qualification and admissibility issues, report requirements, and working with attorneys. Included in the coverage: Forensic epidemiology in the international legal arena. The epidemiologist as an expert in litigation. Epidemiological evidence in tort law: dispatches from the U.K. Liability for occupational exposure: the role of epidemiology. Forensic epidemiology and environmental justice. Forensic epidemiology, pathology, ethnics, and human rights. By emphasizing both the scientific and legal components of the equation, Forensic Epidemiology in the Global Context gives researchers and graduate students in epidemiology a unique and timely guide to the present and future of an increasingly salient field.

Forensic Nursing Science - E-Book

Forensic Nursing Science - E-Book
  • Author : Virginia A. Lynch,Janet Barber Duval
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-23
  • Total pages :704
  • ISBN : 9780323066389
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Summary : Written and edited by the most respected authorities in forensic nursing and forensic sciences, this new edition provides the tools and concepts you need to collect evidence that is admissible in court, determine the significance of that evidence, and provide accurate, reliable testimony while administering high-quality patient care. Now in full color throughout, it remains the most comprehensive, highly illustrated text of its kind. Provides a comprehensive, updated guide to forensic nursing science, paying special attention to the International Association of Forensic Nurses’s (IAFN) goals for forensic nursing. Retains a focus on assessment skills and the collection and preservation of evidence, following the established guidelines of the forensic sciences. Prepares you to provide testimony as a fact witness or a forensic nursing expert. Includes an illustrated case study in almost every chapter, helping you relate the information to clinical practice. Highlights important recommendations for interventions in Best Practice boxes, including the evidence base for each. Summarizes important points in Key Point boxes, so you can quickly review the most important concepts in each chapter. Explores the evolving role of forensic nurses in today’s health care facilities and the community. Edited by Virginia Lynch, founding member and first President of the International Association of Forensic Nurses and Janet Barber Duval, both well-respected pioneers and educators in the field. Contains 300 full-color illustrations integrated throughout the text, so you can view evidence quickly and easily, as it is likely to appear in practice. Presents information on courtroom testimony and depositions in one reorganized, streamlined chapter, giving you a full, organized treatment of this extremely important topic. Includes twelve new chapters: Digital Evidence, Medical Evidence Recovery at the Death Scene, Asphyxia, Electrical and Thermal Injury, Intrafamilial Homicide and Unexplained Childhood Death, Human Trafficking, Credential Development for Forensic Nurses, Gangs and Hate Crimes, Ethics Issues in Forensic Nursing, Forensic Physics and Fracture Analysis, Sexual Deviant Behaviors and Crime and Forensic Epidemiology. Contains heavily revised information on Prehospital Evidence, Forensic Investigation in the Hospital, and Human Abuse and Deaths in Custody. Features critical thinking questions with every case study, so you can thoroughly consider the implications of each clinical scenario. Evolve site will include appendices and additional documentation materials.

Essential Forensic Pathology

Essential Forensic Pathology
  • Author : Gilbert Corrigan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-02-14
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9781439876664
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Summary : A myriad of different scenarios await those entering the field of forensic pathology, ranging from gunshot wounds to asphyxiation to explosives to death from addiction. Essential Forensic Pathology: Core Studies and Exercises helps prepare pathologists in training by establishing what they must know about the most common death scenes they will encounter. The book begins by discussing the coaching objectives in medical education and follows with a description of the 15 different rotations of the forensic pathology resident. Using a consistent and concise format, the book describes the facility where the rotation takes place, the necessary skills, the laboratory equipment, and other components of the rotation. The main portion of the book presents forensic pathology essentials in the form of learning objectives—each delineated with a code: "M" for items students must know, and "S" for those they must do. This section begins by discussing the government’s role, describes medical examiner and coroner systems, and analyzes the academic discipline of forensic pathology. Next, the book focuses on hands-on elements of forensic pathology, with chapters on scene investigation, identification, and postmortem changes (signs of death). Objectives are also presented for various causes of death, including gunshot wounds, stab wounds, asphyxiation, sex-related death, and death from addiction. Additional chapters cover bombs and explosive devices, mental disease, epidemics, and issues related to forensic entomology. Each chapter contains a list of pertinent vocabulary and references for further study. By mastering the objectives contained in each chapter of this manual, forensic pathology students will be ready to pass certification exams and work confidently in the field.

Microbial Forensics

Microbial Forensics
  • Author : Bruce Budowle,Steven E. Schutzer,Stephen A. Morse
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-30
  • Total pages :526
  • ISBN : 9780128153802
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Summary : Microbial Forensics, Third Edition, serves as a complete reference on the discipline, describing the advances, challenges and opportunities that are integral in applying science to help solve future biocrimes. New chapters include: Microbial Source Tracking, Clinical Recognition, Bioinformatics, and Quality Assurance. This book is intended for a wide audience, but will be indispensable to forensic scientists and researchers interested in contributing to the growing field of microbial forensics. Biologists and microbiologists, the legal and judicial system, and the international community involved with Biological Weapons Treaties will also find this volume invaluable. Presents new and expanded content that includes a statistical analysis of forensic data, legal admissibility and standards of evidence Discusses actual cases of forensic bioterrorism Includes contributions from editors and authors who are leading experts in the field, with primary experience in the application of this fast-growing discipline

Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the Workplace

Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the Workplace
  • Author : Richard Graveling
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-25
  • Total pages :198
  • ISBN : 9781351721325
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Summary : Whether you call them work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs), cumulative trauma disorders (CTDS), or occupational overuse syndromes (OOSs), these conditions are a cause of pain, disability and suffering to workers worldwide. These designations often imply that their causes are related to work, but the supporting evidence can be unclear. Transparency is important, especially when it is necessary to form a connection with work factors to obtain treatment or compensation. This book addresses the dilemma. Written by a professional ergonomist with almost 40 years of experience in workplace ergonomics, this book combines a critical summary and assessment of the epidemiological literature with an exploration of the scientific and medical evidence for possible causal mechanisms to develop well-informed conclusions on causation of a number of common musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb and intervertebral disc injury. Although much of the book focuses on physical factors, the role of psychosocial factors is increasingly being recognized and an additional chapter reviews a number of the current theories relating to this important issue. Features Focuses on a clear and authoritative account of the evidence for the role of work in the causation of commonly occurring ULDs and disc injury Provides an up-to-date compilation of the scientific evidence, devoid of views based on assumptions or prejudice Presents a clear explanation of the most likely causal mechanisms for common ULDs and disc injuries Includes a summary of theories concerning the role played by psychosocial factors Outlines the statistical evidence in a clear and understandable manner Bridges the gap between the evidence-base in the scientific and medical research literature and the practitioner

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
  • Author : David M. Whitacre
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-12-17
  • Total pages :160
  • ISBN : 1441976159
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Summary : Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.

Methods in Field Epidemiology

Methods in Field Epidemiology
  • Author : Pia D. M. MacDonald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-17
  • Total pages :349
  • ISBN : 9780763784591
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Summary : This unique guidebook covers all aspects of practical field epidemiologic investigation. It explains the requirements, defines terms, and illustrates many examples of how to undertake the tasks of the public health epidemiologist during a field investigation. Unlike other texts of its kind, it breaks down each function of field epidemiology to its constituent parts and thoroughly answers questions related to them. Topics include: public health surveillance; qualifying a potential outbreak; assembling and equipping a team; hypothesis generation and descriptive epidemiology; epidemiological studies; hypothesis-testing interviews; data analysis; writing a report; public health laboratory’s role in field; environmental health components; investigating non-infectious health events; forensic epidemiology investigations; GIS; and special considerations. The text is accompanied by a complete package of instructor resources including Sample Syllabus, Instructor's Manual, TestBank, and PowerPoint slides.

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-07-29
  • Total pages :348
  • ISBN : 9780309142397
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Summary : Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community. The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs. While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.

The Neuroscience of Handwriting

The Neuroscience of Handwriting
  • Author : Michael P. Caligiuri,Linton A. Mohammed
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-02-22
  • Total pages :267
  • ISBN : 9781466559189
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Summary : The Daubert trilogy of U.S. Supreme Court cases has established that scientific expert testimony must be based on science grounded in empirical research. As such, greater scrutiny is being placed on questioned document examination generally, and handwriting comparison in particular. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, The Neuroscience of

Criminal Law, Philosophy and Public Health Practice

Criminal Law, Philosophy and Public Health Practice
  • Author : A. M. Viens,John Coggon,Anthony S. Kessel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :278
  • ISBN : 9781107022782
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Summary : This examination of the interface between criminal law, philosophy and public health brings together international experts from a variety of disciplines and areas of practice, including law, public health, philosophy, health policy and ethics. It will be of particular relevance to academics, policy-makers, lawyers and public health practitioners.

Alcohol, Drugs, and Impaired Driving

Alcohol, Drugs, and Impaired Driving
  • Author : A. Wayne Jones,Jorg Gustav Morland,Ray H. Liu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-15
  • Total pages :700
  • ISBN : 9781000048643
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Summary : Alcohol, Drugs, and Impaired Driving addresses many theoretical and practical issues related to the role played by alcohol and other psychoactive drugs on driving performance, road-traffic safety, and public health. Several key forensic issues are involved in the enforcement of laws regulating driving under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs, including analytical toxicology, pharmacology of drug action, as well as the relationships between dose taken, concentration levels in the body, and impairment of performance and behavior. Our knowledge of drunken driving is much more comprehensive than drugged driving, so a large part of this book is devoted to alcohol impairment, as well as impairment caused by use of drugs other than alcohol. For convenience, the book is divided into four main sections. The first section gives some historical background about measuring alcohol in blood and breath as evidence for the prosecution of traffic offenders. The important role of the Breathalyzer instrument in traffic-law enforcement, especially in Australia, Canada, and the USA is presented along with a biographical sketch of its inventor (Professor Robert F. Borkenstein of Indiana University) with focus on the man, his work and his impact. The second section discusses several issues related to forensic blood and breath-alcohol alcohol analysis as evidence for prosecution of traffic offenders. This includes how the results should be interpreted in relation to impairment and an evaluation of common defense challenges. Because most countries have adopted concentration per se laws, the main thrust of the prosecution case is the suspect’s measured blood- or breath-alcohol concentration. This legal framework necessitates that the analytical methods used are "fit for purpose" and are subjected to rigorous quality assurance procedures. The third section gives a broad overview of the current state of knowledge about driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs in various countries. This includes adoption of zero-tolerance laws, concentration per se statutes, and clinical evidence of driver impairment based on field sobriety tests and drug recognition expert evidence. The fourth section deals with epidemiology, enforcement, and countermeasures aimed at reducing the threat of drunken and drugged driving. All articles have appeared previously in the international journal Forensic Science Review, but all are completely updated with current data, references, and the latest research on developments since the articles were published. This book contains a convenient collection of the best articles covering recommendations for blood and breath testing methods, public policy relating to such methods, and forensic and legal implications of the enforcement of measures to counter driving under the influence.

Handbook of Forensic Medicine

Handbook of Forensic Medicine
  • Author : Burkhard Madea
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-03-17
  • Total pages :1312
  • ISBN : 9781118570623
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Summary : Forensic Medicine encompasses all areas in which medicine and law interact. This book covers diverse aspects of forensic medicine including forensic pathology, traumatology and violent death, sudden and unexpected death, clinical forensic medicine, toxicology, traffic medicine, identification, haemogenetics and medical law. A knowledge of all these subdisciplines is necessary in order to solve routine as well as more unusual cases. Taking a comprehensive approach the book m.oves beyond a focus on forensic pathology to include clinical forensic medicine and forensic toxicology. All aspects of forensic medicine are covered to meet the specialist needs of daily casework. Aspects of routine analysis and quality control are addressed in each chapter. The book provides coverage of the latest developments in forensic molecular biology, forensic toxicology, molecular pathology and immunohistochemistry. A must-have reference for every specialist in the field this book is set to become the bench-mark for the international forensic medical community.

The Use Of Statistics In Forensic Science

The Use Of Statistics In Forensic Science
  • Author : C. G. G. Aitken,David A. Stoney
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991-10-31
  • Total pages :242
  • ISBN : 9780203017326
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Summary : Describes ways of assessing forensic science evidence and the means of communicating the assessment to a court of law. The aim of this work is to ensure that the courts consider seriously the probability of the evidence of association.

Forensic Science and Law

Forensic Science and Law
  • Author : Cyril H. Wecht,John T. Rago
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-12-22
  • Total pages :728
  • ISBN : 9781420058116
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Summary : Forensic science has undergone dramatic progress in recent years, including in the areas of DNA collection and analysis and the reconstruction of crime scenes. However, too few professionals are equipped with the knowledge necessary to fully apply the potential of science in civil, criminal, and family legal matters. Featuring contributions from renowned experts in the forensic, scientific, and legal professions, Forensic Science and Law: Investigative Applications in Criminal, Civil, and Family Justice communicates the wide range of methods and approaches used for achieving justice in these circumstances. A solid grounding in the underlying principles of our legal system provides a context for understanding how these methods are applied. The book brings together the words and thoughts of diverse professionals whose common goal is to uncover the truth. About the editors... Cyril H. Wecht, M.D., J.D., is actively involved as a medical-legal and forensic science consultant, author, and lecturer. Currently coroner of Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania, he is certified by the American Board of Pathology in anatomic, clinical, and forensic pathology and is a Fellow of the College of American Pathologists and the American Society of Clinical Pathologists. Dr. Wecht is a Clinical Professor at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Medicine, Dental Medicine, and Graduate School of Public Health, an Adjunct Professor at Duquesne University Schools of Law, Pharmacy and Health Services, and a Distinguished Professor at Carlow University. He is a past president of both the American College of Legal Medicine and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Dr. Wecht is the author of more than 500 professional publications and has appeared as a guest on numerous national television and radio talk shows. John T. Rago, J.D., is Assistant Professor of Law at Duquesne University School of Law and the Director of both The Cyril H. Wecht Institute of Forensic Science and Law and the Law School’s Post-conviction DNA Project. He teaches criminal law and procedure to law students and graduate courses on wrongful convictions, foundations in American law and constitutional criminal procedure to students in the university’s Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences. Professor Rago also serves as an appointed member to the Innocence Project’s Policy Group of the Cardozo School of Law in New York. He is admitted to practice before the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, the United States Supreme Court, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit and the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania.

The Journal of Health Care Law & Policy

The Journal of Health Care Law & Policy
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCAL:B5112801
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Summary :

Symposium

Symposium
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :214
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105063815638
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Summary :

Defense Against Biological Attacks

Defense Against Biological Attacks
  • Author : Sunit K. Singh,Jens H. Kuhn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-30
  • Total pages :327
  • ISBN : 9783030030537
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Summary : This first volume of a two-volume set describes general aspects, such as the historical view on the topic, the role of information distribution and preparedness of health-care systems and preparedness in emergency cases. Part two describes and discusseses in detail the pathogens and toxins that are potentially used for biological attacks. As such, the book is a valuable resource for faculties engaged in molecular biology, genetic engineering, neurology, biodefense, biosafety & biosecurity, virology, and infectious disease programs, as well as professional medical research organizations.