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Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops
  • Author : Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,Aditya Abha Singh,Ajay Kumar,Kshitij K. Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-11-20
  • Total pages :578
  • ISBN : 9780128209455
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Summary : Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: A Global Perspective contains both theoretical and empirical evidence of a broad range of aspects of GM crop policies throughout the world. Emphasizing world agriculture production and ethics of GM crops, the book balances insights into the various discussions around the use of GM crops, including soil health, effects on animals, environmental sustainability impact and ethical issues. This book will be useful for researchers in agricultural policy and economics, agricultural biotechnology, soil science, genetic engineering, ethics, environmental management, sustainable development and NGOs. Discusses ethics, varieties, research trends, and success stories of genetic modification Includes both crop production and human health impacts Compares and contrasts GM policies from around the world

Genetically Engineered Crops

Genetically Engineered Crops
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops: Past Experience and Future Prospects
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-28
  • Total pages :606
  • ISBN : 9780309437387
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Summary : Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related to the genetic engineering techniques of the first 20 years goes on, emerging genetic-engineering technologies are adding new complexities to the conversation. Genetically Engineered Crops builds on previous related Academies reports published between 1987 and 2010 by undertaking a retrospective examination of the purported positive and adverse effects of GE crops and to anticipate what emerging genetic-engineering technologies hold for the future. This report indicates where there are uncertainties about the economic, agronomic, health, safety, or other impacts of GE crops and food, and makes recommendations to fill gaps in safety assessments, increase regulatory clarity, and improve innovations in and access to GE technology.

Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology

Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Steering Committee on Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology: Mapping the Course
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-06-30
  • Total pages :74
  • ISBN : 0309178525
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Summary : Many developing countries are exploring whether biotechnology has a role in addressing national issues such as food security and environmental remediation, and are considering whether the putative benefits of the technology-for example, enabling greater agricultural productivity and stability in the food supply-outweigh concerns that the technology might pose a danger-to biodiversity, health, and local jobs. Some policy leaders worry that their governments are not prepared to take control of this evolving technology and that introducing it into society would be a risky act. Others have suggested that taking no action carries more risk, given the dire need to produce more food. This book reports on an international workshop held to address these issues. Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology: Mapping the Course, organized by the National Research Council on October 24-25, 2004, in Washington, DC, focused on the potential applications of biotechnology and what developing countries might consider as they contemplate adopting biotechnology. Presenters at the workshop described applications of biotechnology that are already proving their utility in both developing and developed countries.

The Gene Revolution

The Gene Revolution
  • Author : Sakiko Fukuda-Parr
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-27
  • Total pages :280
  • ISBN : 9781136553844
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Summary : Whether or not to embrace GM technologies is a fundamental and politically charged question facing humanity in the 21st century, particularly in light of rapidly growing populations and the unknown future impacts of climate change. The Gene Revolution is the first book to bridge the gap between the naysayers and cheerleaders and look at the issues and complexities facing developing and transitional countries over decisions about GM in light of the reality of what is happening on the ground. The first part of the volume looks at the rise of GM crops, commercialization and spread of the technology and the different positions of the USA and the European Union on the GM question and the effect of global markets. The second part consists of country perspectives from Argentina, Brazil, China, India and South Africa, which provide insight into the profound challenges these countries face and the hard choices that have to be made. The final part takes the analysis a step further by comparing developing and transitional country experiences, and charts a future course for government policy on GM that supports growth, sustainability and equity for the many billions of people affected worldwide.

GMO China

GMO China
  • Author : Cong Cao
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-02
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9780231541091
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Summary : In China, as elsewhere, the debate over genetically modified organisms has become polarized into anti- and pro-GMO camps. Given the size of China’s population and market, much is at stake in conflicts over regulation for domestic as well as international actors. In this book, Cong Cao provides an even-handed analysis that illuminates the tensions that have shaped China’s policy toward agricultural biotechnology in a global perspective. Cao presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of how China’s policy toward research and commercialization of genetically modified crops has shifted that explains how China’s changing GMO stances reflect its evolving position on the world stage. While China’s scientific community has set the agenda, it has encountered resistance rooted in concerns over food safety and consumers’ rights as well as issues of intellectual property rights and food sovereignty. Although Chinese leaders at first sought to take advantage of the biotech revolution by promoting GMO crop consumption, Cao demonstrates that policy has since become precautionary, as seen in new laws and regulations grounded in concerns over safety and the deferral of commercialization of GM rice. He presents China’s policies in light of changing global attitudes toward GM crops: As shifts in China have closely followed global trends, so has domestic activism. Drawing on government and scientific documents as well as interviews with scientists, officials, policy analysts, activists, and journalists, GMO China is an important book for China studies, science and technology studies, policy analysts, and professionals interested in the Chinese biotechnology market.

The Future of Genetically Modified Crops

The Future of Genetically Modified Crops
  • Author : Felicia Wu,William Butz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-08-13
  • Total pages :114
  • ISBN : 9780833040510
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Summary : The world is now on the cusp of a new agricultural revolution, the so-called Gene Revolution, in which genetically modified (GM) crops are tailored to address chronic agricultural problems in certain regions of the world. This monograph report investigates the circumstances and processes that can induce and sustain this new agricultural revolution. The authors compare the Green Revolution of the 20th century with the GM crop movement to assess the agricultural, technological, sociological, and political differences between the two movements.

Environment and Planning

Environment and Planning
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCSC:32106018625985
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Summary : Publishes interdisciplinary research on issues of Government and Policy with an international perspective. Committed to a broad range of policy questions, not just those related to government and public policy. Topics covered include nonstate agents, private-public collaboration, and NGOs (nongovernmental organisations). All areas of economic, social and environmental institutions, and policy are included. Disciplines from which papers are derived include political science, planning, geography, economics, law, sociology, and public administration.

Governing the GM Crop Revolution

Governing the GM Crop Revolution
  • Author : Peter Gruhn,Robert L. Paarlberg,Francesco Goletti,Montague Yudelman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :36
  • ISBN : 9780896296381
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Summary :

Africa's Gene Revolution

Africa's Gene Revolution
  • Author : Matthew A. Schnurr
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-07
  • Total pages :326
  • ISBN : 9780228000440
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Summary : As development donors invest hundreds of millions of dollars into improved crops designed to alleviate poverty and hunger, Africa has emerged as the final frontier in the global debate over agricultural biotechnology. The first data-driven assessment of the ecological, social, and political factors that shape our understanding of genetic modification, Africa's Gene Revolution surveys twenty years of efforts to use genomics-based breeding to enhance yields and livelihoods for African farmers. Matthew Schnurr considers the full range of biotechnologies currently in commercial use and those in development – including hybrids, marker-assisted breeding, tissue culture, and genetic engineering. Drawing on interviews with biotechnology experts alongside research conducted with more than two hundred farmers across eastern, western, and southern Africa, Schnurr reveals a profound incongruity between the optimistic rhetoric that accompanies genetic modification technology and the realities of the smallholder farmers who are its intended beneficiaries. Through the lens of political ecology, this book demonstrates that the current emphasis on improved seeds discounts the geographic, social, ecological, and economic contexts in which the producers of these crops operate. Bringing the voices of farmers to the foreground of this polarizing debate, Africa's Gene Revolution contends that meaningful change will come from a reconfiguration not only of the plant's genome, but of the entire agricultural system.

The Politics of Precaution

The Politics of Precaution
  • Author : Robert L. Paarlberg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-09-17
  • Total pages :200
  • ISBN : 9780801868238
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Summary : Genetically modified (GM) food crops have inspired increasing controversy over the past decade. By the mid-1990s they were widely grown in the U.S., Canada, and Argentina, but precautionary regulations continue to limit their use elsewhere. The restrictive policies of Europe and Japan toward GM crops have been much discussed. Less attention has been paid to the policies affecting the adoption of GM crops in the developing world, where their potential impact on the availability and quality of food is even greater. In this book Robert Paarlberg looks at the policy choices regarding GM food made by four important developing countries: Kenya, Brazil, India, and China. Of these, so far only China has approved the planting of GM crops. Paarlberg identifies five policy areas in which governments of developing countries can either support or discourage GM crops: intellectual property rights, biosafety, trade, food safety, and public research and investment. He notes that highly cautious biosafety policies have so far been the key reason that Kenya, Brazil, and India have hesitated to plant GM crops. These cautious policies have been strongly reinforced by international market forces and international diplomatic and NGO pressures. China has been less cautious toward GM crops, in part because there is less opportunity in China for international organizations or independent critics of GM crops to challenge official policy.

Science & Public Policy

Science & Public Policy
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : CHI:81501000
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Summary :

Transgenic Horticultural Crops

Transgenic Horticultural Crops
  • Author : Beiquan Mou,Ralph Scorza
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-06-15
  • Total pages :364
  • ISBN : 9781420093797
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Summary : As the world debates the risks and benefits of plant biotechnology, the proportion of the global area of transgenic field crops has increased every year, and the safety and value continues to be demonstrated. Yet, despite the success of transgenic field crops, the commercialization of transgenic horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, nuts, and or

Food, Farms, and Solidarity

Food, Farms, and Solidarity
  • Author : Chaia Heller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-01-28
  • Total pages :333
  • ISBN : 9780822351276
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Summary : Chaia Heller follows one of France's largest farmers' unions as it joins with peasants internationally to contest the hegemony of genetically modified foods, free trade, and industrial agriculture.

Policy, Uncertainty, and the Ecologist

Policy, Uncertainty, and the Ecologist
  • Author : Joy Anna Hagen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :368
  • ISBN : UCAL:X78177
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Summary :

The Technology Teacher

The Technology Teacher
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015081731302
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Summary :

Genetically modified crops in Africa

Genetically modified crops in Africa
  • Author : Falck-Zepeda, José Benjamin,Gruère, Guillaume P.,Sithole-Niang, Idah
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-02
  • Total pages :244
  • ISBN : 9780896297951
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Summary : A variable climate, political instability, and other constraints have limited agricultural development in African countries south of the Sahara. Genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool for enhancing agricultural productivity and food security despite such constraints. Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Economic and Policy Lessons from Countries South of the Sahara investigates how this tool might be effectively used by evaluating the benefits, costs, and risks for African countries of adopting GM crops. The authors gather together studies on GM crops’ economic effects and impact on trade, how consumers view such crops, and other issues. They find that GM crops have had, on average, a positive economic effect in the nations where they were used and identify future steps for enhancing GM crop adoption’s positive effects. Promising policy initiatives include making biosafety regulations that do not make GM crop development prohibitively expensive, fostering intraregional trade in GM crops, and providing more and better information about GM crops to consumers who might currently be skeptical of them. These and other findings in Genetically Modified Crops in Africa indicate ways biotechnology can contribute to economic development in Africa south of the Sahara.

Biotechnology Regulation and Trade

Biotechnology Regulation and Trade
  • Author : Stuart J. Smyth,William A. Kerr,Peter W. B Phillips
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-02
  • Total pages :275
  • ISBN : 9783319532950
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Summary : This book discusses the regulatory and trade challenges facing the global adoption of biotechnological products and offers strategies for overcoming these obstacles and moving towards greater global food security. The first section of the book establishes the context of the conflict, discussing the challenges of global governance, international trade, and the history of regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops. In this section, the authors emphasize the shift from exclusively science-based regulation to the more socio-economically focused framework established by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which was adopted in 2000. The second section of the book provides a snapshot of the current state of international GM crop adoption and regulation, highlighting the US, Canada, and the EU. The final section of the book identifies options for breaking the gridlock of regulation and trade that presently exist. This book adds to the current literature by providing new information about innovative agricultural technologies and encouraging debate by providing an alternative to the narratives espoused by environmental non-governmental organizations. This book will appeal to students of economics, political science, and policy analysis, as well as members of regulatory agencies and agricultural industry firms.

Biotechnology and Agricultural Development

Biotechnology and Agricultural Development
  • Author : Rob Tripp
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-06-02
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9781135998776
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Summary : This book addresses the continuing controversy over the potential impact of genetically modified (GM) crops in developing countries. Supporters of the technology claim it offers one of the best hopes for increasing agricultural production and reducing rural poverty, while opponents see it as an untested intervention that will bring corporate control of peasant farming. The book examines the issues by reviewing the experience of GM, insect-resistant cotton, the most widely grown GM crop in developing countries. The book begins with an introduction to agricultural biotechnology, a brief examination of the history of cotton production technology (and the institutions required to support that technology), and a thorough review of the literature on the agronomic performance of GM cotton. It then provides a review of the economic and institutional outcomes of GM cotton during the first decade of its use. The core of the book is four country case studies based on original fieldwork in the principal developing countries growing GM cotton (China, India, South Africa and Colombia). The book concludes with a summary of the experience to date and implications for the future of GM crops in developing countries. This review challenges those who have predicted technological failure by describing instances in which GM cotton has proven useful and has been enthusiastically taken up by smallholders. But it also challenges those who claim that biotechnology can take the lead in agricultural development by examining the precarious institutional basis on which these hopes rest in most countries. The analysis shows how biotechnology’s potential contribution to agricultural development must be seen as a part of (and often secondary to) more fundamental policy change. The book should be of interest to a wide audience concerned with agricultural development. This would include academics in the social and agricultural sciences, donor agencies and NGOs.

Global Governance of Food Production and Consumption

Global Governance of Food Production and Consumption
  • Author : Peter Oosterveer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :294
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105124025151
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Summary : The analysis includes case-studies on the European BSE crisis, GM-food regulation, salmon and shrimp farming and food labelling.

Genetically Modified Plants

Genetically Modified Plants
  • Author : Roger Hull,G. T. Tzotzos,Graham Head
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-07-07
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 0080920764
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Summary : A transgenic organism is a plant, animal, bacterium, or other living organism that has had a foreign gene added to it by means of genetic engineering. Transgenic plants can arise by natural movement of genes between species, by cross-pollination based hybridization between different plant species (which is a common event in flowering plant evolution), or by laboratory manipulations by artificial insertion of genes from another species. Methods used in traditional breeding that generate transgenic plants by non-recombinant methods are widely familiar to professional plant scientists, and serve important roles in securing a sustainable future for agriculture by protecting crops from pest and helping land and water to be used more efficiently. There is worldwide interest in the biosafety issues related to transgenic crops because of issues such as increased pesticide use, increased crop and weed resistance to pesticides, gene flow to related plant species, negative effects on nontarget organisms, and reduced crop and ecosystem diversity. This book is intended to provide the basic information for a wide range of people involved in the release of transgenic crops. These will include scientists and researchers in the initial stage of developing transgenic products, industrialists, and decision makers. It will be of particular interest to plant scientists taking up biotechnological approaches to agricultural improvement for developing nations. * Discusses traditional and future technology for genetic modification * Compares conventional non-GM approaches and genetic modification * Presents a risk assessment methodology for GM techniques * Details mitigation techniques for human and environmental effects

Abatement of Environmental Pollutants

Abatement of Environmental Pollutants
  • Author : Pardeep Singh,Ajay Kumar,Anwesha Borthakur
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-27
  • Total pages :378
  • ISBN : 9780128180969
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Summary : Abatement of Environmental Pollutants: Trends and Strategies addresses new technologies and provides strategies for environmental scientists, microbiologists and biotechnologists to help solve problems associated with the treatment of industrial wastewater. The book helps readers solve pollution challenges using microorganisms in bioremediation technologies, including discussions on global technologies that have been adopted for the treatment of industrial wastewater and sections on the lack of proper management. Moreover, limited space, more stringent waste disposal regulations and public consciousness have made the present techniques expensive and impractical. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop sustainable management technologies for industries and municipalities. To remove the damaging effect of organic pollutants on the environment, various new technologies for their degradation have been recently discovered. Covers bioremediation of petrochemical pollutants, such as Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethyl Benzene, and phenolic compound Includes discussions on genetic engineering microbes and their potential in pollution abatement Contains information on plant growth promoting bacteria and their role in environment management