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Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops
  • Author : Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,Aditya Abha Singh,Ajay Kumar,Kshitij K. Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-11-20
  • Total pages :578
  • ISBN : 9780128209455
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Summary : Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: A Global Perspective contains both theoretical and empirical evidence of a broad range of aspects of GM crop policies throughout the world. Emphasizing world agriculture production and ethics of GM crops, the book balances insights into the various discussions around the use of GM crops, including soil health, effects on animals, environmental sustainability impact and ethical issues. This book will be useful for researchers in agricultural policy and economics, agricultural biotechnology, soil science, genetic engineering, ethics, environmental management, sustainable development and NGOs. Discusses ethics, varieties, research trends, and success stories of genetic modification Includes both crop production and human health impacts Compares and contrasts GM policies from around the world

GM Crop Policies and Challenges

GM Crop Policies and Challenges
  • Author : Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,Rishikesh Singh,Ajay Kumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2022-01-17
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 0323851452
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Summary : Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: Global Policies and Practices contains both theoretical and empirical evidence of a broad range of aspects of GM crop policies throughout the world. Emphasizing world agriculture production and ethics of GM crops, the book balances insights into the various discussions around the use of GM crops including soil health, effects on animals, environmental sustainability impact, and ethical issues. Modern agriculture is directly and explicitly characterized by the adoption of new technologies, their developmental processes and emerging scientific approaches. The recent trends of agriculture are not limited to capital-intensive agricultural production. GM is increasingly regarded as an option in transforming traditional agriculture practices to modern and more efficient means of feeding the world. This book will be useful for researchers in agricultural policy and economics, agricultural biotechnology, soil science, genetic engineering, ethics, environmental management, sustainable development and NGOs. Discusses ethics, varieties, research trends, and success stories of genetic modification Includes both crop production and human health impacts Compares and contrasts GM policies from around the world

Genetically Engineered Crops

Genetically Engineered Crops
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops: Past Experience and Future Prospects
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-28
  • Total pages :606
  • ISBN : 9780309437387
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Summary : Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related to the genetic engineering techniques of the first 20 years goes on, emerging genetic-engineering technologies are adding new complexities to the conversation. Genetically Engineered Crops builds on previous related Academies reports published between 1987 and 2010 by undertaking a retrospective examination of the purported positive and adverse effects of GE crops and to anticipate what emerging genetic-engineering technologies hold for the future. This report indicates where there are uncertainties about the economic, agronomic, health, safety, or other impacts of GE crops and food, and makes recommendations to fill gaps in safety assessments, increase regulatory clarity, and improve innovations in and access to GE technology.

The Politics of Precaution

The Politics of Precaution
  • Author : Robert L. Paarlberg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-09-17
  • Total pages :200
  • ISBN : 9780801868238
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Summary : Genetically modified (GM) food crops have inspired increasing controversy over the past decade. By the mid-1990s they were widely grown in the U.S., Canada, and Argentina, but precautionary regulations continue to limit their use elsewhere. The restrictive policies of Europe and Japan toward GM crops have been much discussed. Less attention has been paid to the policies affecting the adoption of GM crops in the developing world, where their potential impact on the availability and quality of food is even greater. In this book Robert Paarlberg looks at the policy choices regarding GM food made by four important developing countries: Kenya, Brazil, India, and China. Of these, so far only China has approved the planting of GM crops. Paarlberg identifies five policy areas in which governments of developing countries can either support or discourage GM crops: intellectual property rights, biosafety, trade, food safety, and public research and investment. He notes that highly cautious biosafety policies have so far been the key reason that Kenya, Brazil, and India have hesitated to plant GM crops. These cautious policies have been strongly reinforced by international market forces and international diplomatic and NGO pressures. China has been less cautious toward GM crops, in part because there is less opportunity in China for international organizations or independent critics of GM crops to challenge official policy.

The Future of Genetically Modified Crops

The Future of Genetically Modified Crops
  • Author : Felicia Wu,William Butz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-08-13
  • Total pages :114
  • ISBN : 9780833040510
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Summary : The world is now on the cusp of a new agricultural revolution, the so-called Gene Revolution, in which genetically modified (GM) crops are tailored to address chronic agricultural problems in certain regions of the world. This monograph report investigates the circumstances and processes that can induce and sustain this new agricultural revolution. The authors compare the Green Revolution of the 20th century with the GM crop movement to assess the agricultural, technological, sociological, and political differences between the two movements.

Food Security and Food Production

Food Security and Food Production
  • Author : C. Sheela Reddy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015
  • Total pages :235
  • ISBN : 9781443881579
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Summary : "The food security of a nation is largely dependent on its ecological foundation. In India, competition for water, land, human, and financial resources, and the suitability of the existing institutional system in ensuring food security require the attention of both policy makers and planners. Food crops have to compete for water and various other needs with commercial crops. Water, the core requirement for food production, is becoming increasingly scarce in many parts of India. Land is also crucial in food production, especially with regards to soil fertility. However, lands traditionally used for growing crops are increasingly used instead for various other purposes. The balancing of the expectations of farmers in the markets, for want of better prices, with the national objective of food security is imperative in this climate. This necessitates public investment in agriculture, including seed supply, soil health initiatives, and pest control. The institutional challenges in ensuring food security in India are currently under-explored, with more discussion on entitlements and rights, in relation to food security, but less attention on the public institutions that are likely to play a critical role. Public institutions, through the use of policies, schemes and programmes, need to address the issues which impinge on the ecological foundation of food security, while the governance architecture related to this has to integrate the public distribution system properly. This book addresses these challenges and offers insights into what changes need to be made to ensure food security in India."--

Unfinished Puzzle

Unfinished Puzzle
  • Author : May Ling Chan,Eduardo Francisco Freyre Roach
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-01-01
  • Total pages :144
  • ISBN : 9780935028409
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Summary : Cuba is widely recognized for its social achievements including health care, education, social security, subsidized food and other benefits and opportunities, despite well-meaning, or sometimes not so well-meaning, international criticisms. For more than 50 years, this Caribbean island has defended and sustained these economic, political, social and cultural gains, and has maintained a commitment to humanitarianism and international solidarity that persists to this day. Part one of Unfinished Puzzle describes the socioeconomic context of Cuban agriculture, the natural environment that affect it and the international political context in which it has developed. Part two explores the unique agricultural policies Cubans implemented to confront the food and economic crises of the early 1990s. Finally, part three examines the lessons to be learned from the Cuban experience with respect to local development, sustainable agriculture, agroecology, food security and food sovereignty. It highlights the elements of the Cuban system most suitable for replication in other countries facing similar circumstances or challenges.

The Gene Revolution

The Gene Revolution
  • Author : Sakiko Fukuda-Parr
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-27
  • Total pages :280
  • ISBN : 9781136553844
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Summary : Whether or not to embrace GM technologies is a fundamental and politically charged question facing humanity in the 21st century, particularly in light of rapidly growing populations and the unknown future impacts of climate change. The Gene Revolution is the first book to bridge the gap between the naysayers and cheerleaders and look at the issues and complexities facing developing and transitional countries over decisions about GM in light of the reality of what is happening on the ground. The first part of the volume looks at the rise of GM crops, commercialization and spread of the technology and the different positions of the USA and the European Union on the GM question and the effect of global markets. The second part consists of country perspectives from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and South Africa, which provide insight into the profound challenges these countries face and the hard choices that have to be made. The final part takes the analysis a step further by comparing developing and transitional country experiences, and charts a future course for government policy on GM that supports growth, sustainability and equity for the many billions of people affected worldwide.

Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States

Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States
  • Author : Jorge Fernandez-Cornejo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :54
  • ISBN : OCLC:875918593
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Summary :

Environment and Planning

Environment and Planning
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCSC:32106018625985
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Summary : Publishes interdisciplinary research on issues of Government and Policy with an international perspective. Committed to a broad range of policy questions, not just those related to government and public policy. Topics covered include nonstate agents, private-public collaboration, and NGOs (nongovernmental organisations). All areas of economic, social and environmental institutions, and policy are included. Disciplines from which papers are derived include political science, planning, geography, economics, law, sociology, and public administration.

The Coexistence of Genetically Modified, Organic and Conventional Foods

The Coexistence of Genetically Modified, Organic and Conventional Foods
  • Author : Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes,Peter W.B. Phillips,Justus Wesseler,Stuart J. Smyth
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-18
  • Total pages :426
  • ISBN : 9781493937271
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Summary : Since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been adopted by farmers around the world at impressive rates. In 2011, 180 million hectares of GM crops were cultivated by more than 15 million farmers in 29 countries. In the next decade, global adoption is expected to grow even faster as the research pipeline for new biotech traits and crops has increased almost fourfold in the last few years. The adoption of GM crops has led to increased productivity, while reducing pesticide use and the emissions of agricultural greenhouse gases, leading to broadly distributed economic benefits across the global food supply chain. Despite the rapid uptake of GM crops, the various social and economic benefits as well as the expanding rate innovation, the use of GM crops remains controversial in parts of the world. Despite the emergence of coexistence between GM, organic and conventional crops as a key policy and practical issue of global scale, there is no coherent literature that addresses it directly. Governments and market stakeholders in many countries are grappling with policy alternatives that settle conflicting property rights, minimize negative market externalities and associated liabilities, maximize the economic benefits of innovation and allow producer and consumer choice. This book intends to fill these needs with contributions from the top theoreticians, legal and economic analysts, policy makers and industry practitioners in the field. As the economics and policy of coexistence start to emerge as an separate subfield in agricultural, environmental and natural resource economics with an increasing number of scholars working on the topic, the book will also provide a comprehensive base in the literature for those entering the area, making it of interest to students, scholars and policy-makers alike.

GMO China

GMO China
  • Author : Cong Cao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 0231171676
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Summary : Cong Cao presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of how China's policy toward research and commercialization of genetically modified crops has evolved that explains how China's changing GMO stances reflect its shifting position on the world stage.

Rethinking Food and Agriculture

Rethinking Food and Agriculture
  • Author : Amir Kassam,Laila Kassam
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-30
  • Total pages :476
  • ISBN : 9780128164112
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Summary : Given the central role of the food and agriculture system in driving so many of the connected ecological, social and economic threats and challenges we currently face, Rethinking Food and Agriculture reviews, reassesses and reimagines the current food and agriculture system and the narrow paradigm in which it operates. Rethinking Food and Agriculture explores and uncovers some of the key historical, ethical, economic, social, cultural, political, and structural drivers and root causes of unsustainability, degradation of the agricultural environment, destruction of nature, short-comings in science and knowledge systems, inequality, hunger and food insecurity, and disharmony. It reviews efforts towards ‘sustainable development’, and reassesses whether these efforts have been implemented with adequate responsibility, acceptable societal and environmental costs and optimal engagement to secure sustainability, equity and justice. The book highlights the many ways that farmers and their communities, civil society groups, social movements, development experts, scientists and others have been raising awareness of these issues, implementing solutions and forging ‘new ways forward’, for example towards paradigms of agriculture, natural resource management and human nutrition which are more sustainable and just. Rethinking Food and Agriculture proposes ways to move beyond the current limited view of agro-ecological sustainability towards overall sustainability of the food and agriculture system based on the principle of ‘inclusive responsibility’. Inclusive responsibility encourages ecosystem sustainability based on agro-ecological and planetary limits to sustainable resource use for production and livelihoods. Inclusive responsibility also places importance on quality of life, pluralism, equity and justice for all and emphasises the health, well-being, sovereignty, dignity and rights of producers, consumers and other stakeholders, as well as of nonhuman animals and the natural world. Explores some of the key drivers and root causes of unsustainability , degradation of the agricultural environment and destruction of nature Highlights the many ways that different stakeholders have been forging 'new ways forward' towards alternative paradigms of agriculture, human nutrition and political economy, which are more sustainable and just Proposes ways to move beyong the current unsustainable exploitation of natural resources towards agroecological sustainability and overall sustainability of the food and agriculture system based on 'inclusive responsibility'

Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants

Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Environmental Impacts Associated with Commercialization of Transgenic Plants
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-02-22
  • Total pages :342
  • ISBN : 0309170176
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Summary : Transgenic crops offer the promise of increased agricultural productivity and better quality foods. But they also raise the specter of harmful environmental effects. In this new book, a panel of experts examines: • Similarities and differences between crops developed by conventional and transgenic methods • Potential for commercialized transgenic crops to change both agricultural and nonagricultural landscapes • How well the U.S. government is regulating transgenic crops to avoid any negative effects. Environmental Effects of Transgenic Plants provides a wealth of information about transgenic processes, previous experience with the introduction of novel crops, principles of risk assessment and management, the science behind current regulatory schemes, issues in monitoring transgenic products already on the market, and more. The book discusses public involvementâ€"and public confidenceâ€"in biotechnology regulation. And it looks to the future, exploring the potential of genetic engineering and the prospects for environmental effects.

Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically Modified Crops
  • Author : P. B. Kavi Kishor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9789811559327
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Summary :

Africa's Gene Revolution

Africa's Gene Revolution
  • Author : Matthew A. Schnurr
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-07
  • Total pages :326
  • ISBN : 9780228000440
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Summary : As development donors invest hundreds of millions of dollars into improved crops designed to alleviate poverty and hunger, Africa has emerged as the final frontier in the global debate over agricultural biotechnology. The first data-driven assessment of the ecological, social, and political factors that shape our understanding of genetic modification, Africa's Gene Revolution surveys twenty years of efforts to use genomics-based breeding to enhance yields and livelihoods for African farmers. Matthew Schnurr considers the full range of biotechnologies currently in commercial use and those in development – including hybrids, marker-assisted breeding, tissue culture, and genetic engineering. Drawing on interviews with biotechnology experts alongside research conducted with more than two hundred farmers across eastern, western, and southern Africa, Schnurr reveals a profound incongruity between the optimistic rhetoric that accompanies genetic modification technology and the realities of the smallholder farmers who are its intended beneficiaries. Through the lens of political ecology, this book demonstrates that the current emphasis on improved seeds discounts the geographic, social, ecological, and economic contexts in which the producers of these crops operate. Bringing the voices of farmers to the foreground of this polarizing debate, Africa's Gene Revolution contends that meaningful change will come from a reconfiguration not only of the plant's genome, but of the entire agricultural system.

Genetically modified crops in Africa

Genetically modified crops in Africa
  • Author : Falck-Zepeda, José Benjamin,Gruère, Guillaume P.,Sithole-Niang, Idah
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-02
  • Total pages :244
  • ISBN : 9780896297951
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Summary : A variable climate, political instability, and other constraints have limited agricultural development in African countries south of the Sahara. Genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool for enhancing agricultural productivity and food security despite such constraints. Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Economic and Policy Lessons from Countries South of the Sahara investigates how this tool might be effectively used by evaluating the benefits, costs, and risks for African countries of adopting GM crops. The authors gather together studies on GM crops’ economic effects and impact on trade, how consumers view such crops, and other issues. They find that GM crops have had, on average, a positive economic effect in the nations where they were used and identify future steps for enhancing GM crop adoption’s positive effects. Promising policy initiatives include making biosafety regulations that do not make GM crop development prohibitively expensive, fostering intraregional trade in GM crops, and providing more and better information about GM crops to consumers who might currently be skeptical of them. These and other findings in Genetically Modified Crops in Africa indicate ways biotechnology can contribute to economic development in Africa south of the Sahara.

International Trade and Policies for Genetically Modified Products

International Trade and Policies for Genetically Modified Products
  • Author : Robert Eugene Evenson,V. Santaniello
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 9780851990569
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Summary : Part 1: Analytical Studies: 1.Biotechnology risks and project interdependence, Odin K. Knudsen and Pasquale L. Scandizzo. 2. Restricted monopoly R & D pricing: uncertainty, irreversibility and non-market effect, Robert D. Weaver and Justus Wesseler. 3. Biotechnology and the emergence of club behavior in agricultural trade, Monika Tothova and James F. Oehmke. 4. The labelling of genetically modified products in a global trading environment, Stefania Scandizzo. Part 2: Empirical trade studies: 5. Tree biotechnology: regulation and international trade, Roger A. Sedjo. 6. Commercialized products of biotechnology and trade pattern effects, Stuart Smyth, William A. Kerr and Kelley A. Davey. Part 3: Spillover dimensions: 7. The coexistence of GM and non-GM arable crops in the EU: economic and market considerations, Graham Brookes. 8. Research spillovers in biotech industry: The case of canola, Richard S. Gray, Stavroula Malla and Kien Tran. 9. Mergers, acquisitions and flows of agbiotech intellectual property, David Schimmelpfennig and John King. 10. The Impact of regulation on the development of new products in the food industry, Klaus Menrad and Knut Blind. Part 4: Intellectual property rights. 11. Patents versus plant varietal protection, Derek Eaton and Frank van Tongerun. 12. Governing innovative science: challenges facing the commercialization of plant-made pharmaceuticals, Stuart Smyth, George Khachatourians and Peter W.B. Phillips. 13. Are GURTs needed to remedy intellectual property failures and environmental Problems with GM Crops?, Geoff Budd. Part 5: Applied general equilibrium trade models 14. Economic effects of producing or banning G.M. crops, Janine Flatau and P. Michael Schmitz. 15. Opposition to genetically modified wheat and global food security, Faycal Haggui, Peter W.B. Phillips and Richard S. Gray. 16. International impacts of Bt cotton adoption, George B. Frisvold, Russell Trosvold, Russell Tronstad and Jeanne M. Reeves.

GMOs Decoded

GMOs Decoded
  • Author : Sheldon Krimsky
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-12
  • Total pages :216
  • ISBN : 9780262350754
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Summary : The debate over genetically modified organisms: health and safety concerns, environmental impact, and scientific opinions. Since they were introduced to the market in the late 1990s, GMOs (genetically modified organisms, including genetically modified crops), have been subject to a barrage of criticism. Agriculture has welcomed this new technology, but public opposition has been loud and scientific opinion mixed. In GMOs Decoded, Sheldon Krimsky examines the controversies over GMOs—health and safety concerns, environmental issues, the implications for world hunger, and the scientific consensus (or lack of one). He explores the viewpoints of a range of GMO skeptics, from public advocacy groups and nongovernmental organizations to scientists with differing views on risk and environmental impact. Krimsky explains the differences between traditional plant breeding and “molecular breeding” through genetic engineering (GE); describes early GMO products, including the infamous Flavr Savr tomato; and discusses herbicide-, disease-, and insect-resistant GE plants. He considers the different American and European approaches to risk assessment, dueling scientific interpretations of plant genetics, and the controversy over labeling GMO products. He analyzes a key 2016 report from the National Academies of Sciences on GMO health effects and considers the controversy over biofortified rice (Golden Rice)—which some saw as a humanitarian project and others as an exercise in public relations. Do GMO crops hold promise or peril? By offering an accessible review of the risks and benefits of GMO crops, and a guide to the controversies over them, Krimsky helps readers judge for themselves.

Genetically Modified Organisms in Developing Countries

Genetically Modified Organisms in Developing Countries
  • Author : Ademola A. Adenle,E. Jane Morris,Denis J. Murphy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-30
  • Total pages :308
  • ISBN : 9781107151918
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Summary : Bringing together the ideas of experts from around the world, this incisive text offers cutting-edge perspectives on the risk analysis and governance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), supporting effective and informed decision-making in developing countries. Comprised of four comprehensive sections, this book covers: integrated risk analysis and decision making, giving an overview of the science involved and examining risk analysis methods that impact decision-making on the release of GMOs, particularly in developing countries; diversification of expertise involved in risk analysis and practical ways in which the lack of expertise in developing countries can be overcome; risk analysis based regulatory systems and how they can be undermined by power relationships and socio-political interests, as well as strategies for improving GMO policy development and regulatory decision-making; and case studies from developing countries providing lessons based on real-world experience that can inform our current thinking.

Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically Modified Crops
  • Author : P. B. Kavi Kishor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9789811558979
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Summary :