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A Survey of Chemical and Biological Warfare

A Survey of Chemical and Biological Warfare
  • Author : John Cookson,Judith Nottingham
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1969
  • Total pages :424
  • ISBN : 9780853452232
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Summary : An in-depth analysis of nearly all chemical and biological weapons, their effects, and the politics surrounding their deployment.

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare: Research, Deployment, Consequences

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare: Research, Deployment, Consequences
  • Author : Bretislav Friedrich,Dieter Hoffmann,Jürgen Renn,Florian Schmaltz,Martin Wolf
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-26
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 9783319516646
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Summary : This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them). Bretislav Friedrich and Martin Wolf (Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, the successor institution of Haber’s institute) together with Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Florian Schmaltz (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) organized an international symposium to commemorate the centenary of the infamous chemical attack. The symposium examined crucial facets of chemical warfare from the first research on and deployment of chemical weapons in WWI to the development and use of chemical warfare during the century hence. The focus was on scientific, ethical, legal, and political issues of chemical weapons research and deployment — including the issue of dual use — as well as the ongoing effort to control the possession of chemical weapons and to ultimately achieve their elimination. The volume consists of papers presented at the symposium and supplemented by additional articles that together cover key aspects of chemical warfare from 22 April 1915 until the summer of 2015.

Army R, D & A.

Army R, D & A.
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1981-07
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UIUC:30112101042106
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Summary :

Disarmament Forum

Disarmament Forum
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : MINN:31951P00959595S
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Summary :

A History of Chemical Warfare

A History of Chemical Warfare
  • Author : K. Coleman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-05-23
  • Total pages :198
  • ISBN : 9780230501836
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Summary : This book provides an analysis of the development and deployment of chemical weapons from 700BC to the present day. The First World War is examined in detail since it remains the most significant experience of the chemical threat, but the Second World War, and post-war conflicts are also evaluated. Additionally, protocols attempting to control the proliferation and use of chemical weapons are assessed. Finally, the book examines the threat (real and imagined) from a chemical warfare attack today by rationally assessing to what extent terrorist groups around the world are capable of making and using such weapons.

Army RD & A Bulletin

Army RD & A Bulletin
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1981
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UVA:X001765606
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Summary :

Department of Homeland Security Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2006

Department of Homeland Security Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2006
  • Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on the Department of Homeland Security
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :465
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105050407761
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Summary :

Chemical-Biological-Radiological (CBR) Warfare and Its Disarmament Aspects

Chemical-Biological-Radiological (CBR) Warfare and Its Disarmament Aspects
  • Author : United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1960
  • Total pages :43
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105021069799
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Summary :

The Directory of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Arms and Disarmament 1990

The Directory of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Arms and Disarmament 1990
  • Author : Paul Rogers,Malcolm Dando
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1990
  • Total pages :147
  • ISBN : UOM:39015017985360
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Summary :

War of Nerves

War of Nerves
  • Author : Jonathan Tucker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-12-18
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9780307430106
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Summary : In this important and revelatory book, Jonathan Tucker, a leading expert on chemical and biological weapons, chronicles the lethal history of chemical warfare from World War I to the present. At the turn of the twentieth century, the rise of synthetic chemistry made the large-scale use of toxic chemicals on the battlefield both feasible and cheap. Tucker explores the long debate over the military utility and morality of chemical warfare, from the first chlorine gas attack at Ypres in 1915 to Hitler’s reluctance to use nerve agents (he believed, incorrectly, that the U.S. could retaliate in kind) to Saddam Hussein’s gassing of his own people, and concludes with the emergent threat of chemical terrorism. Moving beyond history to the twenty-first century, War of Nerves makes clear that we are at a crossroads that could lead either to the further spread of these weapons or to their ultimate abolition.

The Chemical Weapons Taboo

The Chemical Weapons Taboo
  • Author : Richard M. Price
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-05
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9781501729546
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Summary : Richard M. Price asks why, among all the ominous technologies of weaponry throughout the history of warfare, chemical weapons carry a special moral stigma. Something more seems to be at work than the predictable resistance people have expressed to any new weaponry, from the crossbow to nuclear bombs. Perceptions of chemical warfare as particularly abhorrent have been successfully institutionalized in international proscriptions and, Price suggests, understanding the sources of this success might shed light on other efforts at arms control. To explore the origins and meaning of the chemical weapons taboo, Price presents a series of case studies from World War I through the Gulf War of 1990–1991. He traces the moral arguments against gas warfare from the Hague Conferences at the turn of the century through negotiations for the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. From the Italian invasion of Ethiopia to the war between Iran and Iraq, chemical weapons have been condemned as the "poor man's bomb." Drawing upon insights from Michel Foucault to explain the role of moral norms in an international arena rarely sensitive to such pressures, he focuses on the construction of and mutations in the refusal to condone chemical weapons.

The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare

The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare
  • Author : Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1971
  • Total pages :6
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105004707233
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Summary :

The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: The rise of CB weapons, by J. P. Robinson

The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: The rise of CB weapons, by J. P. Robinson
  • Author : Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1971
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCSC:32106006179284
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Summary :

The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: The rise of CB weapons, by J. P. Robinson

The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: The rise of CB weapons, by J. P. Robinson
  • Author : International Institute for Peace and Conflict Research,Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1971
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UVA:X000390477
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Summary :

Chemical/biological Warfare

Chemical/biological Warfare
  • Author : Julian Perry Robinson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1974
  • Total pages :34
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105038682790
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Summary :

Chemical Warfare Toxicology

Chemical Warfare Toxicology
  • Author : Franz Worek,John Jenner,Horst Thiermann
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-04
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9781782622413
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Summary : Despite ongoing efforts to prohibit the production, storage and use of chemical warfare agents recent world events highlight the enduring threat to the population from these agents. Research efforts in various countries have resulted in novel insights into chemical warfare toxicology that has enabled the development of new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of chemical warfare poisoning. This book provides an up-to-date treatise on the ongoing research into the toxicology of chemical warfare agents, the diagnosis and verification of exposure, and the pre- and post-exposure treatment of poisoning. Focussing on the fundamentals of the toxicology of nerve agents and vesicants, this book will give the reader a comprehensive overview of the many different aspects of chemical warfare agent toxicology. The text will appeal to toxicologists, biochemists and weapons specialists working in industry and academia, and anyone with an interest in chemical warfare toxicology or exposure.

Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons

Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1970
  • Total pages :132
  • ISBN : UOM:39015000872096
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Summary :

ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law

ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCAL:B5115012
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Summary :

Veterans at Risk

Veterans at Risk
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Committee on the Survey of the Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993-02-01
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9780309048323
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Summary : Recently, World War II veterans have come forward to claim compensation for health effects they say were caused by their participation in chemical warfare experiments. In response, the Veterans Administration asked the Institute of Medicine to study the issue. Based on a literature review and personal testimony from more than 250 affected veterans, this new volume discusses in detail the development and chemistry of mustard agents and Lewisite followed by interesting and informative discussions about these substances and their possible connection to a range of health problems, from cancer to reproductive disorders. The volume also offers an often chilling historical examination of the use of volunteers in chemical warfare experiments by the U.S. militaryâ€"what the then-young soldiers were told prior to the experiments, how they were "encouraged" to remain in the program, and how they were treated afterward. This comprehensive and controversial book will be of importance to policymakers and legislators, military and civilian planners, officials at the Department of Veterans Affairs, military historians, and researchers.

Barriers to Bioweapons

Barriers to Bioweapons
  • Author : Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-15
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9780801471926
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Summary : In both the popular imagination and among lawmakers and national security experts, there exists the belief that with sufficient motivation and material resources, states or terrorist groups can produce bioweapons easily, cheaply, and successfully. In Barriers to Bioweapons, Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley challenges this perception by showing that bioweapons development is a difficult, protracted, and expensive endeavor, rarely achieving the expected results whatever the magnitude of investment. Her findings are based on extensive interviews she conducted with former U.S. and Soviet-era bioweapons scientists and on careful analysis of archival data and other historical documents related to various state and terrorist bioweapons programs. Bioweapons development relies on living organisms that are sensitive to their environment and handling conditions, and therefore behave unpredictably. These features place a greater premium on specialized knowledge. Ben Ouagrham-Gormley posits that lack of access to such intellectual capital constitutes the greatest barrier to the making of bioweapons. She integrates theories drawn from economics, the sociology of science, organization, and management with her empirical research. The resulting theoretical framework rests on the idea that the pace and success of a bioweapons development program can be measured by its ability to ensure the creation and transfer of scientific and technical knowledge. The specific organizational, managerial, social, political, and economic conditions necessary for success are difficult to achieve, particularly in covert programs where the need to prevent detection imposes managerial and organizational conditions that conflict with knowledge production.

Toxic Exposures

Toxic Exposures
  • Author : Susan L. Smith
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-17
  • Total pages :200
  • ISBN : 9780813586120
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Summary : Mustard gas is typically associated with the horrors of World War I battlefields and trenches, where chemical weapons were responsible for tens of thousands of deaths. Few realize, however, that mustard gas had a resurgence during the Second World War, when its uses and effects were widespread and insidious. Toxic Exposures tells the shocking story of how the United States and its allies intentionally subjected thousands of their own servicemen to poison gas as part of their preparation for chemical warfare. In addition, it reveals the racialized dimension of these mustard gas experiments, as scientists tested whether the effects of toxic exposure might vary between Asian, Hispanic, black, and white Americans. Drawing from once-classified American and Canadian government records, military reports, scientists’ papers, and veterans’ testimony, historian Susan L. Smith explores not only the human cost of this research, but also the environmental degradation caused by ocean dumping of unwanted mustard gas. As she assesses the poisonous legacy of these chemical warfare experiments, Smith also considers their surprising impact on the origins of chemotherapy as cancer treatment and the development of veterans’ rights movements. Toxic Exposures thus traces the scars left when the interests of national security and scientific curiosity battled with medical ethics and human rights.