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High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria
  • Author : Ulrich K Deiters,Thomas Kraska
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-26
  • Total pages :370
  • ISBN : 9780444563545
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Summary : The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria

Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria
  • Author : John M. Prausnitz,Rudiger N. Lichtenthaler,Edmundo Gomes de Azevedo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-10-22
  • Total pages :864
  • ISBN : 9780132440509
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Summary : The classic guide to mixtures, completely updated with new models, theories, examples, and data. Efficient separation operations and many other chemical processes depend upon a thorough understanding of the properties of gaseous and liquid mixtures. Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria, Third Edition is a systematic, practical guide to interpreting, correlating, and predicting thermodynamic properties used in mixture-related phase-equilibrium calculations. Completely updated, this edition reflects the growing maturity of techniques grounded in applied statistical thermodynamics and molecular simulation, while relying on classical thermodynamics, molecular physics, and physical chemistry wherever these fields offer superior solutions. Detailed new coverage includes: Techniques for improving separation processes and making them more environmentally friendly. Theoretical concepts enabling the description and interpretation of solution properties. New models, notably the lattice-fluid and statistical associated-fluid theories. Polymer solutions, including gas-polymer equilibria, polymer blends, membranes, and gels. Electrolyte solutions, including semi-empirical models for solutions containing salts or volatile electrolytes. Coverage also includes: fundamentals of classical thermodynamics of phase equilibria; thermodynamic properties from volumetric data; intermolecular forces; fugacities in gas and liquid mixtures; solubilities of gases and solids in liquids; high-pressure phase equilibria; virial coefficients for quantum gases; and much more. Throughout, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria strikes a perfect balance between empirical techniques and theory, and is replete with useful examples and experimental data. More than ever, it is the essential resource for engineers, chemists, and other professionals working with mixtures and related processes.

Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-phase Equilibria

Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-phase Equilibria
  • Author : J. M. Prausnitz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1969
  • Total pages :523
  • ISBN : UOM:39015000993983
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Summary : 97774-4 The classic guide to mixtures, completely updated with new models, theories, examples, and data. Efficient separation operations and many other chemical processes depend upon a thorough understanding of the properties of gaseous and liquid mixtures. Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria, Third Edition is a systematic, practical guide to interpreting, correlating, and predicting thermodynamic properties used in mixture-related phase-equilibrium calculations. Completely updated, this edition reflects the growing maturity of techniques grounded in applied statistical thermodynamics and molecular simulation, while relying on classical thermodynamics, molecular physics, and physical chemistry wherever these fields offer superior solutions. Detailed new coverage includes: Techniques for improving separation processes and making them more environmentally friendly. Theoretical concepts enabling the description and interpretation of solution properties. New models, notably the lattice-fluid and statistical associated-fluid theories. Polymer solutions, including gas-polymer equilibria, polymer blends, membranes, and gels. Electrolyte solutions, including semi-empirical models for solutions containing salts or volatile electrolytes. Coverage also includes: fundamentals of classical thermodynamics of phase equilibria; thermodynamic properties from volumetric data; intermolecular forces; fugacities in gas and liquid mixtures; solubilities of gases and solids in liquids; high-pressure phase equilibria; virial coefficients for quantum gases; and much more. Throughout, Molecular Thermodynamics ofFluid-Phase Equilibria strikes a perfect balance between empirical techniques and theory, and is replete with useful examples and experimental data. More than ever, it is the essential resource for engineers, chemists, and oth

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Alberto Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780444594716
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Summary : Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and optimization is analyzed. The relation between the mixture molecular properties, the selection of the thermodynamic model and the process technology that could be applied are discussed. A classification of mixtures, separation process, thermodynamic models and technologies is presented to guide the engineer in the world of separation processes. The phase condition required for a given reacting system is studied at subcritical and supercritical conditions. The four cardinal points of phase equilibrium engineering are: the chemical plant or process, the laboratory, the modeling of phase equilibria and the simulator. The harmonization of all these components to obtain a better design or operation is the ultimate goal of phase equilibrium engineering. Methodologies are discussed using relevant industrial examples The molecular nature and composition of the process mixture is given a key role in process decisions Phase equilibrium diagrams are used as a drawing board for process implementation

High Pressure Fluid Technology for Green Food Processing

High Pressure Fluid Technology for Green Food Processing
  • Author : Tiziana Fornari,Roumiana P. Stateva
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-31
  • Total pages :517
  • ISBN : 9783319106113
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Summary : The aim of this book is to present the fundamentals of high pressure technologies from the perspective of mass transfer phenomena and thermodynamic considerations. Novel food applications are exposed and their relation to chemical analysis, extraction, reaction and particle formation processes are outlined. The chapters are written by a diverse group of scientists with expertise in chemistry, food processes, analytical chemistry, chemical engineering and chemical engineering thermodynamics, and biotechnology. The mission of green food engineering is to promote innovative technologies that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous materials (solvents, reagents) in the design and operation of food related processes, with the view to improve food safety and quality. Several efficient, environmentally friendly and benign technologies based on the use of high pressure and green solvents have demonstrated to be sustainable alternatives to traditional processes in the food industry. Although hundreds of new ideas are being published in the open literature, reliable engineering tools to simulate and design those processes are still under development. High Pressure Fluid Technology for Green Food Processing presents in-depth analyses and outlines the ways towards their maturity. Tiziana Fornari, Research Institute of Food Science (CIAL) Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Roumiana P. Stateva, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria

Ternary Fluid-phase Equilibria at High Pressures with One Normally Gaseous Component

Ternary Fluid-phase Equilibria at High Pressures with One Normally Gaseous Component
  • Author : Raymond Nickolas Fleck
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1967
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : UCAL:C3476900
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Summary :

Phase Equilibria, Phase Diagrams and Phase Transformations

Phase Equilibria, Phase Diagrams and Phase Transformations
  • Author : Mats Hillert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11-22
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781139465861
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Summary : Computational tools allow material scientists to model and analyze increasingly complicated systems to appreciate material behavior. Accurate use and interpretation however, requires a strong understanding of the thermodynamic principles that underpin phase equilibrium, transformation and state. This fully revised and updated edition covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics, with a view to modern computer applications. The theoretical basis of chemical equilibria and chemical changes is covered with an emphasis on the properties of phase diagrams. Starting with the basic principles, discussion moves to systems involving multiple phases. New chapters cover irreversible thermodynamics, extremum principles, and the thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces. Theoretical descriptions of equilibrium conditions, the state of systems at equilibrium and the changes as equilibrium is reached, are all demonstrated graphically. With illustrative examples - many computer calculated - and worked examples, this textbook is an valuable resource for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in materials science and engineering.

Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media

Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media
  • Author : Gerd H. Brunner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-06-11
  • Total pages :650
  • ISBN : 0080542107
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Summary : Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of properties, and other advantageous properties of supercritical fluids led to innovative technologies. More than 100 plants of production size are now in operation worldwide in the areas of process and production technology, environmental applications, and particle engineering. New processes are under research and development in various fields. This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany. It is based on the research program "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the "GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik" (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). This research program provided an immensely valuable platform for exchange of knowledge and experience. More than 50 young researchers were involved contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth. The results of this innovative research are described in this book. - This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany - Contains results of projects within the research program on "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. - More than 50 young researchers were involved in contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth.

A New Apparatus for Measuring Supercritical Fluid-liquid Phase Equilibria and Results for the Systems CO+ Decane, CO+ Dodecane, CO+ Methyl Linoleate, and C+ Methyl Linoleate

A New Apparatus for Measuring Supercritical Fluid-liquid Phase Equilibria and Results for the Systems CO+ Decane, CO+ Dodecane, CO+ Methyl Linoleate, and C+ Methyl Linoleate
  • Author : William R. Adams
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1986
  • Total pages :210
  • ISBN : CORNELL:31924005050418
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Summary :

CO2 Sequestration and Valorization

CO2 Sequestration and Valorization
  • Author : Claudia R. V. Morgado,Victor Esteves
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-03-12
  • Total pages :472
  • ISBN : 9789535112259
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Summary : The reconciliation of economic development, social justice and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the biggest political challenges of the moment. Strategies for mitigating CO2 emissions on a large scale using sequestration, storage and carbon technologies are priorities on the agendas of research centres and governments. Research on carbon sequestration is the path to solving major sustainability problems of this century a complex issue that requires a scientific approach and multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary technology, plus a collaborative policy among nations. Thus, this challenge makes this book an important source of information for researchers, policymakers and anyone with an inquiring mind on this subject.

High Pressure Phase Behaviour of Multicomponent Fluid Mixtures

High Pressure Phase Behaviour of Multicomponent Fluid Mixtures
  • Author : R.J. Sadus
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-02
  • Total pages :411
  • ISBN : 9780444596666
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Summary : The high pressure phase behaviour of binary fluid mixtures has been extensively studied during the last three decades. There is ample experimental data for a wide variety of binary mixtures and extensive methods for prediction have been developed. In contrast, the investigation of ternary and other multicomponent fluids is in its infancy. Experimental ternary mixture critical data are very rare and theoretical studies have been limited to data correlation rather than genuine prediction. The phase behaviour of ternary and other multicomponent fluid mixtures has many novel aspects which are not manifested in binary mixtures. The properties of ternary mixtures are also likely to be more difficult to characterize experimentally. It is in this context that calculated phase diagrams have an important role in leading the discovery of new phenomena and guiding experimental work. The criteria for phase equilibria of multicomponent fluids with particular emphasis on the critical state are examined in this book, and models for predicting fluid equilibria (e.g., different equations of state) are compared. Particular attention is paid to the critical state of ternary mixtures which has hitherto been largely neglected. The problems associated with predicting ternary equilibria are discussed, and some novel aspects of ternary critical phenomena are illustrated. The books also describes a novel type of critical transition which appears to be a common feature of the equilibria of ternary mixtures. Extensive phase diagrams of a wide range of ternary mixtures including systems containing carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and tetrafluoromethane as one or more component are presented. The theoretical treatment is detailed in the appendix and a computation of known experimental critical points is also included.

Phase Equilibria

Phase Equilibria
  • Author : Andre Muhlbauer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997-09-01
  • Total pages :200
  • ISBN : 156032550X
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Summary : This new book provides, for the first time, a thorough survey of the techniques and equipment for both high- and low-pressure phase equilibrium measurement and addresses the equally challenging task of accurately modeling or predicting the equilibria. The book is unique because it combines in depth and authoritative coverage of both experimental and theoretical procedures in a single volume. Written as a reference for practicing engineers and scientists in the chemical engineering field, this book will also be useful as an advanced graduate-level text.

Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering

Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering
  • Author : Camila Gambini Pereira
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-17
  • Total pages :682
  • ISBN : 9780128115572
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Summary : Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering is the definitive book on thermodynamics of equilibrium applied to food engineering. Food is a complex matrix consisting of different groups of compounds divided into macronutrients (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins), and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals). The quality characteristics of food products associated with the sensorial, physical and microbiological attributes are directly related to the thermodynamic properties of specific compounds and complexes that are formed during processing or by the action of diverse interventions, such as the environment, biochemical reactions, and others. In addition, in obtaining bioactive substances using separation processes, the knowledge of phase equilibria of food systems is essential to provide an efficient separation, with a low cost in the process and high selectivity in the recovery of the desired component. This book combines theory and application of phase equilibria data of systems containing food compounds to help food engineers and researchers to solve complex problems found in food processing. It provides support to researchers from academia and industry to better understand the behavior of food materials in the face of processing effects, and to develop ways to improve the quality of the food products. Presents the fundamentals of phase equilibria in the food industry Describes both classic and advanced models, including cubic equations of state and activity coefficient Encompasses distillation, solid-liquid extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, crystallization and supercritical fluid extraction Explores equilibrium in advanced systems, including colloidal, electrolyte and protein systems

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082652
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Summary : The benefits of using SCF as reaction media have promoted an intense research and development activity in this field. In this chapter, several case studies demonstrate the advantages of working under supercritical conditions. In particular, gas–liquid catalyzed reactions are one of the areas where the use of supercritical fluids is very attractive. In general, these reactions are diffusion-controlled and the use of supercritical fluids increases the reaction rate by eliminating the gas–liquid interface. In this chapter also, the interesting properties of operation under near-critical conditions are analyzed: higher solubility of reactants and products in the supercritical phase, reduced deposition of reacting components on the catalyst pores, diffusion coefficients higher than in liquids, independent control of the concentration of permanent gases like H2, O2, or CO in the reaction mixture, higher thermal capacity, and low interfacial tension The hydrogenation of low volatile liquids, using solid–fluid heterogeneous catalysts, is presented to show the advantages of working under supercritical conditions. In this case study, the selection of the process conditions that guarantees operation under a supercritical single-phase state is discussed as a typical phase equilibrium engineering problem. Finally, for reactions in which the SCF plays a role not only as solvent but also as a reactant, the problem of phase condition design and cosolvent selection is addressed.

Liquids Under Negative Pressure

Liquids Under Negative Pressure
  • Author : A.R. Imre,H.J. Maris,P.R. Williams
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-10-31
  • Total pages :340
  • ISBN : 1402008961
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Summary : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, held in Budapest, Hungary, 23-25 February 2002

Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation

Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation
  • Author : Jürgen Gmehling,Michael Kleiber,Bärbel Kolbe,Jürgen Rarey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-15
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9783527809455
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Summary : The only textbook that applies thermodynamics to real-world process engineering problems This must-read for advanced students and professionals alike is the first book to demonstrate how chemical thermodynamics work in the real world by applying them to actual engineering examples. It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the particular models and procedures, and explains the most important models that are applied in process industry. All the topics are illustrated with examples that are closely related to practical process simulation problems. At the end of each chapter, additional calculation examples are given to enable readers to extend their comprehension. Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation instructs on the behavior of fluids for pure fluids, describing the main types of equations of state and their abilities. It discusses the various quantities of interest in process simulation, their correlation, and prediction in detail. Chapters look at the important terms for the description of the thermodynamics of mixtures; the most important models and routes for phase equilibrium calculation; models which are applicable to a wide variety of non-electrolyte systems; membrane processes; polymer thermodynamics; enthalpy of reaction; chemical equilibria, and more. -Explains thermodynamic fundamentals used in process simulation with solved examples -Includes new chapters about modern measurement techniques, retrograde condensation, and simultaneous description of chemical equilibrium -Comprises numerous solved examples, which simplify the understanding of the often complex calculation procedures, and discusses advantages and disadvantages of models and procedures -Includes estimation methods for thermophysical properties and phase equilibria thermodynamics of alternative separation processes -Supplemented with MathCAD-sheets and DDBST programs for readers to reproduce the examples Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation is an ideal resource for those working in the fields of process development, process synthesis, or process optimization, and an excellent book for students in the engineering sciences.

Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems

Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems
  • Author : Hummel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-02
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9781351436731
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Summary : Written by a leading practitioner and teacher in the field of ceramic science and engineering, this outstanding text provides advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level students with a comprehensive, up-to-date Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems. Building upon a concise definition of the phase rule, the book logically proceeds from one- and two-component systems through increasingly complex systems, enabling students to utilize the phase rule in real applications. Unique because of its emphasis on phase diagrams, timely because of the rising importance of ceramic applications, practical because of its pedagogical approach, Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems offers end-of-chapter review problems, extensive reading lists, a solid thermodynamic foundation and clear perspectives on the special properties of ceramics as compared to metals.This authoritative volume fills a broad gap in the literature, helping undergraduate- and graduate-level students of ceramic engineering and materials science to approach this demanding subject in a rational, confident fashion. In addition, Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems serves as a valuable supplement to undergraduate-level metallurgy programs.

Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering

Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering
  • Author : Stanley M. Walas
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :688
  • ISBN : 9781483145082
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Summary : Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering is devoted to the thermodynamic basis and practical aspects of the calculation of equilibrium conditions of multiple phases that are pertinent to chemical engineering processes. Efforts have been made throughout the book to provide guidance to adequate theory and practice. The book begins with a long chapter on equations of state, since it is intimately bound up with the development of thermodynamics. Following material on basic thermodynamics and nonidealities in terms of fugacities and activities, individual chapters are devoted to equilibria primarily between pairs of phases. A few topics that do not fit into these categories and for which the state of the art is not yet developed quantitatively have been relegated to a separate chapter. The chapter on chemical equilibria is pertinent since many processes involve simultaneous chemical and phase equilibria. Also included are chapters on the evaluation of enthalpy and entropy changes of nonideal substances and mixtures, and on experimental methods. This book is intended as a reference and self-study as well as a textbook either for full courses in phase equilibria or as a supplement to related courses in the chemical engineering curriculum. Practicing engineers concerned with separation technology and process design also may find the book useful.

Molecular Based Study of Fluid Phase Equilibria

Molecular Based Study of Fluid Phase Equilibria
  • Author : Dimitrios Michael Tsangaris
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : WISC:89049468515
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Summary :

High Temperature Phase Equilibria and Phase Diagrams

High Temperature Phase Equilibria and Phase Diagrams
  • Author : Chu-Kun Kuo,Zu-Xiang Lin,Dong-Sheng Yan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :249
  • ISBN : 9781483286730
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Summary : High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature studies. This book covers many aspects, from the fundamentals of phase diagrams, experimental and computational methods, applications, to the results of research. It provides an excellent source of information for a range of scientists such as materials scientists, especially ceramicists, metallurgists, solid-state physicists and chemists, and mineralogists.

Petroleum Fluid Phase Behavior

Petroleum Fluid Phase Behavior
  • Author : Raj Deo Tewari,Abhijit Y. Dandekar,Jaime Moreno Ortiz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-14
  • Total pages :412
  • ISBN : 9781351857239
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Summary : This book deals with complex fluid characterization of oil and gas reservoirs, emphasizing the importance of PVT parameters for practical application in reservoir simulation and management. It covers modeling of PVT parameters, QA/QC of PVT data from lab studies, EOS modeling, PVT simulation and compositional grading and variation. It describes generation of data for reservoir engineering calculations in view of limited and unreliable data and techniques like downhole fluid analysis and photophysics of reservoir fluids. It discusses behavior of unconventional reservoirs, particularly for difficult resources like shale gas, shale oil, coalbed methane, reservoirs, heavy and extra heavy oils.