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Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement
  • Author : Mohar Singh,Hari D. Upadhyaya,I. S. Bisht
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-18
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9780123984944
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Summary : Grain legumes, including common-bean, chickpea, pigeonpea, pea, cowpea, lentil and others, form important constituents of global diets, both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Despite this significant role, global production has increased only marginally in the past 50 years. The slow production growth, along with a rising human population and improved buying capacity has substantially reduced the per capita availability of food legumes. Changes in environmental climate have also had significant impact on production, creating a need to identify stable donors among genetic resources for environmentally robust genes and designing crops resilient to climate change. Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement is the first book to bring together the latest resources in plant genetics and genomics to facilitate the identification of specific germplasm, trait mapping and allele mining to more effectively develop biotic and abiotic-stress-resistant grains. This book will be an invaluable resource for researchers, crop biologists and students working with crop development. Explores origin, distribution and diversity of grain legumes Presents information on germplasm collection, evaluation and maintenance Offers insight into pre-breeding/germplasm enhancement efforts Integrates genomic and genetic resources in crop improvement Internationally contributed work

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement
  • Author : Lucia Lioi,Angela R. Piergiovanni
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-18
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9780128064368
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Summary : In this chapter, we lead the reader through several topics related to common bean germplasm, including crop dissemination across the Old World, landraces developed by farmers, characterization and safeguard of germplasm. These topics are attracting a great deal of attention, especially in recent years, when the international community has become increasingly aware of the relevance of safeguarding plant genetic resources. Early studies were mainly aimed at performing exploratory analyses of agro-morphological traits, with the goal of improving yield and pest resistance. Moreover, phaseolin variation was studied to check the distribution of the two common bean gene pools. The recent development of DNA-based markers has allowed significant improvement in knowledge on genetic variation within the European germplasm, as well as the capacity to trace its divergence from the American germplasm. The different strategies applied to safeguard the European germplasm are described together with their drawbacks.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement
  • Author : Shivali Sharma,Hari D. Upadhyaya,Manish Roorkiwal,Rajeev K. Varshney,C.L.Laxmipathi Gowda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-18
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9780128064382
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Summary : Chickpea is an important protein-rich crop with considerable diversity present among 44 annual Cicer species. A large collection of chickpea germplasm including wild Cicer species has been conserved in different gene banks globally. However, the effective and efficient utilization of these resources is required to develop new cultivars with a broad genetic base. Using core and mini-core collections, chickpea researchers have identified diverse germplasm possessing various beneficial traits that are now being used in chickpea breeding. Further, for chickpea improvement, the genus Cicer harbours alleles/genes for tolerance/resistance to various abiotic and biotic stresses as well as for agronomic and nutrition-related traits. Recent advances in plant biotechnology have resulted in developing large number of markers specific to chickpea in addition to technological breakthrough in developing high-throughput genotyping platforms for unlocking the genetic potential available in germplasm collections.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement
  • Author : Petr Smýkal,Clarice Coyne,Robert Redden,Nigel Maxted
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-18
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9780128064375
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Summary : Pea is an important temperate region pulse, with feed, fodder and vegetable uses. It originated and was domesticated in Middle East and Mediterranean regions, and formed important dietary components of early civilizations. Although Pisum is a very small genus with two or three species, it is diverse and structured, reflecting taxonomy, ecogeography and breeding gene pools. This diversity has been preserved in collections totalling about 90,000 accessions. Core collections have been formed, facilitating phenotypic and agronomic evaluations. However, only 3% of ex situ collections are wild Pisum sp., with substantially larger diversity. The genomic resources allow initiation of association mapping, linking genetic diversity with trait manifestation. So far, only a small part of wild gene pools have been exploited in breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses. Current genomic knowledge and technologies can facilitate allele mining for novel traits and incorporation from wild Pisum sp. into elite domestic genetic backgrounds.

Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Legumes

Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Legumes
  • Author : Mohar Singh,Ishwari Singh Bisht,Manoranjan Dutta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-28
  • Total pages :215
  • ISBN : 9788132220237
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Summary : Grain legumes play significant and diverse role in the farming systems and provide nutrition security to the largely vegetarian and relatively poorer people around the world. These are ideal crops for achieving three simultaneous developmental goals viz. reducing poverty, improving human health and nutrition and enhancing ecosystem resilience. Globally, grain legumes are the second most important crop group next only to cereals but a large proportion of area of it is under rainfed-low input systems as compared to cereals contributing to lower yields. The other important factor responsible for reduced yield in grain legumes is the narrow genetic base of the present day pulse varieties. In order to break the yield barriers of these cultivars, new sources of genes/ alleles need to be identified and suitably incorporated into the adapted background. The information on various aspects of grain legume improvement although has been considerable in the recent past, these information are highly scattered and not available at one place. The present book consists of comprehensive and latest crop-wise information on important grain legumes of the world including their distribution, gene pool, systematics, status of genetic and genomic resources, production constraints, traits of importance, crop improvement methodologies - both conventional as well as contemporary and future strategies to be adopted for comprehensive grain legume improvement in various agro-ecological target areas of the globe. The chapters have been contributed by eminent crop experts from across the world engaged in research in their respective crops for the past several years thus providing a rare insight into the crop specific constraints and prospects drawing from their rich overall experience. The book therefore will be a useful source of information to the grain legume researchers, students, policy planners and developmental experts alike.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement
  • Author : Clarice Coyne,Rebecca McGee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-18
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9780128064412
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Summary : Lentil (Lens culinaris spp. culinaris) has a long history associated with the early civilizations 11,000 BP in southwestern Asia. The progenitor taxon is Lens culinaris spp. orientalis. The primary source of germplasm for lentil crop improvement is from the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria, and other ex situ national collections. Typical of many crop species, lentil experienced a genetic bottleneck during domestication. Fortunately, many biotic and abiotic stress resistances have been identified and accessed from the wild Lens taxon held ex situ to expand the genetic diversity available for crop improvement. Lentil crop wild relatives (CWR) represent

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement
  • Author : H. Thomas Stalker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-18
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9780128064436
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Summary : The genus Arachis has 80 diploid, aneuploid and tetraploid species that have been separated into nine sections. The cultivated peanut Arachis hypogaea L. is an allotetraploid that originated from the two diploids in section Arachis, and there has been no apparent introgression from related wild species since its origin. Systematic acquisition of wild and cultivated species began in the 1960s and has resulted in large collections of both Arachis species and A. hypogaea. However, additional germplasm is needed to fill in gaps for several A. hypogaea botanical varieties, and large areas in South America remain unexplored for Arachis species. The cultivated germplasm collection has been evaluated for several diseases, but many useful traits have not been assessed in the germplasm collections. Significantly higher levels of disease and insect resistances are found in the Arachis species, but introgression is difficult and very slow due to ploidy and genomic differentiation. Progress has been made in recent years for utilizing wild species genetic resources, including development of several cultivars.

Grain Legumes

Grain Legumes
  • Author : J. Smartt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1990-04-19
  • Total pages :379
  • ISBN : 052130797X
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Summary : This volume provides a survey of all the major grain legumes from the standpoint of both their evolution and their potential for further development and improvement as economically important food crops. It surveys the changes which have occurred in plant domestication and discusses the benefits still to be gained from evaluation and improvement of genetic resources.

Plant Genetic Resources of Legumes in the Mediterranean

Plant Genetic Resources of Legumes in the Mediterranean
  • Author : Nigel Maxted,Sarita Jane Bennett
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-14
  • Total pages :380
  • ISBN : 9789401598231
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Summary : Genetic erosion, that is, the loss of native plant and genetic diversity has been exponential from the Mediterranean Basin through the Twentieth century. This careless eradication of species and genetic diversity as a result of human activities from a 'hot-spot' of diversity threatens sustainable agriculture and food security for the temperate regions of the world. Since the early 1900s there has been a largely ad hoc movement to halt the loss of plant diversity and enhance its utilisation. The Convention on Biological Diversity and Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, both highlight the need to improve conservation methodologies and enhance utilisation techniques. It has been argued that the most important component of biodiversity is the genetic diversity of crop and forage species used to feed humans and livestock. These cultivated and related wild species provides the raw material for further selection and improvement. Leguminosae species are of major economic importance (peas, chickpeas, lentils and faba beans, as well as numerous forage species) and provide a particularly rich source of protein for human and animal foods. Their distribution is concentrated in the Mediterranean region and therefore the improvement of their conservation and use in the region is critical. This text is designed to help ensure an adequate breadth of legume diversity is conserved and to help maximise the use of that conserved diversity. The subjects of conservation and use of legume diversity, the Mediterranean ecosystem and taxonomy of legumes are introduced. Generic reviews of the taxonomy, centre of diversity, ecogeographic distribution, genetic diversity distribution, conservation status, conservation gaps and future research needs are provided, along with a discussion of the importance of rhizobia to the maintenance of legume diversity. Current ex situ and in situ conservation activities as well current legume uses are reviewed. In conclusion future priorities for ex situ and in situ plant genetic conservation and use of Mediterranean legumes are highlighted. All contributors look forward rather than simply reviewing past and current activities and therefore it is hoped that the identification of genetic erosion, location of taxonomic and genetic diversity and promotion of more efficient utilisation of conserved material will be enhanced.

Genomic Selection for Crop Improvement

Genomic Selection for Crop Improvement
  • Author : Rajeev K. Varshney,Manish Roorkiwal,Mark E. Sorrells
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-05
  • Total pages :258
  • ISBN : 9783319631707
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Summary : Genomic Selection for Crop Improvement serves as handbook for users by providing basic as well as advanced understandings of genomic selection. This useful review explains germplasm use, phenotyping evaluation, marker genotyping methods, and statistical models involved in genomic selection. It also includes examples of ongoing activities of genomic selection for crop improvement and efforts initiated to deploy the genomic selection in some important crops. In order to understand the potential of GS breeding, it is high time to bring complete information in the form of a book that can serve as a ready reference for geneticist and plant breeders.

Rediscovery of Genetic and Genomic Resources for Future Food Security

Rediscovery of Genetic and Genomic Resources for Future Food Security
  • Author : Romesh Kumar Salgotra,Sajad Majeed Zargar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-28
  • Total pages :364
  • ISBN : 9789811501562
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Summary : This book describes how the latest genomic resources techniques can be efficiently used in plant breeding programmes to achieve food security in the future. It also shares insights on how to utilize the untapped and unexplored genetic diversity of wild species, wild relatives and landraces for crop improvement. Moreover, the book offers an impressive array of balanced analyses, fresh ideas and perspectives, and thoughtful and realistic proposals regarding the sustainable utilization of plant genetic resources with modern biotechnological techniques. The first book to address the importance of plant genetics and genomic resources for food security, it brings together a group of plant breeders and biotechnologists to investigate the use of genomic resources techniques in plant breeding programmes. Providing essential information on the efficient utilization of genomic resources in precision breeding, it offers a valuable asset for undergraduate and graduate students, teachers and professionals engaged in related fields.

Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement

Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement
  • Author : Mohar Singh,Hari D. Upadhyaya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-11-10
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9780128020371
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Summary : Genetic and Genomic Resources For Cereals Improvement is the first book to bring together the latest available genetic resources and genomics to facilitate the identification of specific germplasm, trait mapping, and allele mining that are needed to more effectively develop biotic and abiotic-stress-resistant grains. As grain cereals, including rice, wheat, maize, barley, sorghum, and millets constitute the bulk of global diets, both of vegetarian and non-vegetarian, there is a greater need for further genetic improvement, breeding, and plant genetic resources to secure the future food supply. This book is an invaluable resource for researchers, crop biologists, and students working with crop development and the changes in environmental climate that have had significant impact on crop production. It includes the latest information on tactics that ensure that environmentally robust genes and crops resilient to climate change are identified and preserved. Provides a single-volume resource on the global research work on grain cereals genetics and genomics Presents information for effectively managing and utilizing the genetic resources of this core food supply source Includes coverage of rice, wheat, maize, barley, sorghum, and pearl, finger and foxtail millets

Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement

Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement
  • Author : Ram J. Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-11-02
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9781420005363
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Summary : Summarizing landmark research, Volume 4 of this essential seriesfurnishes information on the availability of germplasm resources that breeders can exploit for producing high-yielding oilseed crop varieties. Written by leading international experts, this volume presents the most up-to-date information on employing genetic resources to increas

Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement

Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement
  • Author : Ram J. Singh,Prem P. Jauhar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-01-13
  • Total pages :456
  • ISBN : 0203489268
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Summary : Summarizing landmark research, Volume 2 of this essential series furnishes information on the availability of germplasm resources that breeders can exploit for producing high-yielding cereal crop varieties. Written by leading international experts, this volume offers the most comprehensive and up-to-date information on employing genetic resources t

Grain Legumes

Grain Legumes
  • Author : Antonio M. De Ron
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-27
  • Total pages :438
  • ISBN : 9781493927975
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Summary : ​​​This book is devoted to grain legumes and include eight chapters devoted to the breeding of specific grain legume crops and five general chapters dealing with important topics which are common to most of the species in focus. Soybean is not included in the book as it is commonly considered an oil crop more than a grain legume and is included in the Oil Crops Volume of the Handbook of Plant Breeding.​Legume species belong to the Fabaceae family and are characterized by their fruit, usually called pod. Several species of this family were domesticated by humans, such as soybean, common bean, faba bean, pea, chickpea, lentil, peanut, or cowpea. Some of these species are of great relevance as human and animal food. Food legumes are consumed either by their immature pod or their dry seeds, which have a high protein content. Globally, grain legumes are the most relevant source of plant protein, especially in many countries of Africa and Latin America, but there are some constraints in their production, such as a poor adaptation, pest and diseases and unstable yield. Current research trends in Legumes are focused on new methodologies involving genetic and omic studies, as well as new approaches to the genetic improvement of these species, including the relationships with their symbiotic rhizobia.

Chickpea: Crop Wild Relatives for Enhancing Genetic Gains

Chickpea: Crop Wild Relatives for Enhancing Genetic Gains
  • Author : Mohar Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-29
  • Total pages :274
  • ISBN : 9780128183007
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Summary : Chickpea: Crop Wild Relatives for Enhancing Genetic Gains explores aspects related to critical analysis on factors responsible for narrow genetic base of chickpea productions including domestication bottleneck, the level of diversity present in different cultivated and wild species, the uniqueness and usefulness of potential gene sources available and maintained in production systems across the globe, the level of genetic erosion both at landrace and species level over time and space etc. Despite considerable international investment in conventional breeding, production of chickpea has not yet been significantly improved beyond that achieved through its normal single domestication event and high self-pollination rate. Total annual pulse production of ~12 million tons (FAO 2016) is far below actual potential. Susceptibility to both biotic and abiotic stresses have created a production level bottleneck whose solution possibly lies in the use of crop wild relatives and other genetic traits cultivated by tailoring novel germplasm. Presenting options for widening the genetic base of chickpea cultivars by introgression of diverse genes available in distantly related wild Cicer taxa, thus expanding the genetic base and maximize genetic gains from the selection, it is necessary to accumulate other complimentary alleles from CWRs. This review will focus on present status of gene pool and species distribution, germplasm conservation, characterization and evaluation, problems associated with crop production, sources of target traits available in wild species, status of trait introgression in synthesizing new gene pool of chickpea along with progress made in chickpea genomics. An edited book with contributions from leading scientists, this information will guide and inform chickpea breeders, PGR researchers and crop biologists across the world. Presents both conventional and emerging techniques Provides insights into gene pyramiding as cytogenic manipulations Includes case studies highlighting the impact of improving chickpea production

The Chickpea Genome

The Chickpea Genome
  • Author : Rajeev K. Varshney,Mahendar Thudi,Fred Muehlbauer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-02
  • Total pages :142
  • ISBN : 9783319661179
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Summary : This book sheds new light on the chickpea genome sequencing and resequencing of chickpea germplasm lines and provides insights into classical genetics, cytogenetics, and trait mapping. It also offers an overview of the latest advances in genome sequencing and analysis. The growing human population, rapid climate changes and limited amounts of arable land are creating substantial challenges in connection with the availability and affordability of nutritious food for smallholder farmers in developing countries. In this context, climate smart crops are essential to alleviating the hunger of the millions of poor and undernourished people living in developing countries. In addition to cereals, grain legumes are an integral part of the human diet and provide sustainable income for smallholder farmers in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Among grain legumes, the chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most important in terms of production and productivity. Besides being a rich source of proteins, it can fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with rhizobia and increase the input of combined nitrogen. Several abiotic stresses like drought, heat, salinity, together with biotic stresses like Fusarium wilt, Ascochyta blight, and Botrytis grey mould have led to production losses, as the chickpeas is typically grown in the harsh climates of our planet’s semi-arid regions.

The Lupin Genome

The Lupin Genome
  • Author : Karam B. Singh,Lars G. Kamphuis,Matthew N. Nelson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-30
  • Total pages :186
  • ISBN : 9783030212704
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Summary : This book on lupin genomics primarily focuses on the narrow-leafed lupin (NLL), and details the genomic resources that have been developed and how they are currently being used to help advance both fundamental and applied research on NLL in areas ranging from its domestication to plant–microbe interactions and syntenic relationships between NLL and other legume crops. It also reports on genomic efforts being pursued with regard to other lupin crops. Lupins are important ecological ‘engineers’: they can colonise and thrive in low-nutrient soils due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with bacteria and efficiently take up phosphorous. Recently, lupins have attracted considerable interest, not only because of their value for sustainable farming as a break crop, but also as a potential ‘super food’ for fighting major health issues in connection with diabetes and obesity. Narrow-leafed lupin is the main grain legume crop, grown primarily in Australia, and was therefore selected for the development of a reference lupin genome and associated genomic resources. Its genome has recently been sequenced with a focus on the gene-rich space, which has advanced the development of new breeding tools for the improvement of NLL and related lupin crops.

Genomics-Assisted Crop Improvement

Genomics-Assisted Crop Improvement
  • Author : R.K. Varshney,Roberto Tuberosa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-12-12
  • Total pages :386
  • ISBN : 9781402062957
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Summary : This superb volume provides a critical assessment of genomics tools and approaches for crop breeding. Volume 1 presents the status and availability of genomic resources and platforms, and also devises strategies and approaches for effectively exploiting genomics research. Volume 2 goes into detail on a number of case studies of several important crop and plant species that summarize both the achievements and limitations of genomics research for crop improvement.

The Peanut Genome

The Peanut Genome
  • Author : Rajeev K. Varshney,Manish K. Pandey,Naveen Puppala
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-16
  • Total pages :169
  • ISBN : 9783319639352
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Summary : This book presents the current state of the art in peanut genomics, focusing particularly on the latest genomic findings, tools and strategies employed in genome sequencing, transcriptomes and analysis, availability of public and private genomic resources, and ways to maximize the use of this information in peanut breeding programs. Further, it demonstrates how advances in plant genomics can be used to improve crop breeding. The peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. Millsp) is a globally important grain legume and oilseed crop, cultivated in over 100 countries and consumed in the form of roasted seeds, oil and confectionary in nearly every country on Earth. The peanut contributes towards achieving food and nutritional security, in addition to financial security through income generation; as such, it is also vital to the livelihood of the poor in the developing world. There have been significant advances in peanut research, especially in the last five years, including sequencing the genome of both diploid progenitors, and the availability of tremendous transcriptome resources, large-scale genomic variations that can be used as genetic markers, genetic populations (bi- and multiparent populations and germplasm sets), marker-trait associations and molecular breeding products. The immediate availability of the genome sequence for tetraploid cultivated peanuts is the most essential genomic resource for achieving a deeper understanding of peanut traits and their use in breeding programs.

The Asian Vigna

The Asian Vigna
  • Author : Norihiko Tomooka,D. Vaughan,Helen Moss,Nigel Maxted
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :270
  • ISBN : 9789401003148
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Summary : The Asian beans and grams, the species of Vigna (subgenus Ceratotropis), include several legumes that are an essential component in the diets of a large proportion of Asia's population, and interest in these legumes is growing as ethnic cuisine spreads worldwide. However, this important group of legumes is little known compared to the closely related Phaseolus beans and soybean. That deficiency is addressed for the first time in this fully illustrated comprehensive conservation, genetics, taxonomic, and agricultural monograph on the genetic resources of the Asian Vigna. The book deals with the phylogeny of the group from the perspectives of morphological and molecular analyses, ex situ and in situ conservation, eco-geographical analyses, and research. In addition, morphological descriptions, keys, and eco-geographic details of each species in the group are provided. This genetic resources handbook and guide to the Asian Vigna will be a valuable reference for agriculturists, conservationists, taxonomists, other scientists, and students interested in the legumes and plant genetic resources.