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Geomaterials Under the Microscope

Geomaterials Under the Microscope
  • Author : Jeremy Ingham
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-12-15
  • Total pages :192
  • ISBN : 9781840766004
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Summary : The first comprehensive guide to the petrography of geomaterials, making the petrographers specialist knowledge available to practitioners, educators and students worldwide interested in modern and historic construction materials.

Geomaterials Under the Microscope

Geomaterials Under the Microscope
  • Author : Jeremy P. Ingham
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :192
  • ISBN : 0124076696
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Summary : Geomaterials, or geologically derived materials, are of enormous economic importance to the global construction industry. If you are a geologist or petrographer who provides consultation to architects, civil engineers, and construction engineers, you must have the knowledge and expertise of the features and applications of geomaterials to provide accurate and safe recommendations. This is the first guide to the petrography of geomaterials, making the petrographer's specialist knowledge available to you in a single source. More than 350 full-color and captioned photos provide concise explanations of petrographic properties of geomaterials and how to interpret them-arming you with the tools to identify the highest quality geomaterials and how they are used in the construction industry. - Provides a summary of the properties and classifications of geomaterials - Includes more than 350 color and captioned photographs plus 35 tables, line drawings and diagrams - Provides an overview of geomaterials practice and a state of the art review of petrographic techniques.

Geomaterials Under the Microscope

Geomaterials Under the Microscope
  • Author : Jeremy Ingham
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-02
  • Total pages :192
  • ISBN : 0367577046
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Summary : Geomaterials are of enormous economic importance to the global construction industry. This is the first comprehensive guide to the petrography of geomaterials, making the petrographers specialist knowledge available to practitioners, educators and students worldwide interested in modern and historic construction materials, be they microscopists or in the fields of geology, architecture, surveying, engineering, construction, archaeology, conservation, materials science and forensic science. The book provides some 365 superb quality colour photomicrographs of geomaterials plus concise explanations of their petrographic properties and how to interpret them. An introductory chapter provides an overview of geomaterials practice and a state-of-the-art review of petrographic techniques. Each of the subsequent chapters covers a different group of construction materials and includes an explanation of their history, manufacture and use in construction. The text draws upon diverse published references to provide a unique summary of the properties and classification of construction materials. Comprehensive lists of further reading are provided for each materials type. Readership: Practitioners, educators and students in Petrography, Microscopy, Geology, Surveying, Engineering, Archaeology, Conservation, Architecture, Materials science and Forensic science.

Xray CT for Geomaterials

Xray CT for Geomaterials
  • Author : Jun Otani,Yuzo Obara
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-10-06
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 1439834296
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Summary : X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scanning has been widely used for medical diagnosis. This technique is now attracting increasing interest as a tool in non-destructive testing in engineering. This book reports the early results of research into this application, with particular reference to deformation and failure of geomaterials. Presenting papers of the International Workshop on X-CT for Geomaterials at Kumamoto, Japan in 2003. The book is intended for researchers and professionals in the fields of geotechnical engineering, soil, rock and concrete engineering, and geology.

Concrete Petrography

Concrete Petrography
  • Author : Alan B. Poole,Ian Sims
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-12-19
  • Total pages :816
  • ISBN : 9781351722339
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Summary : This classic reference has established the value of petrography as a powerful method for the investigation of concrete as a material. It provides an authoritative and well-illustrated review of concrete composition and textures, including the causes of defects, deterioration, and failure that can be identified using a petrological microscope. This new edition is entirely revised and updated and also greatly extended to take account of new scientific developments and significant improvements in instrumentation and to reflect current laboratory working practices, as well as to reflect new understanding of the performance of concrete and related materials. Now in full color throughout, Concrete Petrography, Second Edition provides case study examples, with appropriate explanatory discussions and practical advice on selecting, handling and preparing specimens. It assists and guides the engineer, the trainee and the experienced petrographer in understanding the scientific evidence that is basic to petrographic analysis and so will lead to more accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment of problems in structural concrete. This book includes: Contributions in specialist areas by internationally recognized experts Explanation of computer techniques as an aid to petrography Full coverage of inspection, sampling, and specimen preparation New sections covering recent technological development of equipment Guidance on observation of cement and concrete mineralogy and microfabrics Discussion and illustrative examples of deterioration and failure mechanisms New work and guidance on the determination of water/cement ratio New color illustrations and micrographs throughout Thorough updating of standards, other authoritative publications, and references A fully revised, extended, and updated glossary of optical and other properties

Historic Mortars

Historic Mortars
  • Author : John J. Hughes,Jan Válek,Caspar J. W. P. Groot
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-07
  • Total pages :336
  • ISBN : 9783319916064
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Summary : This book presents a state of the art in mortar characterisation, experimentation with and applications of new mortars for conservation and repair of historic buildings. This volume includes the following topics: characterisation of historic mortars (methods, interpretation, application of results), development of new materials for conservation (compatibility, durability, mix designs), the history of mortar technology and fundamental experimental studies of material properties. The papers have been selected from those presented at the 3rd Historic Mortars Conference, held in Glasgow, Scotland, September 11-14th 2013. All the papers here underwent a two stage peer review process, for the conference and again for this volume. In some cases this has resulted in a revision and updating of content.

Geomaterials in Cultural Heritage

Geomaterials in Cultural Heritage
  • Author : Marino Maggetti,Bruno Messiga
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :351
  • ISBN : 1862391955
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Summary : Papers from a session of the 32nd International Geological Congress.

Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology

Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology
  • Author : Cristiano Nicosia,Georges Stoops
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-23
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9781118941058
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Summary : Chapter 39 FTIR Microscopy -- 39.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 39.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure -- 39.3 Archaeological Applications -- References -- Chapter 40 X-ray Microdiffraction -- 40.1 Fundamentals of X-ray Diffraction -- 40.2 XRD Instrumentation -- 40.3 Output and Analysis -- 40.4 Applications to Archaeological Micromorphology Samples -- 40.5 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 41 Micro XRF -- 41.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 41.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure -- 41.3 Archaeological Applications -- 41.4 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 42 Micro-CT Scanning -- 42.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 42.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedures -- 42.3 Archaeological Applications -- 42.4 Concluding Remarks -- References -- Chapter 43 Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) Techniques -- 43.1 Principles of the Techniques -- 43.2 Sample Preparation and Analysis -- 43.3 Archaeological Applications -- References -- 44 Reflected Light -- 44.1 Principles of the Analytical Method -- 44.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure -- 44.3 Archaeological Applications -- References -- Index -- EULA

Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials

Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials
  • Author : Qiang Yang,Jian-Min Zhang,Hong Zheng,Yangping Yao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-08-22
  • Total pages :813
  • ISBN : 9783642328145
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Summary : The Second International Symposium on Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications (IS-Model 2012), is to be held in Beijing, China, during October 15-16, 2012. The symposium is organized by Tsinghua University, the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), the Committee of Numerical and Physical Modeling of Rock Mass, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering, and the Committee of Constitutive Relations and Strength Theory, China Institution of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, China Civil Engineering Society. This Symposium follows the first successful International Workshop on Constitutive Modeling held in Hong Kong, which was organized by Prof. JH Yin in 2007. Constitutive modeling of geomaterials has been an active research area for a long period of time. Different approaches have been used in the development of various constitutive models. A number of models have been implemented in the numerical analyses of geotechnical structures. The objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and engineers working or interested in the area of constitutive modeling to meet together and share new ideas, achievements and experiences through presentations and discussions. Emphasis is placed on recent advances of constitutive modeling and its applications in both theoretic and experimental aspects. Six famous scholars have been invited for the plenary speeches of the symposiums. Some prominent scholars have been invited to organize four specialized workshops on hot topics, including “Time-dependent stress-strain behavior of geomaterials”, “Constitutive modeling within critical state soil mechanics”, “Multiscale and multiphysics in geomaterials”, and “Damage to failure in rock structures”. A total of 49 papers are included in the above topics. In addition, 51 papers are grouped under three topics covering “Behaviour of geomaterials”, “Constitutive model”, and “Applications”. The editors expect that the book can be helpful as a reference to all those in the field of constitutive modeling of geomaterials.

Salt Deterioration of Historic Mortars in Tropical Climate: Analysis and Characterisation

Salt Deterioration of Historic Mortars in Tropical Climate: Analysis and Characterisation
  • Author : Isabela Wilfred Mtani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-01-01
  • Total pages :231
  • ISBN : 9783737600743
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Summary : The contribution of this study to the general body of knowledge is in providing an understanding of the thermodynamic behaviour of soluble salt mixtures in historic buildings located in the tropical marine zone of Tanzania. This tropical zone is found in the eastern part of the country along the Indian Ocean coast. This research is geared towards informing the general public, most of whom believe that salt crystallisation is the main cause of historic buildings deteriorating. This belief emanates from the understanding that historic buildings in a marine environment are highly susceptible to salt crystallisation, more so because they tend to receive daily oceanic spray which contains salt. The problem is aggravated by the encroachment of the ocean on these buildings. Salt crystallisation on these structures is further complicated by air pollution owing to rapid urbanisation in these areas. It is worth noting that salt crystallisation is an extremely complex process and its effect depend on many variables including climate. Ten historic buildings involved in this study are located in three different areas of the country. Eight historic buildings are located in the tropical climate 1 - 200 m from the Indian Ocean, and two historic buildings are located in inland Tanzania 190 km and 589 km from the ocean. These two historic buildings experience a modified tropical climate and semi-arid climate. The criteria for selecting the buildings considered variations and the extent of salt deterioration in different parts of the country.

The main goal of the study was to embark on a detailed analysis of the salt deterioration on Tanzanian historic buildings which has not hitherto been fully investigated and to provide a sustainable solution to the problem through climate control. This solution is needed, since there is no approved conservation programme and as a result of existing government budgetary constraints, very little conservation research has been done on any site or monuments except those registered under UNESCO. The research results of this project contributes to solving the existing monument research gap, thereby stimulating the initiation of a sustainable restoration programme, together with the provision of the much needed government research tools. This research provides information on the type of construction and building materials used during the construction of these buildings. Such information is vital in salt analysis and in futurerestoration, conservation and consolidation of these buildings, which provides a substantial income to the country through the tourist industry. There are also other factors like the preservation of the history and culture of the country and job creation.

The abundance of chloride (Cl-) ions of magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), and potasium (K+) in these buildings as identified by this study explains the survival of the historic buildings in the tropical marine areas of Tanzania. These ions can lead to the formation of halite (NaCl), sylvite (KCl), bischofite (MgCl2•6H2O), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and antarcticite (CaCl2•6H2O), depending on their presence and quantity in the walls of historic buildings. The results of ECOS/RUNSALT program indicate that salt is not the major problem because the major ions hitherto detected form salts like halite and sylvite, are mostly in liquid form. Under a high evaporation rate these salts easily migrate to the surface of the building’s walls whereby a supersaturated solution is formed leading to surface crystallisation. The surface crystallisation is evident in salt profile analysis by photospectrometry, whereby the quantity of soluble salt ions decreases with depth. The detachment of protective rendering, the peeling off of paint and efflorescence in the investigated historic buildings in tropical marine areas of Tanzania is evidence of surface crystallisation. Mirabilite (Na2SO4•10H2O), gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) and epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O) can crystallize in tropical areas. The SO42- and NO3- ions detected in these buildings are so scanty as not to cause ionic interactions needed for the formation of destructive sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) except in the Cooperation Building where SO42- is as high as 1.8 % w/w. However, this is not a trivial problem and should not be ignored, especially because of the destructive nature of Na2SO4 and the increase in air pollution.

Laboratory simulation of the three environmental conditions using two salts, Na2SO4 and NaCl, provided similar results on the exposure of lime mortar samples in 50% Relative Humidity (RH) and 20oC; 75% RH and 28oC and 85% RH and 28oC. Samples exposed to 85% RH and 28oC in a controlled environment showed enormous deterioration due to crystallisation of Na2SO4.

Subsequently, NaCl is the major salt and is always in the solution. Reducing this salt is necessary to avoid associated damage like the formation of microorganisms. Thehygroscopic nature of NaCl retards the drying of materials, hence keeping the walls moist all the time, creating a conducive environment for biocolonisation. Routine desalination is necessary to keep the wall dry. In future, Na2SO4 and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) will be a problem. Therefore, the RH within a building located in a tropical marine environment should be protected from frequent RH variations to prevent the damage associated with sulphate salts, that is only if the current trend of air pollution (i.e. an increase of 6% (WHO, 2014)) is mantained or increased.

Advances in Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials

Advances in Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials
  • Author : Stéphane Bonelli,Cristian Dascalu,François Nicot
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-03
  • Total pages :362
  • ISBN : 9789400714212
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Summary : This book presents contributions to the 9th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials held in Porquerolles, France, May 23-26, 2011. This series of conferences, started in the early 1980s, is dedicated to the research on degradation and instability phenomena in geomaterials. The volume gathers a series of manuscripts by brilliant international scholars reflecting recent trends in theoretical and experimental research in geomechanics. It incorporates contributions on topics like instability analysis, localized and diffuse failure description, multi-scale modeling and applications to geo-environmental issues. This book will be valuable for anyone interested in the research on degradation and instabilities in geomechanics and geotechnical engineering, appealing to graduate students, researchers and engineers alike.

Green Materials Obtained by Geopolymerization for a Sustainable Future

Green Materials Obtained by Geopolymerization for a Sustainable Future
  • Author : Petrica VIZUREANU,Dumitru-Doru BURDUHOS-NERGIS
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-02-05
  • Total pages :212
  • ISBN : 9781644901120
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Summary : Geopolymerization techniques allow the conversion of industrial waste materials into environmentally friendly materials. The vast list of applications includes thermal insulation, fire-resistant materials, construction materials, refractory linings, cements and concretes, encapsulation of radioactive and toxic waste etc. The book presents the technological processes involved, as well as the characterization and applications of the resulting ecomaterials. Keywords: Geopolymerization, Industrial Waste Materials, Green Materials, Thermal Insulation, Fire-resistant Materials, Construction Materials, Refractory Linings, Cements and Concretes, Encapsulation of Radioactive Waste, Encapsulation of Toxic Waste, Thermal Power Plant Ash, Aluminosilicates Recycling, Porous Geopolymers, Environmentally Friendly Concrete.

Bifurcation and Degradation of Geomaterials in the New Millennium

Bifurcation and Degradation of Geomaterials in the New Millennium
  • Author : Kam-Tim Chau,Jidong Zhao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-29
  • Total pages :381
  • ISBN : 9783319135069
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Summary : This book contains contributions to the 10th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials held in Hong Kong, May 28-30, 2014. This event marks the silver Jubilee anniversary of an international conference series dedicated to the research on localization, instability, degradation and failure of geomaterials since 1988 when its first workshop was organized in Germany. This volume of book collects the latest progresses and state-of-the-art research from top researchers around the world, and covers topics including multiscale modeling, experimental characterization and theoretical analysis of various instability and degradation phenomena in geomaterials as well as their relevance to contemporary issues in engineering practice. This book can be used as a useful reference for research students, academics and practicing engineers who are interested in the instability and degradation problems in geomechanics and geotechnical engineering.

Unsaturated Soils. Advances in Geo-Engineering

Unsaturated Soils. Advances in Geo-Engineering
  • Author : D.G. Toll,C.E. Augarde,D. Gallipoli,S.J. Wheeler
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-06-23
  • Total pages :1006
  • ISBN : 9780203884430
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Summary : Unsaturated Soils: Advances in Geo-Engineering comprises 136 contributions from leading international researchers and practitioners, presented at the First European Conference on Unsaturated Soils (Durham, UK, 2-4 July 2008). The papers report on the latest advances in geo-engineering aspects of unsaturated soils. It is the first collection to focu

Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials

Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials
  • Author : V.A. Rinaldi,M.E. Zeballos,J.J. Clariá
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-11
  • Total pages :1236
  • ISBN : 9781614996019
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Summary : In November 2015, Buenos Aires, Argentina became the location of several important events for geo-professionals, with the simultaneous holding of the 6th International Symposium on Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials, the 15th Pan-American Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (XV PCSMGE), the 8th South American Congress on Rock Mechanics (SCRM), as well as the 22nd Argentinean Congress of Geotechnical Engineering (CAMSIGXXII). This synergy provided a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and discuss current and future practices in the areas of soil mechanics and rock mechanics, and their applications in civil, energy, environmental, and mining engineering. This book presents the proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials. As well as 118 articles selected for publication after peer review, it includes 7 lectures delivered by invited keynote speakers and the Third Bishop Lecture, delivered by Professor Herve Di Benedetto of the University of Lyon, France, who presented a reference work on the advanced testing and modeling of bituminous bounded and unbounded granular materials. The conference brought together practitioners, researchers and educators from around the world engaged in the understanding of the deformation properties of geo-materials before failure, and the small strain parameters as fundamental characteristics of geo-materials. The main topics covered by the symposium include experimental investigations from very small strains to beyond failure, including multi-physical approach; HTC M coupling behavior, characterization and modeling of various geo-materials and interfaces; and practical prediction and interpretation of ground responses: field observation and case histories.

Bifurcations, Instabilities and Degradations in Geomaterials

Bifurcations, Instabilities and Degradations in Geomaterials
  • Author : Richard Wan,Mustafa Alsaleh,Joe Labuz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-03-16
  • Total pages :369
  • ISBN : 3642182844
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Summary : Geomaterials exhibit complex but rich mechanical behaviour with a variety of failure modes ranging from diffuse to localized deformation depending on stress, density, microstructure, and loading conditions. These failure modes are a result of an instability of material and/or geometric nature that can be studied within the framework of bifurcation theory. Degradation is another related phenomenon arising from cyclic loading, ageing, weathering, chemical attack, and capillary effects, among others. The methodology of analyzing the various types of instabilities is crucial in the adequate modelling and safe design of numerous problems in geomechanics. The present volume contains a sampling of enlarged versions of papers presented at the International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradations in Geomaterials (IWBDG 2008) held in Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, May 28-31, 2008. These papers capture the state-of-the-art in the specialized field of geomechanics and contemporary approaches to solving the central issue of failure. Some engineering applications are presented in the areas of energy resource extraction and soil-machine interaction.

Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials

Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials
  • Author : H. DiBenedetto,T. Doanh,H. Geoffroy,C. Sauzéat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-03-03
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 0203970810
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Summary : Solutions for soil engineering and soil-structure interaction problems need realistic and pertinent experimental and modelling tools. In this work, extensive developments proposed by the invited speakers of the Lyon International Symposium held in September 2003 are presented, including experimental investigations into deformation properties; laboratory, in-situ and field observation interpretations; behaviour characterisation and modelling; and case histories. The contributions include recent investigations into anisotropy and non-linearity, the effects of stress-strain-time history, ageing and time effects, yielding, failure and flow, cyclic and dynamic behaviour. In addition, advanced geotechnical testing is applied to real engineering problems, and to ways of synthesising information from a range of sources while engaging in practical site characterisation studies.

Advances in X-ray Tomography for Geomaterials

Advances in X-ray Tomography for Geomaterials
  • Author : Jacques Desrues,Gioacchino Viggiani,Pierre Bésuelle
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-01-05
  • Total pages :452
  • ISBN : 9780470394847
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Summary : This book brings together a total of 48 contributions (including 5 keynote papers) which were presented at the 2nd International Workshop on the Application of X-ray CT for Geomaterials (GeoX 2006) held in Aussois, France, on 4-7 October, 2006. The contributions cover a wide range of topics, from fundamental characterization of material behavior to applications in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering. Recent advances of X-ray technology, hardware and software are also discussed. As such, this will be valuable reading for anyone interested in the application of X-ray CT to geomaterials from both fundamental and applied perspectives.

CONCRETE Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures

CONCRETE Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures
  • Author : FIB – International Federation for Structural Concrete
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-27
  • Total pages :2322
  • ISBN : 9782940643004
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Summary : This Proceedings contains the papers of the fib Symposium “CONCRETE Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures”, which was held in May 2019 in Kraków, Poland. This annual symposium was co-organised by the Cracow University of Technology. The topics covered include Analysis and Design, Sustainability, Durability, Structures, Materials, and Prefabrication. The fib, Fédération internationale du béton, is a not-for-profit association formed by 45 national member groups and approximately 1000 corporate and individual members. The fib’s mission is to develop at an international level the study of scientific and practical matters capable of advancing the technical, economic, aesthetic and environmental performance of concrete construction. The fib, was formed in 1998 by the merger of the Euro-International Committee for Concrete (the CEB) and the International Federation for Prestressing (the FIP). These predecessor organizations existed independently since 1953 and 1952, respectively.

Hydro-Mechanical Coupling and Creep Behaviours of Geomaterials

Hydro-Mechanical Coupling and Creep Behaviours of Geomaterials
  • Author : Yanlin Zhao,Hang Lin,Yixian Wang,Lianyang Zhang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-03-03
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889665280
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Summary :

Visco-Plastic Behaviour of Geomaterials

Visco-Plastic Behaviour of Geomaterials
  • Author : N.D. Cristescu,G. Gioda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-05-04
  • Total pages :317
  • ISBN : 9783709127100
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Summary : Aim of this book is to present to researchers and engineers a description of the present knowledge on the viscoplasticity of geomaterials, considering the experimental and theoretical aspects and the applications to relevant problems. First, the laboratory tests performed in order to quantitatively assess the theological properties of rocks are illustrated, describing the equipments used in modern rock mechanics laboratories and the proper testing procedures. Part of the presentation is devoted to the description of constitutive creep laws having different degrees of accuracy and complexity. The book covers also problems related to the application of numerical solution procedures to rock/soil mechanics situations in which the slow deformation of geomaterials is to be taken into account.