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Fukushima Accident

Fukushima Accident
  • Author : Pavel P. Povinec,Katsumi Hirose,Michio Aoyama
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-09
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9780124114876
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Summary : Fukushima Accident presents up-to-date information on radioactivity released to the atmosphere and the ocean after the accident on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, on the distribution of radionuclides in the world atmosphere and oceans, and their impact on the total environment (man, fauna, and flora). The book will evaluate and discuss the post-Fukushima situation, emphasizing radionuclide impacts on the terrestrial and marine environments, and compare it with the pre-Fukushima sources of radionuclides in the environment. The authors’ results, as well as knowledge gathered from the literature, will provide up-to-date information on the present status of the topics. Fukushima Accident is based on the environmental and nuclear research; however, the presentation will be suitable for university-level readers. 2013 PROSE Award winner in Environmental Science from the Association of American Publishers Covers atmospheric and marine radioactivity, providing information on the global atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and world oceans Examines radiation doses to the public and biota to understand the health risks to the public and ecosystems Provides information on monitoring radionuclides in the environment – information on sources of radionuclides, their temporal and spatial variations, and radionuclide levels Covers transport of radionuclides from different sources (e.g. nuclear power plants) as well as atmospheric simulations and modeling approaches

A Study of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident Process

A Study of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident Process
  • Author : Michio Ishikawa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-12
  • Total pages :231
  • ISBN : 9784431555438
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Summary : Written by an expert in the field, this book is perfect for those who would like to know what happened at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Part 1 of the book studies how core melts occurred in Fukushima Daiichi units 1, 2, and 3, respectively, based on evidence from the Three-Mile Island core melt accident and fuel behavior experiments performed in the 1970s under the cooperation between the United States, Germany, and Japan. This information explains the accident processes without contradicting data from Fukushima, which was published in the TEPCO report. The hydrogen explosions in units 1, 3, and 4 are also explained logically in conjunction with the above core melt process. Part 2 clarifies how the background radiation level of the site doubled: The first rise was just a leak from small openings in units 1 and 3 associated with fire-pump connection work. The second rise led to direct radioactive material release from unit 2. Evacuation dose adequacy and its timing are discussed with reference to the accident process, and the necessity for embankments surrounding nuclear power plants to increase protection against natural disasters is also discussed. New proposals for safety design and emergency preparedness are suggested based on lessons learned from the accident as well as from new experiences. Finally, a concept for decommissioning the Fukushima site and a recovery plan are introduced.

Fukushima

Fukushima
  • Author : David Lochbaum,Edwin Lyman,Susan Q. Stranahan,The Union of Concerned Scientists
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-02-10
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9781620971185
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Summary : “A gripping, suspenseful page-turner” (Kirkus Reviews) with a “fast-paced, detailed narrative that moves like a thriller” (International Business Times), Fukushima teams two leading experts from the Union of Concerned Scientists, David Lochbaum and Edwin Lyman, with award-winning journalist Susan Q. Stranahan to give us the first definitive account of the 2011 disaster that led to the worst nuclear catastrophe since Chernobyl. Four years have passed since the day the world watched in horror as an earthquake large enough to shift the Earth’s axis by several inches sent a massive tsunami toward the Japanese coast and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, causing the reactors’ safety systems to fail and explosions to reduce concrete and steel buildings to rubble. Even as the consequences of the 2011 disaster continue to exact their terrible price on the people of Japan and on the world, Fukushima addresses the grim questions at the heart of the nuclear debate: could a similar catastrophe happen again, and—most important of all—how can such a crisis be averted?

Fukushima Accident

Fukushima Accident
  • Author : Pavel P. Povinec,Katsumi Hirose,Michio Aoyama,Yutaka Tateda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-07-23
  • Total pages :574
  • ISBN : 9780128244975
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Summary : Fukushima Accident: 10 Years After evaluates the post-Fukushima accident situation with up-to-date information, emphasizing radionuclide impacts on the terrestrial and marine environments, and comparing them to the pre-Fukushima accident levels of radionuclides in the environment. This is based on scientific results, as well as knowledge gathered from literature to provide current information on the present status, summarize 10 years of data on the Fukushima accident, and describe the present situation in the local, regional, and global time and space scales. It provides data on radioactivity released into the atmosphere and the ocean, the distribution of radionuclides in the world atmosphere and oceans, and their impact on the total environment, including assessments of radiation doses in Japanese and world populations from consumption of terrestrial food and seafood. It goes on to describe future aspects of the radioactive contamination of these environments and the health implications. This book informs environmental scientists, academics, and researchers in environmental science and nuclear energy as well as postgraduate students in the field of environmental science, radioactivity, and nuclear energy, on the present situation of radioactive contamination of Japan and in the world. Covers the Fukushima radioactivity impact on humans and the environment from the accident to the present Provides full information on radiation doses to Japanese citizens and biota, as well as to the world population, 10 years after the Fukushima accident Details transport of radionuclides in terrestrial and ocean environments, describing how to apply this information to ocean global circulation models and quantify radionuclide contamination of coastal regions Assesses future trends in radioactive contamination of the Fukushima site

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident
  • Author : Atomic Energy Society of Japan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-16
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9784431551607
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Summary : The Magnitude 9 Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, followed by a massive tsunami struck TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and triggered an unprecedented core melt/severe accident in Units 1 – 3. The radioactivity release led to the evacuation of local residents, many of whom still have not been able to return to their homes. As a group of nuclear experts, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan established the Investigation Committee on the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, to investigate and analyze the accident from scientific and technical perspectives for clarifying the underlying and fundamental causes, and to make recommendations. The results of the investigation by the AESJ Investigation Committee has been compiled herewith as the Final Report. Direct contributing factors of the catastrophic nuclear incident at Fukushima Daiichi NPP initiated by an unprecedented massive earthquake/ tsunami – inadequacies in tsunami measures, severe accident management, emergency response, accident recovery and mitigations – and the underlying factors - organizational issues, etc., have been clarified and recommendations in the following areas have been made. - Nuclear safety fundamentals - Direct factors of the accident - Organizational aspects - Common items (R&D, International cooperation, human resources management) - Post-accident management/recovery from the accident.

Impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident on Fish and Fishing Grounds

Impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident on Fish and Fishing Grounds
  • Author : Kaoru Nakata,Hiroya Sugisaki
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-10
  • Total pages :238
  • ISBN : 9784431555377
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Summary : This book presents the results from the Japanese Fisheries Research Agency’s 3-year intensive monitoring of radionuclides in a variety of fish, plankton, benthos, and their living environments after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident in March 2011. The book reveals the dynamics of contamination processes in marine and freshwater fish, mediated by the contamination of water, sediments, and food organisms; it also clarifies the mechanisms by which large variations in the level of contamination occurs among individual fish. Most importantly, the book includes a large amount of original measurement data collected in situ and for the first time assesses diffusion of radiocesium across the Pacific using both in situ data and a numerical simulation model. Also introduced are several new approaches to evaluate the impact of the release of radionuclides, including the measurement of radiation emission from an otolith section to identify the main period of contamination in fish. The FNPP accident represents a rare instance where the environmental radioactivity level was elevated steeply through atmospheric fallout and direct discharge of radioactive water into the sea over a short period of time. Replete with precise scientific data, this book will serve as an important resource for research in fields such as fishery science, oceanography, ecology, and environmentology, and also as a solid basis for protecting fisheries from damage resulting from harmful rumors among the general public.

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident
  • Author : Tomoko M. Nakanishi,Keitaro Tanoi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-15
  • Total pages :204
  • ISBN : 9784431543282
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Summary : Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, a large volume of monitoring data has been collected about the soil, air, dust, and seawater, along with data about an immense number of foods supplied to the market. Little is known, however, about the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture, information about which is vital. Although more than 80% of the damaged area is related to agriculture, in situ information specifically for agriculture is scarce. This book provides data about the actual movement and accumulation of radioactivity in the ecological system—for example, whether debris deposited on mountains can be a cause of secondary contamination, under what conditions plants accumulate radioactive cesium in their edible parts, and how radioactivity is transferred from hay to milk. Because agriculture is so closely related to nature, many specialists with different areas of expertise must be involved in answering these questions. In the case of rice, researchers in rice cultivation as well as in soil, hydrology, and radioactivity measurement are working together to reveal the paths or accumulation of radioactivity in the field. For this purpose, the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo has diverse facilities available throughout Japan, including farmlands, forests, and meadowlands. Many academic staff members have formed groups to conduct on-site research, with more than 40 volunteers participating. This book presents the data collected from the only project being systematically carried out across Japan after the Fukushima accident.

Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants

Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants
  • Author : National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants,National Research Council,Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-29
  • Total pages :394
  • ISBN : 030927253X
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Summary : The March 11, 2011, Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami sparked a humanitarian disaster in northeastern Japan. They were responsible for more than 15,900 deaths and 2,600 missing persons as well as physical infrastructure damages exceeding $200 billion. The earthquake and tsunami also initiated a severe nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Three of the six reactors at the plant sustained severe core damage and released hydrogen and radioactive materials. Explosion of the released hydrogen damaged three reactor buildings and impeded onsite emergency response efforts. The accident prompted widespread evacuations of local populations, large economic losses, and the eventual shutdown of all nuclear power plants in Japan. "Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants" is a study of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. This report examines the causes of the crisis, the performance of safety systems at the plant, and the responses of its operators following the earthquake and tsunami. The report then considers the lessons that can be learned and their implications for U.S. safety and storage of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste, commercial nuclear reactor safety and security regulations, and design improvements. "Lessons Learned" makes recommendations to improve plant systems, resources, and operator training to enable effective ad hoc responses to severe accidents. This report's recommendations to incorporate modern risk concepts into safety regulations and improve the nuclear safety culture will help the industry prepare for events that could challenge the design of plant structures and lead to a loss of critical safety functions. In providing a broad-scope, high-level examination of the accident, "Lessons Learned" is meant to complement earlier evaluations by industry and regulators. This in-depth review will be an essential resource for the nuclear power industry, policy makers, and anyone interested in the state of U.S. preparedness and response in the face of crisis situations.

Radiation Disaster Medicine

Radiation Disaster Medicine
  • Author : Koichi Tanigawa,Rethy Kieth Chhem
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-02
  • Total pages :126
  • ISBN : 9783319022161
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Summary : While many books are available on disaster medicine, none is specifically devoted to the role of physicians in the management of patients exposed to radiation leakage from a damaged nuclear power plant. Radiation Disaster Medicine aims to fill this void based on the response to the Fukushima nuclear accident. Each chapter addresses principles and practices of radiation medicine within the specific context of that accident. Topics covered include the role of physicians in radiation disasters, the concepts of external and internal exposure, prehospital and hospital response, disaster behavioral health, and radiation emergency response from the perspective of national and international institutions. Most of the contributors are active educators and researchers in radiation medicine with first-hand experience in dealing with prehospital triage and management of patients within secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Japan.

The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident
  • Author : Peter George Martin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-23
  • Total pages :326
  • ISBN : 9783030171919
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Summary : This PhD sought to determine the mechanisms for the reactor explosions by mapping, collecting and analysing samples from across the area of Japan that received radioactive fallout from the explosions. In doing this, the author conducted significant fieldwork in the restricted-access fallout zone using ground and novel UAV-based mapping of radiation to identify hot-spot areas for sample collecting but also using these tools to verify the efficacy of the clean-up operations ongoing in the prefecture. Such fieldwork was both technically pioneering for its use of UAVs (drones) but also selfless in terms of bravely entering a nuclear danger area to collect samples for the greater benefit of the scientific community.

The Fukushima Daiichi Accident

The Fukushima Daiichi Accident
  • Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :1258
  • ISBN : 9201070152
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Summary : The Fukushima Daiichi Accident consists of a Report by the IAEA Director General and five technical volumes. It is the result of an extensive international collaborative effort involving five working groups with about 180 experts from 42 Member States with and without nuclear power programmes and several international bodies. It provides a description of the accident and its causes, evolution and consequences, based on the evaluation of data and information from a large number of sources available at the time of writing. The Fukushima Daiichi Accident will be of use to national authorities, international organizations, nuclear regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant operating organizations, designers of nuclear facilities and other experts in matters relating to nuclear power, as well as the wider public. The set contains six printed parts and five supplementary CD-ROMs.

Environmental Contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

Environmental Contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster
  • Author : Teruyuki Nakajima,Toshimasa Ohara,Mitsuo Uematsu,Yuichi Onda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-15
  • Total pages :372
  • ISBN : 9781108475808
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Summary : Unique summary of the environmental impact of the 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, for researchers, nuclear engineers and policymakers.

The 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

The 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident
  • Author : Yotaro Hatamura,Seiji Abe,Masao Fuchigami,Naoto Kasahara,Kenji Iino
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-28
  • Total pages :220
  • ISBN : 9780081001325
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Summary : In March 2011 the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) in Japan was hit by an earthquake and subsequent tsunami which resulted in the release of significant amounts of radioactive material. The incident led to the suspension of nuclear programmes by a number of countries. This book provides a definitive account of the accident. Outlines the main sequence of events of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, considers the responses of central and local government, and evaluates the response of the plant owner TEPCO. Describes and assesses the effectiveness of the evacuation process and subsequent decontamination of the site and local area. Offers recommendations for improving the safe design and operation of nuclear power plants and considers the future of the Fukushima plant and nuclear power generation in Japan.

Mental Health and Social Issues Following a Nuclear Accident

Mental Health and Social Issues Following a Nuclear Accident
  • Author : Jun Shigemura,Rethy Kieth Chhem
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-11-25
  • Total pages :130
  • ISBN : 9784431556992
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Summary : This book focuses on mental health issues arising in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Three years after the 11 March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunamis, and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, roughly 130,000 individuals continue to face enormous burdens as a result of mandatory evacuation. Many evacuees still live in temporary housing, and returning home remains a distant dream as they wait for the decontamination of the danger zone to be completed. However, the plant recovery process is still evolving, and the complete cleanup will take decades. Beyond all of these hardships, many evacuees are also mourning the loss of their loved ones. The compound disaster with its many uncertainties poses and will continue to pose serious emotional and social challenges. People affected by the nuclear disaster have been facing serious psychological challenges from ongoing fear of radiation exposure. Furthermore, there is continuing debate between various stakeholders on the options for disaster responses. This situation in turn produces adverse public responses, such as discrimination and stigmatization of the evacuees and scapegoating of the authorities and nuclear plant workers. Mental Health and Social Issues Following a Nuclear Accident addresses these issues and their impacts, pursuing both evidence-based and narrative-based approaches. It also contrasts the Fukushima findings with those of other nuclear disasters, namely, Three Mile Island and Cher nobyl.

Animals and the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

Animals and the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster
  • Author : Mayumi Itoh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-16
  • Total pages :246
  • ISBN : 9783319707570
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Summary : This book is the first comprehensive, in-depth English language study of the animals that were left behind in the exclusion zone in the wake of the nuclear meltdown of three of the four reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011, triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake of magnitude 9.0.The Japanese government designated an area of 20-kilometer radius from the nuclear power station as an exclusion zone and evacuated one hundred thousand residents, but left companion animals and livestock animals behind in the radioactive area. Consequently, about 90 percent of the animals in the exclusion zone died. This book juxtaposes policies of the Japanese government toward the animals in Fukushima with the actions of grassroots volunteer animal rescue groups that filled the void of the government.

Radiation Monitoring and Dose Estimation of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

Radiation Monitoring and Dose Estimation of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident
  • Author : Sentaro Takahashi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-02-07
  • Total pages :223
  • ISBN : 9784431545835
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Summary : This book provides comprehensive research findings related to the environmental monitoring of radiation, levels of radioactive nuclides in various environments and dose estimation in residents after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident caused severe environmental contamination with radioactive nuclides. At the beginning of the book, a technical review written by a leading researcher of nuclear reactor technology explains what happened at the power plant. The review is followed by a commentary from a former member of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, providing the reader with easily understandable information about the concept of radiation dosage. In the main part of the book, a series of scientific reports presents valuable data on the radiation surveys of the environment, environmental radioactivity, transfer models and parameters of radioactive nuclides and dose assessment among residents. These reports present a wide range of findings from the research carried out in a variety of activities by large governmental organizations as well as by small private groups and individuals. The reader thus will find a large collection of valuable and interesting data related to the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides after the Fukushima accident. Although earlier reports on this issue have been made public, this book is the only publication to fully depict the actual situation by providing comprehensive data obtained by diverse organizations and individuals.

Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants

Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board,Committee on Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety and Security of U.S. Nuclear Plants
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-06
  • Total pages :238
  • ISBN : 9780309388887
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Summary : The U.S. Congress asked the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a technical study on lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident for improving safety and security of commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. This study was carried out in two phases: Phase 1, issued in 2014, focused on the causes of the Fukushima Daiichi accident and safety-related lessons learned for improving nuclear plant systems, operations, and regulations exclusive of spent fuel storage. This Phase 2 report focuses on three issues: (1) lessons learned from the accident for nuclear plant security, (2) lessons learned for spent fuel storage, and (3) reevaluation of conclusions from previous Academies studies on spent fuel storage.

Fukushima and the Arts

Fukushima and the Arts
  • Author : Barbara Geilhorn,Kristina Iwata-Weickgenannt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-05
  • Total pages :230
  • ISBN : 9781317208389
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Summary : The natural and man-made cataclysmic events of the 11 March 2011 disaster, or 3.11, have dramatically altered the status quo of contemporary Japanese society. While much has been written about the social, political, economic, and technical aspects of the disaster, this volume represents one of the first in-depth explorations of the cultural responses to the devastating tsunami, and in particular the ongoing nuclear disaster of Fukushima. This book explores a wide range of cultural responses to the Fukushima nuclear calamity by analyzing examples from literature, poetry, manga, theatre, art photography, documentary and fiction film, and popular music. Individual chapters examine the changing positionality of post-3.11 northeastern Japan and the fear-driven conflation of time and space in near-but-far urban centers; explore the political subversion and nostalgia surrounding the Fukushima disaster; expose the ambiguous effects of highly gendered representations of fear of nuclear threat; analyze the musical and poetic responses to disaster; and explore the political potentialities of theatrical performances. By scrutinizing various media narratives and taking into account national and local perspectives, the book sheds light on cultural texts of power, politics, and space. Providing an insight into the post-disaster Zeitgeist as expressed through a variety of media genres, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of Japanese Studies, Japanese Culture, Popular Culture, and Literature Studies.

Fukushima and the Privatization of Risk

Fukushima and the Privatization of Risk
  • Author : M. Nadesan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :149
  • ISBN : 9781137343123
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Summary : Majia Holmer Nadesan analyzes the Fukushima nuclear disaster and its radiological aftermath for the citizens of Japan and elsewhere in the context of historical and contemporary understandings of radiation-caused health and reproductive effects.

Reflections on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

Reflections on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident
  • Author : Joonhong Ahn,Cathryn Carson,Mikael Jensen,Kohta Juraku,Shinya Nagasaki,Satoru Tanaka
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-01
  • Total pages :454
  • ISBN : 9783319120904
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Summary : This book focuses on nuclear engineering education in the post-Fukushima era. It was edited by the organizers of the summer school held in August 2011 in University of California, Berkeley, as part of a collaborative program between the University of Tokyo and UC Berkeley. Motivated by the particular relevance and importance of social-scientific approaches to various crucial aspects of nuclear technology, special emphasis was placed on integrating nuclear science and engineering with social science. The book consists of the lectures given in 2011 summer school and additional chapters that cover developments in the past three years since the accident. It provides an arena for discussions to find and create a renewed platform for engineering practices, and thus nuclear engineering education, which are essential in the post-Fukushima era for nurturing nuclear engineers who need to be both technically competent and trusted in society.

Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Nuclear Risks

Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Nuclear Risks
  • Author : Katsuhiro Kamae
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-01-22
  • Total pages :177
  • ISBN : 9784431558224
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Summary : This book covers seismic probabilistic risk assessment (S-PRA) and related studies which have become more important to increase the safety of nuclear facilities against earthquakes and tsunamis in the face of the many uncertainties after the Fukushima accident. The topics are (1) Active faults and active tectonics important for seismic hazard assessment of nuclear facilities,(2) Seismic source modeling and simulation and modeling techniques indispensable for strong ground motion prediction, and (3) PRA with external hazard and risk communication. The Fukushima accident has showed us the limitations of the deterministic evaluation approach to external events (an earthquake and tsunami) in which there are many uncertainties. Furthermore, public anxiety regarding nuclear safety because of an unexpected threat caused by an earthquake or tsunami is growing. The current policy on the estimation of the design basis of ground motion as well as tsunami height still has not been improved following the Fukushima accident. In particular, the risk concept in a nuclear system regarding seismic motion and a tsunami beyond the design basis is indispensable. Therefore, research and development for PRA enhancing nuclear safety are being actively pursued not only in Japan but also worldwide. This book provides an opportunity for readers to consider the future direction of nuclear safety vis-à-vis natural disasters.