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Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
  • Author : Michael Gasik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-04
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9780080977669
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Summary : This handbook gathers, reviews and concisely presents the core principles and varied technology involved in processing ferroalloys. Background content in thermodynamics, kinetics, heat and mass transfer is accompanied by an overview of electrical furnaces theory and practice as well as sustainability issues. The work includes detailed coverage of the major technologies of ferrosilicon, ferronickel, ferromolybdenum, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, ferromanganese and lesser known minor ferroalloys. Distilling the results of many years' experience in ferroalloys, Michael Gasik has assembled contributions from the worlds' foremost experts. The work is therefore a unique source for scientists, engineers and university students, exploring in depth an area which is one of the most versatile and increasingly used fields within modern metallurgy. All-in-one source for the major ferroalloys and their metallurgical processing technologies, cutting research time otherwise spent digging through old handbooks or review articles. In-depth discussion of the C, Si, Al-reduction, groups II-VIII of the periodic table, supporting analysis of metallurgical processing. Contemporary coverage includes environment and energy saving issues.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
  • Author : Lauri Holappa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-04
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9780128054956
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Summary : The word ferroalloy refers to an alloy of iron containing a significant proportion of one or more other elements like silicon, manganese, chromium, aluminum, or titanium. The main applications of ferroalloys occur in the steelmaking process. They are added to steel to improve properties like strength, ductility, and fatigue or corrosion resistance. Additionally, ferroalloys can have several other tasks, such as in refining, deoxidation, modification, and control of nonmetallic inclusions and precipitates. The production and role of ferroalloys are briefly introduced, both from a historical perspective and in light of current and future prospects. Examples of production figures, producers, and markets are presented. Recent developments and main drivers in ferroalloys processing, including energy saving, environmental issues, primary and secondary raw materials resources, and development trends in technology, are briefly discussed.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
  • Author : Merete Tangstad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-04
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9780128054994
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Summary : This chapter examines the theory and technology of the production of silicon and ferrosilicon alloys. An overview of silica raw materials, silica transformations, and carbon reductants for smelting is presented together with an exploration of the thermodynamics of silicon reduction and the formation of silicon carbide. For industrial practice, the results of furnace operation and zones formation are discussed, along with the main parameters required to ensure a smooth furnace operation. Finally, post–tap hole processes (refining and casting) and environmental issues (fumes and dust formation and handling) are described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
  • Author : Mihail I. Gasik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-04
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9780128055120
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Summary : This chapter deals with alkaline-earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and their ferroalloys technology. The chapter provides an overview of these metals, their properties, and their reactions with other elements, and it outlines major relevant phase equilibria diagrams. Oxide systems equilibria are also considered. Different raw materials and methods for producing alkaline-earth ferroalloys and master alloys are presented. Specific details of the technology for smelting are described depending on the alloy type and grade. Additionally, the theory and technology used to produce calcium carbide and oxide (metallurgical lime) are described.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
  • Author : Johan Basson,Jorma Daavittila
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-04
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9780128055021
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Summary : High carbon ferrochrome is one of the most common ferroalloys produced and is almost exclusively used in the production of stainless steel and high chromium steels. Production takes place primarily in countries with substantial chromite ore supply. Relatively cheap electricity and reductants also contribute to the viability of high carbon ferrochrome. The most common production technology utilized is submerged arc smelting in AC furnaces, although open arc smelting in DC furnaces is becoming increasingly common. A more advanced technology route that includes a prereduction step is only utilized at significant scale by one producer. Production processes have become more energy and metallurgically efficient by utilizing advanced processes such as prereduction, preheating, agglomeration of ore, and CO gas utilization. Recently installed plants display manageable risks in terms of environmental pollution and occupational health.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
  • Author : Heikki Jalkanen,Michael Gasik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-04
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9780128054963
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Summary : The metallurgical processing of ferroalloys is based on a coherent combination of many scientific fields, which are briefly outlined in this chapter. The metal’s recovery process is based on reduction reactions, where metallurgical thermodynamics and kinetics are of a paramount importance. This includes the knowledge and ability to calculate, monitor, and change the formation of solutions and phases, rate of the reactions, and handling of reaction products in the most efficient way. In parallel, theoretical and engineering data on heat, mass, momentum, and charge transfer are critical for the development and design of ferroalloy production processes and furnaces. The chapter also discusses the basics of the structure and properties of metal and oxide (slag) when melted together with carbon reductants.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
  • Author : Oleg Polyakov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-04
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9780128055038
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Summary : This chapter deals with ferronickel technology. Properties of nickel and its reactions with relevant elements are described. The mineral resources of nickel are outlined with emphasis on oxide–silicate (laterite) ores processing. The technology of ferronickel smelting and all steps in the processing chain (roasting, smelting, desulfurization, and oxygen refining in converters) are discussed. Some examples of known industrial ferronickel practice are presented.

Handbook of Ferroalloys

Handbook of Ferroalloys
  • Author : Gudrun Saevarsdottir
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-04
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9780128054987
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Summary : Almost all ferroalloys are produced by smelting in submerged arc furnaces, powered by either AC or DC sources. To understand the smelting process and furnace operations, it is important to manage the theory of electrical circuits, efficiently apply and control active and reactive parts of the system, optimize the power factor and the operation of the electric arc, and so on. These issues are outlined and discussed in this chapter, which provides necessary theoretical and practical knowledge for those who do not have a background in electrical engineering. They are complemented with discussions of heat balance and electrical control of the smelting furnaces and different emissions associated with the ferroalloys production processes.

Ferroalloys & Alloying Additives Handbook

Ferroalloys & Alloying Additives Handbook
  • Author : Paul D. Deeley,Konrad J. A. Kundig,Howard R. Spendelow
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1981
  • Total pages :127
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822016707796
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Summary :

The Complete Book on Ferroalloys

The Complete Book on Ferroalloys
  • Author : B.P Bhardwaj
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-01-01
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9789381039298
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Summary : The Complete Book on Ferroalloys (Ferro Manganese, Ferro Molybdenum, Ferro Niobium, Ferro Boron, Ferro Titanium, Ferro Tungsten, Ferro Silicon, Ferro Nickel, Ferro Chrome) An alloy is a mixture or solid solution composed of metals. Similarly, Ferroalloys are the mixture of Iron with high proportion of other elements like manganese, aluminium or silicon. Alloying improves the physical properties like density, reactivity, Young’s modulus, electrical and thermal conductivity etc. Ferroalloys thus show different properties as mixture of different metals in different proportion exhibit a wide range of properties. Also, Alloying is done to alter the mechanical properties of the base metal, to induce hardness, toughness, ductility etc. The main demand of ferroalloys, nowadays is continuously increasing as the major use of such products are in the field of civil construction; decorative items; automobile; steel industry; electronic appliances. The book provides a wide idea to readers about the usage of appropriate raw material and the treatment involved in the processing of raw material to final produce, safety, uses and properties of raw material involved in the processes. This book concisely presents the core principles and varied details involved in processing of ferroalloys. The work includes detailed coverage of the major products like ferroaluminium, ferrosilicon, ferronickel, ferromolybdenum, ferrotungsten, ferrovanadium, ferromanganese and lesser known minor ferroalloys. Progress in thermodynamics and physico-chemical factors in ferroalloy production has developed rapidly during the past twenty-five years or so. The book presents the principles and current knowledge of processes in the production of various ferroalloys. The production of a particular ferroalloy involves a number of processes to be followed in order to give the alloy desired physical and mechanical properties. The slight difference in the temperature or heating or composition can lead to entirely different alloy with different properties. This book is not only confined to the different processes followed in the production of ferroalloys but also describes the processes used and other information related to product, which are necessary for the manufacturer’s knowledge. Also, the book gives the reader appropriate knowledge regarding the selection the best of available raw materials.

Production of Manganese Ferroalloys

Production of Manganese Ferroalloys
  • Author : Sverre E. Olsen,Sverre Olsen,Merete Tangstad,Tor Lindstad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :247
  • ISBN : 8251921910
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Summary : Progress in our knowledge of thermodynamics and physico-chemical factors in manganese ferroalloy production has developed rapidly during the past twenty-five years or so. The authors' intention has been to use this basic knowledge in discussions of industrial manganese ferroalloy production. The book presents the principles and current knowledge of processes in the production of high carbon ferromanganese, silicomanganese and low carbon manganese alloys. The book is intended for professionals working in production, plant design or development. It will also be useful for researchers in industry, universities and research institutes. The book can be used as a textbook for courses in extractive and process metallurgy, and for company in-house courses. Thermodynamics of the slag and metal systems are extensively covered. Computational modelling based on assessed thermochemical databases has made it possible to calculate and present a large number of phase and equilibrium diagrams. These diagrams are useful for easy understanding and analysis of the complex heterogeneous equilibria in the manganese ferroalloy metallurgy. The manganese ferroalloys are mainly produced in electric submerged arc furnaces. Electrical relations are briefly discussed. Supply of raw materials, especially manganese ores and coke, is extremely important for the manganese industry. The book gives the reader appropriate knowledge regarding the selection the best of available raw materials. Environmental issues, including greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes, are of growing concern to ferroalloy producers. Carbon will always be needed as a reducing agent, and consequently emission of CO2 gas is inevitable. The book describes solutions to dealing with pollution problems and gives the latest guidelines for greenhouse gas inventories.

Handbook of Recycling

Handbook of Recycling
  • Author : Ernst Worrell,Markus Reuter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-28
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780123965066
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Summary : Winner of the International Solid Waste Association's 2014 Publication Award, Handbook of Recycling is an authoritative review of the current state-of-the-art of recycling, reuse and reclamation processes commonly implemented today and how they interact with one another. The book addresses several material flows, including iron, steel, aluminum and other metals, pulp and paper, plastics, glass, construction materials, industrial by-products, and more. It also details various recycling technologies as well as recovery and collection techniques. To completely round out the picture of recycling, the book considers policy and economic implications, including the impact of recycling on energy use, sustainable development, and the environment. With contemporary recycling literature scattered across disparate, unconnected articles, this book is a crucial aid to students and researchers in a range of disciplines, from materials and environmental science to public policy studies. Portrays recent and emerging technologies in metal recycling, by-product utilization and management of post-consumer waste Uses life cycle analysis to show how to reclaim valuable resources from mineral and metallurgical wastes Uses examples from current professional and industrial practice, with policy and economic implications

Encyclopedia and Handbook of Materials, Parts and Finishes

Encyclopedia and Handbook of Materials, Parts and Finishes
  • Author : Mel Schwartz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-07-06
  • Total pages :1070
  • ISBN : 9781138032064
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Summary : A great deal of progress has been made in the development of materials, their application to structures, and their adaptation to a variety of systems and integrated across a wide range of industrial applications. This encyclopedia serves the rapidly expanding demand for information on technological developments. In addition to providing information

Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 3: Industrial Processes

Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 3: Industrial Processes
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-09
  • Total pages :1810
  • ISBN : 9780080969893
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Summary : Process metallurgy provides academics with the fundamentals of the manufacturing of metallic materials, from raw materials into finished parts or products. Coverage is divided into three volumes, entitled Process Fundamentals, encompassing process fundamentals, extractive and refining processes, and metallurgical process phenomena; Processing Phenomena, encompassing ferrous processing; non-ferrous processing; and refractory, reactive and aqueous processing of metals; and Industrial Processes, encompassing process modeling and computational tools, energy optimization, environmental aspects and industrial design. The work distils 400+ years combined academic experience from the principal editor and multidisciplinary 14-member editorial advisory board, providing the 2,608-page work with a seal of quality. The volumes will function as the process counterpart to Robert Cahn and Peter Haasen’s famous reference family, Physical Metallurgy (1996)--which excluded process metallurgy from consideration and which is currently undergoing a major revision under the editorship of David Laughlin and Kazuhiro Hono (publishing 2014). Nevertheless, process and extractive metallurgy are fields within their own right, and this work will be of interest to libraries supporting courses in the process area. Synthesizes the most pertinent contemporary developments within process metallurgy so scientists have authoritative information at their fingertips Replaces existing articles and monographs with a single complete solution, saving time for busy scientists Helps metallurgists to predict changes and consequences and create or modify whatever process is deployed

Materials Handbook

Materials Handbook
  • Author : François Cardarelli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-03-19
  • Total pages :1339
  • ISBN : 9781846286698
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Summary : This unique and practical book provides quick and easy access to data on the physical and chemical properties of all classes of materials. The second edition has been much expanded to include whole new families of materials while many of the existing families are broadened and refined with new material and up-to-date information. Particular emphasis is placed on the properties of common industrial materials in each class. Detailed appendices provide additional information, and careful indexing and a tabular format make the data quickly accessible. This book is an essential tool for any practitioner or academic working in materials or in engineering.

Handbook of Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry

Handbook of Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry
  • Author : Michael Thompson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :316
  • ISBN : 9781461306979
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Summary : The first edition of our Handbook was written in 1983. In the preface to the first edition we noted the rapid development of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and its considerable potential for elemental analysis. The intervening five years have seen a substantial growth in ICP applications; much has happened and this is an appropriate time to present a revised edition. The basic approach of the book remains the same. This is a handbook, addressed to the user of the technique who seeks direct, practical advice. A concise summary of the technique is attempted. Detailed, theoretical treatment of the background to the method is not covered. We have, however, thoroughly revised much of the text, and new chapters have been added. These reflect the changes and progress in recent years. We are grateful to Mr Stephen Walton, Dr Gwendy Hall and London and Scandinavian Metallurgical Co. Ltd for their contributions. Chapter 3 (Instrumentation) has been rewritten by Mr Walton, the new Chapter on ICP-mass spectrometry has been written by Dr Hall, and London and Scandinavian provided much of the information for the chapter on metals analysis by ICP-AES. These chapters have been integrated into the book, and a conscious effort has been made to retain the unity of style within the book. New material has been added elsewhere in the book, archaeological materials are considered, pre concentration methods and chemometrics covered more fully.

Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards

Handbook of Comparative World Steel Standards
  • Author : John E. Bringas
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :660
  • ISBN : UOM:39015053181718
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Summary :

Advances in Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts

Advances in Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts
  • Author : Ramana Reddy,Pinakin Chaubal,P. Chris Pistorius,Uday Pal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-10
  • Total pages :1373
  • ISBN : 9783319487694
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Summary : This collection focuses on ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy where ionic melts, slags, fluxes, or salts play important roles in industrial growth and economy worldwide. Technical topics included are: thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams and kinetics of slags, fluxes, and salts; physical properties of slags, fluxes, and salts; structural studies of slags; interfacial and process phenomena involving foaming, bubble formation, and drainage; slag recycling, refractory erosion/corrosion, and freeze linings; and recycling and utilization of metallurgical slags and models and their applications in process improvement and optimization. These topics are of interest to not only traditional ferrous and non-ferrous metal industrial processes but also new and upcoming technologies.

Biofuels from Algae

Biofuels from Algae
  • Author : Ashok Pandey,Duu-Jong Lee,Yusuf Chisti,Carlos R. Soccol
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-08
  • Total pages :348
  • ISBN : 9780444595829
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Summary : This book provides in-depth information on basic and applied aspects of biofuels production from algae. It begins with an introduction to the topic, and follows with the basic scientific aspects of algal cultivation and its use for biofuels production, such as photo bioreactor engineering for microalgae production, open culture systems for biomass production and the economics of biomass production. It provides state-of-the-art information on synthetic biology approaches for algae suitable for biofuels production, followed by algal biomass harvesting, algal oils as fuels, biohydrogen production from algae, formation/production of co-products, and more. The book also covers topics such as metabolic engineering and molecular biology for algae for fuel production, life cycle assessment and scale-up and commercialization. It is highly useful and helps you to plan new research and design new economically viable processes for the production of clean fuels from algae. Covers in a comprehensive but concise way most of the algae biomass conversion technologies currently available Lists all the products produced from algae, i.e. biohydrogen, fuel oils, etc., their properties and potential uses Includes the economics of the various processes and the necessary steps for scaling them up

Mechanical Properties and Working of Metals and Alloys

Mechanical Properties and Working of Metals and Alloys
  • Author : Amit Bhaduri
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-12
  • Total pages :748
  • ISBN : 9789811072093
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Summary : This book is intended to serve as core text or handy reference on two key areas of metallic materials: (i) mechanical behavior and properties evaluated by mechanical testing; and (ii) different types of metal working or forming operations to produce useful shapes. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into two parts. The first part contains nine chapters which describe tension (including elastic stress – strain relation, relevant theory of plasticity, and strengthening methods), compression, hardness, bending, torsion – pure shear, impact loading, creep and stress rupture, fatigue, and fracture. The second part is composed of seven chapters and covers fundamentals of mechanical working, forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing of flat strip, round bar, and tube, deep drawing, and high-energy rate forming. The book comprises an exhaustive description of mechanical properties evaluated by testing of metals and metal working in sufficient depth and with reasonably wide coverage. The book is written in an easy-to-understand manner and includes many solved problems. More than 150 numerical problems and many multiple choice questions as exercise along with their answers have also been provided. The mathematical analyses are well elaborated without skipping any intermediate steps. Slab method of analysis or free-body equilibrium approach is used for the analytical treatment of mechanical working processes. For hot working processes, different frictional conditions (sliding, sticking and mixed sticking–sliding) have been considered to estimate the deformation loads. In addition to the slab method of analysis, this book also contains slip-line field theory, its application to the static system, and the steady state motion, Further, this book includes upper-bound theorem, and upper-bound solutions for indentation, compression, extrusion and strip drawing. The book can be used to teach graduate and undergraduate courses offered to students of mechanical, aerospace, production, manufacturing and metallurgical engineering disciplines. The book can also be used for metallurgists and practicing engineers in industry and development courses in the metallurgy and metallic manufacturing industries.

9th International Symposium on High-Temperature Metallurgical Processing

9th International Symposium on High-Temperature Metallurgical Processing
  • Author : Jiann-Yang Hwang,Tao Jiang,Mark William Kennedy,Dean Gregurek,Shijie Wang,Baojun Zhao,Onuralp Yücel,Ender Keskinkilic,Jerome P Downey,Zhiwei Peng,Rafael. Padilla
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-16
  • Total pages :887
  • ISBN : 9783319721385
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Summary : In recent years, global metallurgical industries have experienced fast and prosperous growth. High-temperature metallurgical technology is the backbone to support the technical, environmental, and economical needs for the growth. This collection features contributions covering the advancements and developments of new high-temperature metallurgical technologies and their applications to the areas of processing of minerals; extraction of metals; preparation of metallic, refractory and ceramic materials; treatment and recycling of slag and wastes; and saving of energy and protection of environment.The volume will have a broad impact on the academics and professionals serving the metallurgical industries around the world.