Download Functional Diversity Of Mycorrhiza And Sustainable Agriculture Book PDF

Download full Functional Diversity Of Mycorrhiza And Sustainable Agriculture books PDF, EPUB, Tuebl, Textbook, Mobi or read online Functional Diversity Of Mycorrhiza And Sustainable Agriculture anytime and anywhere on any device. Get free access to the library by create an account, fast download and ads free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library.

Functional Diversity of Mycorrhiza and Sustainable Agriculture

Functional Diversity of Mycorrhiza and Sustainable Agriculture
  • Author : Michael J. Goss,Mário Carvalho,Isabel Brito
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-05-19
  • Total pages :254
  • ISBN : 9780128042861
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Functional Diversity of Mycorrhiza and Sustainable Agriculture is the first book to present the core concepts of working with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve agricultural crop productivity. Highlighting the use of indigenous AM fungi for agriculture, the book includes details on how to maintain and promote AM fungal diversity to improve sustainability and cost-effectiveness. As the need to improve production while restricting scarce inputs and preventing environmental impacts increases, the use of AMF offers an important option for exploiting the soil microbial population. It can enhance nutrient cycling and minimize the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses, such as soil-borne disease, drought, and metal toxicity. The book offers land managers, policymakers, soil scientists, and agronomists a novel approach to utilizing soil microbiology in improving agricultural practices. Provides a new approach to exploiting the benefits of mycorrhizas for sustainable arable agricultural production using indigenous AMF populations and adopting appropriate crop production techniques Bridges the gap between soil microbiology, including increasing knowledge of mycorrhiza and agronomy Presents real-world practical insights and application-based results, including a chapter focused primarily on case studies Includes extensive illustrative diagrams and photographs

Mycorrhizal Fungi: Use in Sustainable Agriculture and Land Restoration

Mycorrhizal Fungi: Use in Sustainable Agriculture and Land Restoration
  • Author : Zakaria M. Solaiman,Lynette K. Abbott,Ajit Varma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-29
  • Total pages :407
  • ISBN : 9783662453704
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This volume explores the various functions and potential applications of mycorrhizas, including topics such as the dynamics of root colonization, soil carbon sequestration and the function of mycorrhizas in extreme environments. Some contributions focus on the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in various crop production processes, including soil management practices, their use as biofertilizers and in relation to medicinal plants. Other chapters elucidate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the alleviation of plant water stress and of heavy metal toxicity, in the remediation of saline soils, in mining-site rehabilitation and in the reforestation of degraded tropical forests. In addition to their impact in ecosystems, the economic benefits of applying arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are discussed. A final chapter describes recent advances in the cultivation of edible mycorrhizal mushrooms.

Mycorrhizae: Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry

Mycorrhizae: Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry
  • Author : Zaki Anwar Siddiqui,Mohammad Sayeed Akhtar,Kazuyoshi Futai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-07-27
  • Total pages :362
  • ISBN : 9781402087707
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Mycorrhizal fungi are microbial engines which improve plant vigor and soil quality. They play a crucial role in plant nutrient uptake, water relations, ecosystem establishment, plant diversity, and the productivity of plants. Scientific research involves multidisciplinary approaches to understand the adaptation of mycorrhizae to the rhizosphere, mechanism of root colonization, effect on plant physiology and growth, biofertilization, plant resistance and biocontrol of plant pathogens. This book discusses and goes into detail on a number of topics: the molecular basis of nutrient exchange between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and host plants; the role of AM fungi in disease protection, alleviation of soil stresses and increasing grain production; interactions of AM fungi and beneficial saprophytic mycoflora in terms of plant growth promotion; the role of AM fungi in the restoration of native ecosystems; indirect contributions of AM fungi and soil aggregation to plant growth and mycorrhizosphere effect of multitrophic interaction; the mechanisms by which mycorrhizas change a disturbed ecosystem into productive land; the importance of reinstallation of mycorrhizal systems in the rhizosphere is emphasized and their impact on landscape regeneration, and in bioremediation of contaminated soils; Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) and their importance in forest ecosystems and associations of ECM in tropical rain forests function to maintain tropical monodominance; in vitro mycorrhization of micro-propagated plants, and visualizing and quantifying endorhizal fungi; the use of mycorrhizae, mainly AM and ECM, for sustainable agriculture and forestry.

Current Trends in Microbial Biotechnology for Sustainable Agriculture

Current Trends in Microbial Biotechnology for Sustainable Agriculture
  • Author : Ajar Nath Yadav
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9789811569494
GET BOOK HERE

Summary :

Toward a Sustainable Agriculture Through Plant Biostimulants

Toward a Sustainable Agriculture Through Plant Biostimulants
  • Author : Youssef Rouphael,Giuseppe Colla
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-02-22
  • Total pages :708
  • ISBN : 9783036500287
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Over the past decade, interest in plant biostimulants has been on the rise, compelled by the growing interest of researchers, extension specialists, private industries, and farmers in integrating these products in the array of environmentally friendly tools to secure improved crop performance, nutrient efficiency, product quality, and yield stability. Plant biostimulants include diverse organic and inorganic substances, natural compounds, and/or beneficial microorganisms such as humic acids, protein hydrolysates, seaweed and plant extracts, silicon, endophytic fungi like mycorrhizal fungi, and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azospirillum, Azotobacter, and Rhizobium. Other substances (e.g., chitosan and other biopolymers and inorganic compounds) can have biostimulant properties, but their classification within the group of biostimulants is still under consideration. Plant biostimulants are usually applied to high-value crops, mainly greenhouse crops, fruit trees and vines, open-field crops, flowers, and ornamentals to sustainably increase yield and product quality. The global biostimulant market is currently estimated at about $2.0 billion and is expected to reach $3.0 billion by 2021 at an annual growth rate of 13%. A growing interest in plant biostimulants from industries and scientists was demonstrated by the high number of published peer-reviewed articles, conferences, workshops, and symposia in the past ten years. This book compiles several original research articles, technology reports, methods, opinions, perspectives, and invited reviews and mini reviews dissecting the biostimulatory action of these natural compounds and substances and beneficial microorganisms on crops grown under optimal and suboptimal growing conditions (e.g., salinity, drought, nutrient deficiency and toxicity, heavy metal contaminations, waterlogging, and adverse soil pH conditions). Also included are contributions dealing with the effect as well as the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant biostimulants on nutrient efficiency, product quality, and modulation of the microbial population both quantitatively and qualitatively. In addition, identification and understanding of the optimal method, time, rate of application and phenological stage for improving plant performance and resilience to stress as well as the best combinations of plant species/cultivar × environment × management practices are also reported. We strongly believe that high standard reflected in this compilation on the principles and practices of plant biostimulants will foster knowledge transfer among scientific communities, industries, and agronomists, and will enable a better understanding of the mode of action and application procedures of biostimulants in different cropping systems.

Mycorrhiza - Function, Diversity, State of the Art

Mycorrhiza - Function, Diversity, State of the Art
  • Author : Ajit Varma,Ram Prasad,Narendra Tuteja
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-05-11
  • Total pages :396
  • ISBN : 9783319530642
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This is the fourth updated and revised edition of a well-received book that emphasises on fungal diversity, plant productivity and sustainability. It contains new chapters written by leading experts in the field. This book is an up-to-date overview of current progress in mycorrhiza and association with plant productivity and environmental sustainability. The result is a must hands-on guide, ideally suited for agri-biotechnology, soil biology, fungal biology including mycorrrhiza and stress management, academia and researchers. The topic of this book is particularly relevant to researchers involved in mycorrhiza, especially to food security and environmental protection. Mycorrhizas are symbioses between fungi and the roots of higher plants. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition and the diversity of natural ecosystems are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas. The biotechnological application of mycorrhizas is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.

Mycorrhizal Fungi: Use in Sustainable Agriculture and Land Restoration

Mycorrhizal Fungi: Use in Sustainable Agriculture and Land Restoration
  • Author : Zakaria M. Solaiman,Lynette K. Abbott,Ajit Varma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-29
  • Total pages :407
  • ISBN : 9783662453704
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This volume explores the various functions and potential applications of mycorrhizas, including topics such as the dynamics of root colonization, soil carbon sequestration and the function of mycorrhizas in extreme environments. Some contributions focus on the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in various crop production processes, including soil management practices, their use as biofertilizers and in relation to medicinal plants. Other chapters elucidate the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the alleviation of plant water stress and of heavy metal toxicity, in the remediation of saline soils, in mining-site rehabilitation and in the reforestation of degraded tropical forests. In addition to their impact in ecosystems, the economic benefits of applying arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are discussed. A final chapter describes recent advances in the cultivation of edible mycorrhizal mushrooms.

Invertebrate Biodiversity as Bioindicators of Sustainable Landscapes

Invertebrate Biodiversity as Bioindicators of Sustainable Landscapes
  • Author : Maurizio G. Paoletti
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-02
  • Total pages :460
  • ISBN : 9780444599681
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Reducing environmental hazard and human impact on different ecosystems, with special emphasis on rural landscapes is the main topic of different environmental policies designed in developed countries and needed in most developing countries. This book covers the bioindication approach of rural landscapes and man managed ecosystems including both urbanised and industrialised ones. The main techniques and taxa used for bioindication are considered in detail. Remediation and contamination is faced with diversity, abundance and dominance of biota, mostly invertebrates. Invertebrate Biodiversity as Bioindicators of Sustainable Landscapes provides a basic tool for students and scientists involved in landscape ecology and planning, environmental sciences, landscape remediation and pollution.

Mycorrhiza - Nutrient Uptake, Biocontrol, Ecorestoration

Mycorrhiza - Nutrient Uptake, Biocontrol, Ecorestoration
  • Author : Ajit Varma,Ram Prasad,Narendra Tuteja
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-15
  • Total pages :534
  • ISBN : 9783319688671
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This is the fourth updated and revised edition of a well-received book that emphasises on fungal diversity, plant productivity and sustainability. It contains new chapters written by leading experts in the field. This book is an up-to-date overview of current progress in mycorrhiza and association with plant productivity and environmental sustainability. The result is a must hands-on guide, ideally suited for agri-biotechnology, soil biology, fungal biology including mycorrrhiza and stress management, academia and researchers. The topic of this book is particularly relevant to researchers involved in mycorrhiza, especially to food security, plant microbe interaction and environmental protection. Mycorrhizas are symbioses between fungi and the roots of higher plants. As more than 90% of all known species of plants have the potential to form mycorrhizal associations, the productivity and species composition and the diversity of natural ecosystems are frequently dependent upon the presence and activity of mycorrhizas. The biotechnological application of mycorrhizas is expected to promote the production of food while maintaining ecologically and economically sustainable production systems.

Basic Research and Applications of Mycorrhizae

Basic Research and Applications of Mycorrhizae
  • Author : Gopi K. Podila,Ajit Varma
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :511
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105126852420
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Mycorrhizae are a type of fungus formed by the relationship between plant roots and soil, and there is a widespread agreement among botanists and soil scientists that mycorrhizae are beneficial to the health and growth of soil and plants. Research into mycorrhizae has grown enormously in recent years. It is now known that these fungi have numerous properties and functions - they promote plant growth, maintain plant and soil health, provide protection against root diseases, they assist production using reduced fertilizer and pesticides, they effect soil structure, nutrient acquisition, root length and root structure. Mycorrhizae have many useful modern practical applications - the re-vegetation of landscapes, golf courses, contaminated soils, the prevention and retardation of leaf dehydration, the maintenance of soil and plant biodiversity - to name but a few. The editors of this book have produced a valuable collection of specialised contemporary information describing state of the art and modern protocols in mycorrhizal research, compiled and presented in one authoritative volume. It will be a valued reference work for botanists, microbiologists, agricultural and soil scientists.

Agriculturally Important Fungi for Sustainable Agriculture

Agriculturally Important Fungi for Sustainable Agriculture
  • Author : Ajar Nath Yadav,Shashank Mishra,Divjot Kour,Neelam Yadav,Anil Kumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-25
  • Total pages :300
  • ISBN : 9783030459710
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Microbes are ubiquitous in nature. Among microbes, fungal communities play an important role in agriculture, the environment, and medicine. Vast fungal diversity has been associated with plant systems, namely epiphytic fungi, endophytic fungi, and rhizospheric fungi. These fungi associated with plant systems play an important role in plant growth, crop yield, and soil health. Rhizospheric fungi, present in rhizospheric zones, get their nutrients from root exudates released by plant root systems, which help with their growth, development, and microbe activity. Endophytic fungi typically enter plant hosts through naturally occurring wounds that are the result of plant growth, through root hairs, or at epidermal conjunctions. Phyllospheric fungi may survive or proliferate on leaves depending on material influences in leaf diffuseness or exudates. The diverse nature of these fungal communities is a key component of soil-plant systems, where they are engaged in a network of interactions endophytically, phyllospherically, as well as in the rhizosphere, and thus have emerged as a promising tool for sustainable agriculture. These fungal communities promote plant growth directly and indirectly by using plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes. These PGP fungi can be used as biofertilizers and biocontrol agents in place of chemical fertilizers and pesticides for a more eco-friendly method of promoting sustainable agriculture and environments. This first volume of a two-volume set covers the biodiversity of plant-associated fungal communities and their role in plant growth promotion, the mitigation of abiotic stress, and soil fertility for sustainable agriculture. This book should be useful to those working in the biological sciences, especially for microbiologists, microbial biotechnologists, biochemists, and researchers and scientists of fungal biotechnology.

Grassland Biodiversity

Grassland Biodiversity
  • Author : Johan Runas,Theodor Dahlgren
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :377
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105215478681
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : "Genetic diversity and species diversity are both crucial for ecosystem stability. Analysis of plant diversity aims to understand the organization and the variability of biological populations within ecosystems. This book provides a review on chemotaxonomical criteria helping to understand complex structures of plant diversity. It focuses particularly on the chemotaxonomic usefulness of phenolic compounds in analysis of chemical polymorphisms at different taxonomic levels. The relationship between grazing pressure and grassland vegetation is also examined, using drastically improved information technology such as remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Ground Positioning Systems (GPS). Furthermore, an overview of the unique ecosystem of the South Brazilian Campos grasslands are given. The role of disturbance in maintaining Campos biodiversity and dynamics, and the importance of its conservation, is looked at as well. Other chapters in this book discuss the relationship between management and vegetation, and also suggest ways to conserve the species diversity of both plants and butterflies in semi-natural grassland."--Publisher's description.

Agriculturally Important Fungi for Sustainable Agriculture

Agriculturally Important Fungi for Sustainable Agriculture
  • Author : Ajar Nath Yadav,Shashank Mishra,Divjot Kour,Neelam Yadav,Anil Kumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-09-10
  • Total pages :370
  • ISBN : 9783030484743
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Microbes are ubiquitous in nature. Among microbes, fungal communities play an important role in agriculture, the environment, and medicine. Vast fungal diversity has been found in plant systems. The fungi associated with any plant system are in the form of epiphytic, endophytic, and rhizospheric fungi. These associated fungi play important roles in plant growth, crop yield, and soil health. The rhizospheric fungi present in rhizospheric zones have a sufficient amount of nutrients released by plant root systems in the form of root exudates for growth, development, and activities of microbes. Endophytic fungi enter in host plants mainly through wounds that naturally occur as a result of plant growth, or develop through root hairs and at epidermal conjunctions. The phyllospheric fungi may survive or proliferate on leaves, depending on the extent of influences of material in leaf diffuseness or exudates. The diverse group of fungal communities is a key component of soil-plant systems, where they are engaged in an intense network of interactions in the rhizospheric, endophytic, and phyllospheric areas, and they have emerged as an important and promising tool for sustainable agriculture. These fungal communities help to promote plant growth directly or indirectly by mechanisms for plant growth-promoting (PGP) attributes. These PGP fungi can be used as biofertilizers, bioinoculants, and biocontrol agents in place of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in an environmentally and eco-friendly manner. This book covers the current knowledge of plant-associated fungi and their potential biotechnological applications in agriculture and allied sectors. This book should be useful to scientists, researchers, and students of microbiology, biotechnology, agriculture, molecular biology, environmental biology, and related subjects.

Plant Biodiversity Impacts on Arbuscular-mycorrhizal Fungi

Plant Biodiversity Impacts on Arbuscular-mycorrhizal Fungi
  • Author : Burrows Rhoda Louise
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :188
  • ISBN : MINN:31951P00706463W
GET BOOK HERE

Summary :

Fungi Bio-prospects in Sustainable Agriculture, Environment and Nano-technology

Fungi Bio-prospects in Sustainable Agriculture, Environment and Nano-technology
  • Author : Vijay Kumar Sharma,Maulin P. Shah,Shobhika Parmar,Ajay Kumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-09
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9780128213957
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Fungi bio-prospects in sustainable agriculture, environment and nanotechnology is a three-volume series that has been designed to explore the huge potential of the many diverse applications of fungi to human life. The series unveils the latest developments and scientific advances in the study of the biodiversity of fungi, extremophilic fungi, and fungal secondary metabolites and enzymes, while also presenting cutting-edge molecular tools used to study fungi. Readers will learn all about the recent progress and future potential applications of fungi in agriculture, environmental remediation, industry, food safety, medicine, and nanotechnology. Volume 1 will cover the biodiversity of fungi and the associated biopotential applications. This volume offers insights into both basic and advanced biotechnological applications in human welfare and sustainable agriculture. The chapters shed light on the different roles of fungi as a bio-fertilizer, a bio-control agent, and a component of microbial inoculants. They also focus on the various applications of fungi in bio-fuel production, nano-technology, and in the management of abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and metal toxicity. Provides a deep understanding of fungi and summarizes fungi’s various applications in the fields of microbiology and sustainable agriculture Describes the role of fungal inoculants as biocontrol agents, and in improved stress tolerance and growth of plants

Mycorrhizal Technology in Agriculture

Mycorrhizal Technology in Agriculture
  • Author : S. Gianinazzi,Hannes Schüepp,J.M. Barea,K. Haselwandter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :296
  • ISBN : 9783034881173
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) is the most common mycorrhizal type involved in agricultural systems, and the most widespread plant root symbiosis. The fungi involved (Glomales) are known to promote plant growth and health by acting as biofertilizers, bioprotectors and bioregulators. The main aim of this book is to provide readers with theoretical and applied knowledge essential for the use of AM fungi in improving plant health and fitness, production of high quality food and in conservation of natural resources. The different chapters target understanding the role of AM fungi in sustainable crop production, discussing ways to improve biological equilibria between microorganisms in the mycorrhizosphere, analysing genetic, physiological, cellular and molecular bases of AM functioning and establishing technologies for inoculum production, according to the regulatory guidelines for application.

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Vegetable Production

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Vegetable Production
  • Author : Jill E. Carbone
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :92
  • ISBN : UCAL:X69955
GET BOOK HERE

Summary :

Biogeography of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

Biogeography of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis
  • Author : Leho Tedersoo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-01
  • Total pages :566
  • ISBN : 9783319563633
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book offers a timely overview and synthesis of biogeographic patterns of plants and fungi and their mycorrhizal associations across geographic scales. Written by leading experts in the field, it provides an updated definition of mycorrhizal types and establishes the best practices of modern biogeographic analyses. Individual chapters address the basic processes and mechanisms driving community ecology, population biology and dispersal in mycorrhizal fungi, which differ greatly from these of prokaryotes, plants and animals. Other chapters review the state-of-the-art knowledge about the distribution, ecology and biogeography of all mycorrhizal types and the most important fungal groups involved in mycorrhizal symbiosis. The book argues that molecular methods have revolutionized our understanding of the ecology and biogeography of mycorrhizal symbiosis and that rapidly evolving high-throughput identification and genomics tools will provide unprecedented information about the structure and functioning of mycorrhizal symbiosis on a global scale. This volume appeals to scientists in the fields of plant and fungal ecology and biogeography.

Tropical Ecology

Tropical Ecology
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015059070824
GET BOOK HERE

Summary :

Biodiversity in Ecosystems

Biodiversity in Ecosystems
  • Author : Juan A. Blanco,Yueh-Hsin Lo,Shovonlal Roy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-17
  • Total pages :642
  • ISBN : 9789535120285
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The term biodiversity has become a mainstream concept that can be found in any newspaper at any given time. Concerns on biodiversity protection are usually linked to species protection and extinction risks for iconic species, such as whales, pandas and so on. However, conserving biodiversity has much deeper implications than preserving a few (although important) species. Biodiversity in ecosystems is tightly linked to ecosystem functions such as biomass production, organic matter decomposition, ecosystem resilience, and others. Many of these ecological processes are also directly implied in services that the humankind obtains from ecosystems. The first part of this book will introduce different concepts and theories important to understand the links between ecosystem function and ecosystem biodiversity. The second part of the book provides a wide range of different studies showcasing the evidence and practical implications of such relationships.

Mycorrhizal Mediation of Soil

Mycorrhizal Mediation of Soil
  • Author : Nancy Collins Johnson,Catherine Gehring,Jan Jansa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-03
  • Total pages :526
  • ISBN : 9780128043837
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Mycorrhizal Mediation of Soil: Fertility, Structure, and Carbon Storage offers a better understanding of mycorrhizal mediation that will help inform earth system models and subsequently improve the accuracy of global carbon model predictions. Mycorrhizas transport tremendous quantities of plant-derived carbon below ground and are increasingly recognized for their importance in the creation, structure, and function of soils. Different global carbon models vary widely in their predictions of the dynamics of the terrestrial carbon pool, ranging from a large sink to a large source. This edited book presents a unique synthesis of the influence of environmental change on mycorrhizas across a wide range of ecosystems, as well as a clear examination of new discoveries and challenges for the future, to inform land management practices that preserve or increase below ground carbon storage. Synthesizes the abundance of research on the influence of environmental change on mycorrhizas across a wide range of ecosystems from a variety of leading international researchers Focuses on the specific role of mycorrhizal fungi in soil processes, with an emphasis on soil development and carbon storage, including coverage of cutting-edge methods and perspectives Includes a chapter in each section on future avenues for further study