Download Global Health Complications Of Obesity Book PDF

Download full Global Health Complications Of Obesity books PDF, EPUB, Tuebl, Textbook, Mobi or read online Global Health Complications Of Obesity anytime and anywhere on any device. Get free access to the library by create an account, fast download and ads free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library.

Global Health Complications of Obesity

Global Health Complications of Obesity
  • Author : Jahangir Moini,Raheleh Ahangari,Mohtashem Samsam,Carrie Miller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 012819751X
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Global Health Complications of Obesity presents a valuable resource for research scientists and clinicians by covering the burden of obesity and related diseases and serving as a starting point for in-depth discussions in academic settings and for obesity-treatment specialists. Obesity is associated with a statistically higher risk of heart disease, hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and many other diseases. This succinct resource focuses on the current data, research and management of obesity. It is essential reading for healthcare professionals, endocrinologists, nutritionists, public health students and medical students. Presents clinical cases, key terms and targeted references Addresses diseases including diabetes, cancer, hypertension, osteoarthritis, fatty liver disease, infertility, renal failure and depression Provides a link to new knowledge that is ideal for both researchers and clinicians

Global Health Complications of Obesity

Global Health Complications of Obesity
  • Author : Jahangir Moini,Raheleh Ahangari,Carrie Miller,Mohtashem Samsam
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-01
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128197523
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Global Health Complications of Obesity presents a valuable resource for research scientists and clinicians by covering the burden of obesity and related diseases and serving as a starting point for in-depth discussions in academic settings and for obesity-treatment specialists. Obesity is associated with a statistically higher risk of heart disease, hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and many other diseases. This succinct resource focuses on the current data, research and management of obesity. It is essential reading for healthcare professionals, endocrinologists, nutritionists, public health students and medical students. Presents clinical cases, key terms and targeted references Addresses diseases including diabetes, cancer, hypertension, osteoarthritis, fatty liver disease, infertility, renal failure and depression Provides a link to new knowledge that is ideal for both researchers and clinicians

Global Health Risks

Global Health Risks
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :62
  • ISBN : 9789241563871
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This publication is a comprehensive assessment of leading risks to global health. It provides detailed global and regional estimates of premature mortality, disability and loss of health attributable to 24 global risk factors.--Publisher's description.

Pathophysiology of Obesity-Induced Health Complications

Pathophysiology of Obesity-Induced Health Complications
  • Author : Paramjit S. Tappia,Bram Ramjiawan,Naranjan S. Dhalla
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-17
  • Total pages :345
  • ISBN : 9783030353582
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : ​According to the World Health Organization, the epidemic of global obesity has nearly tripled since 1975. In 2016, more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight, over 650 million of which were obese. Being overweight and obese has been linked to a number of non-communicable, chronic diseases. Pathophysiology of Obesity-Induced Health Complications is a compilation of review articles dedicated to describe co-morbidities associated with obesity. The wide range that is covered is of significant interest to basic research scientists, clinicians and graduate students who are engaged in studying obesity-induced health complications. Furthermore, this book highlights the potential of novel approaches for the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related illnesses. Nineteen articles in this book are organized in four sections that are designed to provide an overview of obesity-induced health complications. The first section serves as an introductory section on the prevalence, causes, consequences, treatments and preventive approaches for obesity. Section two covers the metabolic disturbances and inflammation due to obesity. The third section is focused on neurological and visceral complications as a consequence of obesity. The final section covers strategies for the prevention of obesity-induced complications. The book illustrates that obesity can result in a diverse range of pathophysiological conditions that adversely affect health.

Adiposity

Adiposity
  • Author : Jan Gordeladze
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-15
  • Total pages :252
  • ISBN : 9789535129950
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This book is the first in a series of two, featuring the Adiposity - Epidemiology and Treatment Modalities, serving as a summary of the traditional views on how the organ systems are affected when higher organs start to suffer from enhanced body weight, where most of this additional weight consists of white adipose tissue (WAT). The understanding of the "epidemiology" of obesity will consequently enable clinicians and researchers to better understand the untoward "trends" of "metabolic aberrations" from a well-organized and health-bringing homeostasis, with fully responding WAT and BAT, thus enabling a balance between fat-producing and fat-metabolizing tissues for the benefit of the various organ systems taking care of the fat and carbohydrate metabolism, normally yielding a balanced energy turnover, ensuring "healthy" cell phenotypes, which optimally coordinate the energy metabolism in a well-functioning organism throughout a lifetime.

Obesity

Obesity
  • Author : Meera Shekar,Barry Popkin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-13
  • Total pages :234
  • ISBN : 1464814910
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Obesity is a global ticking time-bomb with huge potential negative economic and health impacts, especially for the poor. Countries and global partners need to act urgently to address this ensuing epidemic with emphasis highlighting interventions that require corrective public action rather than one of individual responsibility.

The Challenge of Obesity in the WHO European Region and the Strategies for Response

The Challenge of Obesity in the WHO European Region and the Strategies for Response
  • Author : World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :60
  • ISBN : 9789289013888
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : In a brief, clear and easily accessible way, this summary illustrates the dynamics of the obesity epidemic and its impact on public health throughout the WHO European Region, particularly in eastern countries. It describes how factors that increase the risk of obesity are shaped in different settings, such as the family, school, community and workplace. It makes both ethical and economic arguments for accelerating action against obesity, and analyses effective programs and policies in different government sectors, such as education, health, agriculture and trade, urban planning and transport. The summary also describes how to design policies and programs to prevent obesity and how to monitor progress, and calls for specific action by stakeholders: not only government sectors but also the private sector - including food manufacturers, advertisers and traders - and professional consumers' and international and intergovernmental organizations such as the European Union.

The Weight of Obesity

The Weight of Obesity
  • Author : Emily Yates-Doerr
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-22
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9780520286825
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : A woman with hypertension refuses vegetables. A man with diabetes adds iron-fortified sugar to his coffee. As death rates from heart attacks, strokes, and diabetes in Latin America escalate, global health interventions increasingly emphasize nutrition, exercise, and weight loss—but much goes awry as ideas move from policy boardrooms and clinics into everyday life. Based on years of intensive fieldwork, The Weight of Obesity offers poignant stories of how obesity is lived and experienced by Guatemalans who have recently found their diets—and their bodies—radically transformed. Anthropologist Emily Yates-Doerr challenges the widespread view that health can be measured in calories and pounds, offering an innovative understanding of what it means to be healthy in postcolonial Latin America. Through vivid descriptions of how people reject global standards and embrace fatness as desirable, this book interferes with contemporary biomedicine, adding depth to how we theorize structural violence. It is essential reading for anyone who cares about the politics of healthy eating.

International Textbook of Obesity

International Textbook of Obesity
  • Author : Per Björntorp
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-06-15
  • Total pages :546
  • ISBN : UOM:39015054441137
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The prevalence of obesity has now reached such proportions that in many parts of the world it is one of the most dominant health problems. Obesity leads to a number of serious diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke and cancer as well as psychological problems and a poor quality of life. Obesity research is now very active and understanding of the disease has greatly increased. The International Textbook of Obesity offers a definitive coverage of the area looking at epidemiology, causes, current research and management. * Gives an up to date account of the field * Edited by a leading expert in the area * Contributions from an impressive array of authors including many from young researchers giving new perspectives on the issues This will be a lasting reference for a wide range of academic and professional health care workers, including obesity research specialists, diebetologists, nutritionists, practising physicians and endocrinologists.

The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity

The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :60
  • ISBN : UCLA:L0083580142
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Promotes the recognition, treatment, and prevention of conditions of overweight and obesity in the United States.

The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health

The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health
  • Author : Ronald Ross Watson,Ram B. Singh,Toru Takahashi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-02
  • Total pages :792
  • ISBN : 9780128131497
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health presents a collective approach to food security through the use of functional foods as a strategy to prevent under nutrition and related diseases. This approach reflects the views of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the World Heart Federation and the American Heart Association who advise Mediterranean, Paleolithic, plant food based diets, and European vegetarian diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition, the book also emphasizes the inclusion of spices, herbs and millets, as well as animal foods. This book will be a great resource to the food industry as it presents the most efficient ways to use technology to manufacture slowly absorbed, micronutrient rich functional foods by blending foods that are rich in healthy nutrients. Provides greater knowledge on functional food security Highlights the necessary changes to the western diet that are needed to achieve food security Explains the utility and necessity of functional food security in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases Presents policy changes in food production for farmers and the larger food industry Offers suggestions on what can be done to enhance functional food production while simultaneously decreasing production costs

Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 5)

Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 5)
  • Author : Dorairaj Prabhakaran,Shuchi Anand,Thomas A. Gaziano,Jean-Claude Mbanya,Rachel Nugent
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-17
  • Total pages :466
  • ISBN : 9781464805202
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Cardiovascular, respiratory, and related conditions cause more than 40 percent of all deaths globally, and their substantial burden is rising, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Their burden extends well beyond health effects to include significant economic and societal consequences. Most of these conditions are related, share risk factors, and have common control measures at the clinical, population, and policy levels. Lives can be extended and improved when these diseases are prevented, detected, and managed. This volume summarizes current knowledge and presents evidence-based interventions that are effective, cost-effective, and scalable in LMICs.

Obesity and Obstetrics

Obesity and Obstetrics
  • Author : Tahir A. Mahmood,Sabaratnam Arulkumaran,Frank A. Chervenak
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-06
  • Total pages :372
  • ISBN : 9780128179222
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Obesity and Obstetrics, Second Edition, brings together experts to examine the issues and challenges of obesity and obstetrics, also discussing how obesity affects fertility, reproduction and pregnancy. Beginning with the worldwide epidemic of obesity, chapters then go on to review obesity and hyperglycemia of pregnancy, management of labor, interventions to improve care during pregnancy, and long-term impact of maternal obesity. Provides an essential reference on the significant risk of complications during pregnancy, including early pregnancy loss, recurrent miscarriage and fetal developmental abnormalities Builds foundational knowledge on how maternal obesity predisposes offspring to obesity, highlighting that the prevention of childhood obesity begins during pregnancy Assembles critically evaluated chapters focused on obesity and obstetrics to meet the practical needs of obstetricians, endocrinologists and general practitioners

Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries

Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries
  • Author : National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-07-27
  • Total pages :194
  • ISBN : 9780309186407
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : During the last 25 years, life expectancy at age 50 in the United States has been rising, but at a slower pace than in many other high-income countries, such as Japan and Australia. This difference is particularly notable given that the United States spends more on health care than any other nation. Concerned about this divergence, the National Institute on Aging asked the National Research Council to examine evidence on its possible causes. According to Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries, the nation's history of heavy smoking is a major reason why lifespans in the United States fall short of those in many other high-income nations. Evidence suggests that current obesity levels play a substantial part as well. The book reports that lack of universal access to health care in the U.S. also has increased mortality and reduced life expectancy, though this is a less significant factor for those over age 65 because of Medicare access. For the main causes of death at older ages -- cancer and cardiovascular disease -- available indicators do not suggest that the U.S. health care system is failing to prevent deaths that would be averted elsewhere. In fact, cancer detection and survival appear to be better in the U.S. than in most other high-income nations, and survival rates following a heart attack also are favorable. Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries identifies many gaps in research. For instance, while lung cancer deaths are a reliable marker of the damage from smoking, no clear-cut marker exists for obesity, physical inactivity, social integration, or other risks considered in this book. Moreover, evaluation of these risk factors is based on observational studies, which -- unlike randomized controlled trials -- are subject to many biases.

The Surgeon General's Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation

The Surgeon General's Vision for a Healthy and Fit Nation
  • Author : U. S. Department of Health and Human Services,Office of the Surgeon General
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-07-23
  • Total pages :24
  • ISBN : 1478298588
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Our nation stands at a crossroads. Today's epidemic of overweight and obesity threatens the historic progress we have made in increasing American's quality and years of healthy life. Two-third of adults and nearly one in three children are overweight or obese. In addition, many racial and ethnic groups and geographic regions of the United States are disproportionately affected. The sobering impact of these numbers is reflected in the nation's concurrent epidemics of diabetes, heart disease, and other chronic diseases. If we do not reverse these trends, researchers warn that many of our children—our most precious resource—will be seriously afflicted in early adulthood with medical conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. This future is unacceptable. The Surgeon General asks you to join me in combating this crisis. Every one of us has an important role to play in the prevention and control of obesity. Mothers, fathers, teachers, business executives, child care professionals, clinicians, politicians, and government and community leaders—we must all commit to changes that promote the health and wellness of our families and communities. As a nation, we must create neighborhood communities that are focused on healthy nutrition and regular physical activity, where the healthiest choices are accessible for all citizens. Children should be having fun and playing in environments that provide parks, recreational facilities, community centers, and walking and bike paths. Healthy foods should be affordable and accessible. Increased consumer knowledge and awareness about healthy nutrition and physical activity will foster a growing demand for healthy food products and exercise options, dramatically influencing marketing trends. Hospitals, work sites, and communities should make it easy for mothers to initiate and sustain breastfeeding as this practice has been shown to prevent childhood obesity. Working together, we will create an environment that promotes and facilitates healthy choices for all Americans. And we will live longer and healthier lives. In the 2001 Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity, former Surgeon General David Satcher, MD, PhD, warned us of the negative effects of the increasing weight of our citizens and outlined a public health response to reverse the trend. Although we have made some strides since 2001, the prevalence of obesity, obesity-related diseases, and premature death remains too high. The Surgeon General is calling on all Americans to join in a national grassroots effort to reverse this trend. Plans include showing people how to choose nutritious food, add more physical activity to their daily lives, and manage the stress that so often derails their best efforts at developing healthy habits. The real goal is not just a number on a scale, but optimal health for all Americans at every stage of life. To achieve this goal, we must all work together to share resources, educate our citizens, and partner with business and government leaders to find creative solutions in our neighborhoods, towns, and cities from coast to coast. Together, we can become a nation committed to become healthy and fit.

Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity

Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity
  • Author : Debasis Bagchi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-10-12
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 008096172X
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Understanding the complex factors contributing to the growing childhood obesity epidemic is vital not only for the improved health of the world's future generations, but for the healthcare system. The impact of childhood obesity reaches beyond the individual family and into the public arenas of social systems and government policy and programs. Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity explores these with an approach that considers the current state of childhood obesity around the world as well as future projections, the most highly cited factors contributing to childhood obesity, what it means for the future both for children and society, and suggestions for steps to address and potentially prevent childhood obesity. This book will cover the multi-faceted factors contributing to the rapidly growing childhood obesity epidemic The underlying causes and current status of rapidly growing obesity epidemic in children in the global scenario will be discussed The strategies for childhood obesity prevention and treatment such as physical activity and exercise, personalized nutrition plans and school and community involvement will be presented

Energy Balance and Obesity

Energy Balance and Obesity
  • Author : Isabelle Romieu,Laure Dossus,William C. Willett
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-12
  • Total pages :119
  • ISBN : 9283225198
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Understanding the relationship between energy balance and obesity is essential to develop effective prevention programs and policies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer convened a Working Group of world-leading experts in December 2015 to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on low- and middle-income countries, and to consider the following scientific questions: (i) Are the drivers of the obesity epidemic related only to energy excess and/or do specific foods or nutrients play a major role in this epidemic? (ii) What are the factors that modulate these associations? (iii) Which types of data and/or studies will further improve our understanding? This book provides summaries of the evidence from the literature as well as the Working Group's conclusions and recommendations to tackle the global epidemic of obesity.

Obesity

Obesity
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :253
  • ISBN : 9789241208949
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This report issues a call for urgent action to combat the growing epidemic of obesity, which now affects developing and industrialized countries alike. Adopting a public health approach, the report responds to both the enormity of health problems associated with obesity and the notorious difficulty of treating this complex, multifactorial disease. With these problems in mind, the report aims to help policy-makers introduce strategies for prevention and management that have the greatest chance of success. The importance of prevention as the most sensible strategy in developing countries, where obesity coexists with undernutrition, is repeatedly emphasized. Recommended lines of action, which reflect the consensus reached by 25 leading authorities, are based on a critical review of current scientific knowledge about the causes of obesity in both individuals and populations. While all causes are considered, major attention is given to behavioural and societal changes that have increased the energy density of diets, overwhelmed sophisticated regulatory systems that control appetite and maintain energy balance, and reduced physical activity. Specific topics discussed range from the importance of fat content in the food supply as a cause of population-wide obesity, through misconceptions about obesity held by both the medical profession and the public, to strategies for dealing with the alarming prevalence of obesity in children. The report has eleven chapters presented in five parts. Part one, which assesses the magnitude of the problem, explains the system for classifying overweight and obesity based on the body mass index, considers the importance of fat distribution, and provides an overview of trends in all regions of the world, concluding that obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate. Chapters in part two evaluate the true costs of obesity in terms of physical and mental ill health, and the human and financial resources diverted to deal with these problems. Specific health consequences discussed include increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other noncommunicable diseases, endocrine and metabolic disturbances, debilitating health problems, and psychological problems. The health benefits and risks of weight loss are also assessed. Part three draws on the latest research findings to consider specific factors involved in the development of overweight and obesity. Discussion centres on factors, such as high intakes of fat, that may disrupt normal physiological regulation of appetite and energy balance, and the role of dietary factors and levels of physical activity. In terms of opportunities for prevention, particular attention is given to the multitude of environmental and societal forces that adversely affect food intake and physical activity and may thus overwhelm the physiological regulatory systems that keep weight stable in the long term. The possible role of genetic and biological susceptibility is also briefly considered. Against this background, the fourth and most extensive part maps out strategies for prevention and management at both the population and individual levels. Separate chapters address the need to develop population-based strategies that tackle the environmental and societal factors implicated in the development of obesity, and compare the effectiveness of current options for managing overweight or obese individuals. Specific strategies discussed include dietary management, physical activity and exercise programmes, behaviour modification, drug treatment, and gastric surgery. While noting striking recent progress in the development of drug treatments, the report concludes that gastric surgery continues to show the best long-term success in treating the severely obese. The final part sets out key conclusions and recommendations for responding to the global obesity epidemic and identifies priority areas where more research is urgently needed. "... the volume is clearly written, and carries a wealth of summary information that is likely to be invaluable for anyone interested in the public health aspects of obesity and fatness, be they students, practitioner or researcher." - Journal of Biosocial Science

Global Report on Diabetes

Global Report on Diabetes
  • Author : World Health Organization
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-31
  • Total pages :86
  • ISBN : 924156525X
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : "Diabetes is a serious, chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar, or glucose), or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Diabetes is an important public health problem, one of four priority noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) targeted for action by world leaders. Both the number of cases and the prevalence of diabetes have been steadily increasing over the past few decades. Globally, an estimated 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014, compared to 108 million in 1980. The global prevalence (age-standardized) of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980, rising from 4.7% to 8.5% in the adult population. This reflects an increase in associated risk factors such as being overweight or obese. Over the past decade, diabetes prevalence has risen faster in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Diabetes caused 1.5 million deaths in 2012. Higher-than-optimal blood glucose caused an additional 2.2 million deaths, by increasing the risks of cardiovascular and other diseases. Forty-three percent of these 3.7 million deaths occur before the age of 70 years. The percentage of deaths attributable to high blood glucose or diabetes that occurs prior to age 70 is higher in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Because sophisticated laboratory tests are usually required to distinguish between type 1 diabetes (which requires insulin injections for survival) and type 2 diabetes (where the body cannot properly use the insulin it produces), separate global estimates of diabetes prevalence for type 1 and type 2 do not exist. The majority of people with diabetes are affected by type 2 diabetes. This used to occur nearly entirely among adults, but now occurs in children too."--Page 6.

Global Health Care

Global Health Care
  • Author : Carol Holtz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-05-30
  • Total pages :614
  • ISBN : 9780763799649
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This revised edition equips students with up-to-date information on a variety of global health topics and perspectives. It prepares readers with a basic perspective of health policy issues in various geographical regions, and explains how they are affected by significant world events. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.

Obesity Epidemiology

Obesity Epidemiology
  • Author : Frank Hu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-03-21
  • Total pages :512
  • ISBN : 0199718474
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : During the past twenty years there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in the United States. An estimated thirty percent of adults in the US are obese; in 1980, only fifteen percent were. The issue is gaining greater attention with the CDC and with the public health world in general. This book will offer practical information about the methodology of epidemiologic studies of obesity, suitable for graduate students and researchers in epidemiology, and public health practitioners with an interest in the issue. The book will be structured in four main sections, with the majority of chapters authored by Dr. Hu, and some authored by specialists in specific areas. The first section will consider issues surrounding the definition of obesity, measurement techniques, and the designs of epidemiologic studies. The second section will address the consequences of obesity, looking at epidemiologic studies that focus on cardio-vascular disease, diabetes, and cancer The third section will look at determinants obesity, reviewing a wide range of risk factors for obesity including diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, sleep disorders, psychosocial factors, physical environment, biochemical and genetic predictors, and intrauterine exposures. In the final section, the author will discuss the analytical issues and challenges for epidemiologic studies of obesity.