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Fouling in Refineries

Fouling in Refineries
  • Author : James G. Speight
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-14
  • Total pages :538
  • ISBN : 9780128011454
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Summary : Fouling in Refineries is an important and ongoing problem that directly affects energy efficiency resulting in increased costs, production losses, and even unit shutdown, requiring costly expenditures to clean up equipment and return capacity to positive levels. This text addresses this common challenge for the hydrocarbon processing community within each unit of the refinery. As refineries today face a greater challenge of accepting harder to process heavier crudes and the ongoing flow of the lighter shale oil feedstocks, resulting in bigger challenges to balance product stability within their process equipment, this text seeks to inform all relative refinery personnel on how to monitor fouling, characterize the deposits, and follow all available treatments. With basic modeling and chemistry of fouling and each unit covered, users will learn how to operate at maximum production rates and elongate the efficiency of their refinery’s capacity. Presents an understanding of the breakdown of fouling per refinery unit, including distillation and coking units Provides all the factors, crude types, and refining blends that cause fouling, especially the unconventional feedstocks and high acid crudes used today Helps users develop an analysis-based treatment and control strategy that empowers them to operate refinery equipment at a level that prevents fouling from occurring

Crude Oil Fouling

Crude Oil Fouling
  • Author : Francesco Coletti,Geoffrey Hewitt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-20
  • Total pages :360
  • ISBN : 9780128013595
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Summary : With production from unconventional rigs continuing to escalate and refineries grappling with the challenges of shale and heavier oil feedstocks, petroleum engineers and refinery managers must ensure that equipment used with today’s crude oil is protected from fouling deposits Crude Oil Fouling addresses this overarching challenge for the petroleum community with clear explanations on what causes fouling, current models and new approaches to evaluate and study the formation of deposits, and how today’s models could be applied from lab experiment to onsite field usability for not just the refinery, but for the rig, platform, or pipeline. Crude Oil Fouling is a must-have reference for every petroleum engineer’s library that gives the basic framework needed to analyze, model, and integrate the best fouling strategies and operations for crude oil systems. Defines the most critical variables and events that cause fouling Explains the consequences of fouling and its impact on operations, safety, and economics Provides the technical models available to better predict and eliminate the potential for fouling in any crude system

Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry

Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry
  • Author : Alec Groysman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-24
  • Total pages :356
  • ISBN : 9783319452562
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Summary : This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion fatigue occurring at refinery units. At last, fouling, corrosion and cleaning are discussed in this book.

Guide to the Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines

Guide to the Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines
  • Author : Johannes Karl Fink
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-09
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 9780128094235
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Summary : Guide to Practical Use of Chemicals in Refineries and Pipelines delivers a well-rounded collection of content, references, and patents to show all the practical chemical choices available for refinery and pipeline usage, along with their purposes, benefits, and general characteristics. Covering the full spectrum of downstream operations, this reference solves the many problems that engineers and managers currently face, including corrosion, leakage in pipelines, and pretreatment of heavy oil feedstocks, something that is of growing interest with today's unconventional activity. Additional coverage on special refinery additives and justification on why they react the way they do with other chemicals and feedstocks is included, along with a reference list of acronyms and an index of chemicals that will give engineers and managers the opportunity to recognize new chemical solutions that can be used in the downstream industry. Presents tactics practitioners can use to effectively locate and utilize the right chemical application specific to their refinery or pipeline operation Includes information on how to safely perform operations with coverage on environmental issues and safety, including waste stream treatment and sulfur removal Helps readers understand the composition and applications of chemicals used in oil and gas refineries and pipelines, along with where they should be applied, and how their structure interacts when mixed at the refinery

Refinery Feedstocks

Refinery Feedstocks
  • Author : James G. Speight
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-21
  • Total pages :356
  • ISBN : 9780429675652
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Summary : Over the last several decades, the petroleum industry has experienced significant changes in resource availability, petro-politics, and technological advancements dictated by the changing quality of refinery feedstocks. However, the dependence on fossil fuels as the primary energy source has remained unchanged. Refinery Feedstocks addresses the problems of changing feedstock availability and properties; the refining process; and solids deposition during refining. This book will take the reader through the various steps that are necessary for crude oil evaluation and refining including the potential for the use of coal liquids, shale oil, and non-fossil fuel materials (biomass) as refinery feedstocks. Other features: Describes the various types of crude oil and includes a discussion of extra heavy oil and tar sand bitumen Includes basic properties and specifications of crude oil and the significance in refinery operations This book is a handy reference for engineers, scientists, and students who want an update on crude oil refining and on the direction the industry must take to assure the refinability of various feedstocks and the efficiency of the refining processes in the next fifty years. Non-technical readers, with help from the extensive glossary, will also benefit from reading this book.

Fouling of Heat Exchangers

Fouling of Heat Exchangers
  • Author : T.R. Bott
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995-04-13
  • Total pages :546
  • ISBN : 0080531903
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Summary : This unique and comprehensive text considers all aspects of heat exchanger fouling from the basic science of how surfaces become fouled to very practical ways of mitigating the problem and from mathematical modelling of different fouling mechanisms to practical methods of heat exchanger cleaning. The problems that restrict the efficient operation of equipment are described and the costs, some of them hidden costs, that are associated with the fouling of heat exchangers are discussed. Some simple concepts and models of the fouling processes are presented as part of the introduction to the subject. Advice on the selection, design, installation and commissioning of heat exchangers to minimise fouling is given. A large part of the text is devoted to the use of chemical and other additives to reduce or eliminate the problem of fouling. Another large section is designed to give information on both on-line and off-line cleaning of heat exchangers. One of the difficulties faced by designers and operators of heat exchangers is anticipating the likely extent of fouling problems to be encountered with different flow streams. Another large section addresses the question and describes methods that have been used in attempting to define fouling potential. The book concludes with a chapter on how fouling information can be obtained using plant data, field tests and laboratory studies.

Heat Transfer in Process Engineering

Heat Transfer in Process Engineering
  • Author : Eduardo Cao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-08-12
  • Total pages :736
  • ISBN : 9780071626132
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Summary : Cutting-edge heat transfer principles and design applications Apply advanced heat transfer concepts to your chemical, petrochemical, and refining equipment designs using the detailed information contained in this comprehensive volume. Filled with valuable graphs, tables, and charts, Heat Transfer in Process Engineering covers the latest analytical and empirical methods for use with current industry software. Select heat transfer equipment, make better use of design software, calculate heat transfer coefficients, troubleshoot your heat transfer process, and comply with design and construction standards. Heat Transfer in Process Engineering allows you to: Review heat transfer principles with a direct focus on process equipment design Design, rate, and specify shell and tube, plate, and hairpin heat exchangers Design, rate, and specify air coolers with plain or finned tubes Design, rate, and specify different types of condensers with tube or shellside condensation for pure fluids or multicomponent mixtures Understand the principles and correlations of boiling heat transfer, with their limits on and applications to different types of reboiler design Apply correlations for fired heater ratings, for radiant and convective zones, and calculate fuel efficiency Obtain a set of useful Excel worksheets for process heat transfer calculations

Fouling Science and Technology

Fouling Science and Technology
  • Author : L. Melo,T.R. Bott,Carlos A. Bernardo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :744
  • ISBN : 9789400928138
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Summary : The fouling of heat exchangers, reactors and catalysts remains one of the most urgent problems facing the process industries. Over the past ten years there has been limited research and investigation into the underlying mechanisms which give rise to this problem. For convenience, particularly in heat exchanger technology, the mechanisms involved have been subdivided into different subject areas. It is often the situation that individuals or groups of workers have concentra ted efforts in one or two of these specialist areas and there is a need to integrate the ideas across the whole spectrum of the subject. In addition, topics such as adhesion and surface phenomena have not been properly taken into account up till now in the assessment of the fouling processes. For this reason it was considered essential that the recognised experts from around the world, who are actively concerned with research, development and design in the fieId, should meet and exchange ideas and experience. Such a meeting was held at Alvor, Portugal, in May 1987, sponsored by the NATO Advanced St~dy Institutes Programme. In order to obtain a common basis for the work of the Advanced Study Institute, the whole technological field was reviewed right from the basic concepts to the frontiers of present knowledge. Each invited contributor was asked to make an overall presentation covering his or her area of expertise.

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • Author : Adela Ionescu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-02-14
  • Total pages :410
  • ISBN : 9789535137900
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Summary : This book is the result of a careful selection of contributors in the field of CFD. It is divided into three sections according to the purpose and approaches used in the development of the contributions. The first section describes the "high-performance computing" (HPC) tools and their impact on CFD modeling. The second section is dedicated to "CFD models for local and large-scale industrial phenomena." Two types of approaches are basically contained here: one concerns the adaptation from global to local scale, - e.g., the applications of CFD to study the climate changes and the adaptations to local scale. The second approach, very challenging, is the multiscale analysis. The third section is devoted to "CFD in numerical modeling approach for experimental cases." Its chapters emphasize on the numerical approach of the mathematical models associated to few experimental (industrial) cases. Here, the impact and the importance of the mathematical modeling in CFD are focused on. It is expected that the collection of these chapters will enrich the state of the art in the CFD domain and its applications in a lot of fields. This collection proves that CFD is a highly interdisciplinary research area, which lies at the interface of physics, engineering, applied mathematics, and computer science.

Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industry

Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industry
  • Author : Viswanathan S. Saji,Saviour A. Umoren
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-10
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9783527822133
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Summary : Provides comprehensive coverage of corrosion inhibitors in the oil and gas industries Considering the high importance of corrosion inhibitor development for the oil and gas sectors, this book provides a thorough overview of the most recent advancements in this field. It systematically addresses corrosion inhibitors for various applications in the oil and gas value chain, as well as the fundamentals of corrosion inhibition and interference of inhibitors with co-additives. Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industries is presented in three parts. The first part on Fundamentals and Approaches focuses on principles and processes in the oil and gas industry, the types of corrosion encountered and their control methods, environmental factors affecting inhibition, material selection strategies, and economic aspects of corrosion. The second part on Choice of Inhibitors examines corrosion inhibitors for acidizing processes, inhibitors for sweet and sour corrosion, inhibitors in refinery operations, high-temperature corrosion inhibitors, inhibitors for challenging corrosive environments, inhibitors for microbiologically influenced corrosion, polymeric inhibitors, vapor phase inhibitors, and smart controlled release inhibitor systems. The last part on Interaction with Co-additives looks at industrial co-additives and their interference with corrosion inhibitors such as antiscalants, hydrate inhibitors, and sulfide scavengers. -Presents a well-structured and systematic overview of the fundamentals and factors affecting corrosion -Acts as a handy reference tool for scientists and engineers working with corrosion inhibitors for the oil and gas industries -Collectively presents all the information available on the development and application of corrosion inhibitors for the oil and gas industries -Offers a unique and specific focus on the oil and gas industries Corrosion Inhibitors in the Oil and Gas Industries is an excellent resource for scientists in industry as well as in academia working in the field of corrosion protection for the oil and gas sectors, and will appeal to materials scientists, electrochemists, chemists, and chemical engineers.

Troubleshooting Refinery Processes

Troubleshooting Refinery Processes
  • Author : Norman P. Lieberman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1981
  • Total pages :360
  • ISBN : UOM:39015009847982
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Summary :

Crude Unit Corrosion Guide

Crude Unit Corrosion Guide
  • Author : Gutzeit Joerg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-23
  • Total pages :262
  • ISBN : 157590330X
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Summary : This revision is based primarily on the author's experience dealing with all aspects of corrosion and fouling in crude units. The Guide also reflects the Industry's consensus experiences reported at past meetings of the NACE1 STG34 Committee on Petroleum Refining and Gas Processing and the API2 Subcommittee on Corrosion and Materials.

Corrosion and Materials Selection

Corrosion and Materials Selection
  • Author : Alireza Bahadori
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-06-24
  • Total pages :576
  • ISBN : 9781118869208
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Summary : The petroleum and chemical industries contain a wide variety of corrosive environments, many of which are unique to these industries. Oil and gas production operations consume a tremendous amount of iron and steel pipe, tubing, pumps, valves, and sucker rods. Metallic corrosion is costly. However, the cost of corrosion is not just financial. Beyond the huge direct outlay of funds to repair or replace corroded structures are the indirect costs – natural resources, potential hazards, and lost opportunity. Wasting natural resources is a direct contradiction to the growing need for sustainable development. By selecting the correct material and applying proper corrosion protection methods, these costs can be reduced, or even eliminated. This book provides a minimum design requirement for consideration when designing systems in order to prevent or control corrosion damage safely and economically, and addresses: • Corrosion problems in petroleum and chemical industries • Requirements for corrosion control • Chemical control of corrosive environments • Corrosion inhibitors in refineries and petrochemical plants • Materials selection and service life of materials • Surface preparation, protection and maintainability • Corrosion monitoring - plant inspection techniques and laboratory corrosion testing techniques Intended for engineers and industry personnel working in the petroleum and chemical industries, this book is also a valuable resource for research and development teams, safety engineers, corrosion specialists and researchers in chemical engineering, engineering and materials science.

Energy Research Abstracts

Energy Research Abstracts
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1979
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OSU:32435060248903
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Summary :

Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands

Treatment of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater with Constructed Wetlands
  • Author : Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-11
  • Total pages :282
  • ISBN : 9780429835155
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Summary : Pollution of waterbodies and the environment by petroleum industry is of particular concern in Nigeria. This problem can be addressed by the application of constructed wetlands (CWs) which is a nature-based system that is simple to construct, have low operational and maintenance costs in terms of supply of energy and its periodic maintenance. The application of CWs in Nigeria for polishing of petroleum refinery wastewater is an unprecedented research. This PhD thesis focused on some specific objectives which were characterization of treated secondary refinery wastewater, design, construction, operation and monitoring of planted (T. latifolia, C. alternifolius and C. dactylon) and unplanted vertical subsurface flow, horizontal subsurface flow and hybrid CWs for the removal of suspended solids, nutrients, heavy metals, organic matter and organic pollutants. The CWs effectively treated the petroleum contaminated wastewater to effluent compliance limits. In this study, T. latifolia planted CWs had consistently higher removal efficiencies for all the measured parameters than C. alternifolius and C. dactylon planted CW systems. Therefore, in order to improve the wastewater quality discharged by Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) Nigeria, meet stringent guidelines and protect the recipient streams, installation of CWs at the effluent discharge point of KRPC is strongly recommended.

Separation Technologies for the Industries of the Future

Separation Technologies for the Industries of the Future
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Committee on Industrial Technology Assessments,Panel on Separation Technology for Industrial Reuse and Recycling
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999-02-08
  • Total pages :128
  • ISBN : 9780309063777
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Summary : Separation processesâ€"or processes that use physical, chemical, or electrical forces to isolate or concentrate selected constituents of a mixtureâ€"are essential to the chemical, petroleum refining, and materials processing industries. In this volume, an expert panel reviews the separation process needs of seven industries and identifies technologies that hold promise for meeting these needs, as well as key technologies that could enable separations. In addition, the book recommends criteria for the selection of separations research projects for the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology.

Process Chemistry of Petroleum Macromolecules

Process Chemistry of Petroleum Macromolecules
  • Author : Irwin A. Wiehe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-06-20
  • Total pages :456
  • ISBN : 9781420018332
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Summary : Although there is a shortage of light petroleum, there is plenty of heavy petroleum rich in macromolecules available, creating an increasing interest for processes that can convert heavy oils to light oils. Process Chemistry of Petroleum Macromolecules provides the scientific basis for such processes, presenting methods to determine improvement potential. Topics include characterization, thermal kinetics, phase behavior, and separation. Revealing that the science of petroleum macromolecules is simpler and more exciting than imagined, it also discusses macromolecules that self-associate, liquid crystalline phases, reactions triggered by phase separation, and both dispersed and dissolved solutes.

Working Guide to Process Equipment, Third Edition

Working Guide to Process Equipment, Third Edition
  • Author : Norman Lieberman,Elizabeth Lieberman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-05-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 0071640967
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Summary : Diagnose and Troubleshoot Problems in Chemical Process Equipment with This Updated Classic! Chemical engineers and plant operators can rely on the Third Edition of A Working Guide to Process Equipment for the latest diagnostic tips, practical examples, and detailed illustrations for pinpointing trouble and correcting problems in chemical process equipment. This updated classic contains new chapters on Control Valves, Cooling Towers, Waste Heat Boilers, Catalytic Effects, Fundamental Concepts of Process Equipment, and Process Safety. Filled with worked-out calculations, the book examines everything from trays, reboilers, instruments, air coolers, and steam turbines...to fired heaters, refrigeration systems, centrifugal pumps, separators, and compressors. The authors simplify complex issues and explain the technical issues needed to solve all kinds of equipment problems. Comprehensive and clear, the Third Edition of A Working Guide to Process Equipment features: Guidance on diagnosing and troubleshooting process equipment problems Explanations of how theory applies to real-world equipment operations Many useful tips, examples, illustrations, and worked-out calculations New to this edition: Control Valves, Cooling Towers, Waste Heat Boilers, Catalytic Effects, and Process Safety Inside this Renowned Guide to Solving Process Equipment Problems • Trays • Tower Pressure • Distillation Towers • Reboilers • Instruments • Packed Towers • Steam and Condensate Systems • Bubble Point and Dew Point • Steam Strippers • Draw-Off Nozzle Hydraulics • Pumparounds and Tower Heat Flows • Condensers and Tower Pressure Control • Air Coolers • Deaerators and Steam Systems • Vacuum Systems • Steam Turbines • Surface Condensers • Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers • Fire Heaters • Refrigeration Systems • Centrifugal Pumps • Separators • Compressors • Safety • Corrosion • Fluid Flow • Computer Modeling and Control • Field Troubleshooting Process Problems

High Acid Crudes

High Acid Crudes
  • Author : James G. Speight
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-05-06
  • Total pages :150
  • ISBN : 0128006307
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Summary : Due to their discounted value but potential for higher production rates, refineries are accepting more of high acidic crude feedstocks. Refining of these resources is still increasing due to high oil prices, with China dominating this market and doubling their production of high acid crudes by 2015. Processing these resources can significantly increase any refinery's productivity, but knowledge and proper training for the refinery manager and crude supplier is key to reducing the risk associated with high acid feedstocks, while still maintaining clean production standards. This book provides an overview and relevant details of the identification of high acid crudes and their influence on the refinery's process units, especially regarding corrosion potential. Covering the types, effects on the various refining units, and proper acid stripping techniques, this resource effectively trains refinery personnel with a quick reference guide for day-to-day use in today's refineries. --

Process Equipment Malfunctions: Techniques to Identify and Correct Plant Problems

Process Equipment Malfunctions: Techniques to Identify and Correct Plant Problems
  • Author : Norman Lieberman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-12-02
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780071770217
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Summary : A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO TROUBLESHOOTING PROCESS EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS Process Equipment Malfunctions offers proven techniques for finding and fixing process plant problems and contains details on failure identification. Diagnostic tips, examples, and illustrations help to pinpoint and correct faults in chemical process and petroleum refining equipment. Complex math has been omitted. An essential resource for plant operators and process engineers, this book is based on the author's long career in field troubleshooting process problems. COVERAGE INCLUDES: Distillation tray malfunctions Packed tower problems Distillation tower pressure and composition control Fractionator product stripping Pumparounds Reboiled and steam side strippers Inspecting tower internals Process reboilers--thermosyphon circulation Heat exchangers Condenser limitations Air coolers Cooling water systems Steam condensate collection systems Steam quality problems Level control problems Process plant corrosion and fouling Vapor-liquid separation vessels Hydrocarbon-water separation and desalters Fired heaters--draft and excess O2 Disabling safety systems Vacuum systems and steam jets Vacuum surface condensers Centrifugal pump limitations Steam turbine drivers Centrifugal compressors Reciprocating compressors

Production Chemicals for the Oil and Gas Industry, Second Edition

Production Chemicals for the Oil and Gas Industry, Second Edition
  • Author : Malcolm A. Kelland
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-03-13
  • Total pages :454
  • ISBN : 9781439873816
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Summary : Production chemistry issues result from changes in well stream fluids, both liquid and gaseous, during processing. Since crude oil production is characterized by variable production rates and unpredictable changes to the nature of the produced fluids, it is essential for production chemists to have a range of chemical additives available for rectifying issues that would not otherwise be fully resolved. Modern production methods, the need to upgrade crude oils of variable quality, and environmental constraints demand chemical solutions. Thus, oilfield production chemicals are necessary to overcome or minimize the effects of the production chemistry problems. Production Chemicals for the Oil and Gas Industry, Second Edition discusses a wide variety of production chemicals used by the oil and gas industry for down-hole and topside applications both onshore and offshore. Incorporating the large amount of research and applications since the first edition, this new edition reviews all past and present classes of production chemicals, providing numerous difficult-to-obtain references, especially SPE papers and patents. Unlike other texts that focus on how products perform in the field, this book focuses on the specific structures of chemicals that are known to deliver the required or desired performance—information that is very useful for research and development. Each updated chapter begins by introducing a problem, such as scale or corrosion, for which there is a production chemical. The author then briefly discusses all chemical and nonchemical methods to treat the problem and provides in-depth descriptions of the structural classes of relevant production chemicals. He also mentions, when available, the environmental properties of chemicals and whether the chemical or technique has been successfully used in the field. This edition includes two new chapters and nearly 50 percent more references.