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Hydrothermal Processes and Mineral Systems

Hydrothermal Processes and Mineral Systems
  • Author : Franco Pirajno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-10-14
  • Total pages :1250
  • ISBN : 9781402086137
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Summary : Hydrothermal processes on Earth have played an important role in the evolution of our planet. These processes link the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in continuously evolving dynamic systems. Terrestrial hydrothermal processes have been active since water condensed to form the hydrosphere, most probably from about 4.4 Ga. The circulation of hot aqueous solution (hydrothermal systems) at, and below, the Earth’s surface is ultimately driven by magmatic heat. This book presents an in-depth review of hydrothermal proceses and systems that form beneath the oceans and in intracontinental rifts, continental margins and magmatic arcs. The interaction of hydrothermal fluids with rockwalls, the hydrophere and the biophere, together with changes in their composition through time and space, contribute to the formation of a wide range of mineral deposit types and associated wallrock alteration. On Earth, sites of hydrothermal activity support varied ecosystems based on a range of chemotrophic microorganisms both at surface and in the subsurface. This book also provides an overview of hydrothermal systems associated with meteorite impacts and explores the possibility that hydrothermal processes operate on other terrestrial planets, such as Mars, or satellites of the outer planets such as Titan and Europa. Possible analogues of extraterrestrial putative hydrothermal processes pose the intriguing question of whether primitive life, as we know it, may exist or existed in these planetary bodies. Audience: This volume will be of interest to scientists and researchers in geosciences and life sciences departments, as well as to professionals and scientists involved in mining and mineral exploration.

Hydrothermal Processes and Mineral Systems

Hydrothermal Processes and Mineral Systems
  • Author : Franco Pirajno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :1250
  • ISBN : 1402086121
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Summary : Hydrothermal processes on Earth have played an important role in the evolution of our planet. These processes link the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in continuously evolving dynamic systems. Terrestrial hydrothermal processes have been active since water condensed to form the hydrosphere, most probably from about 4.4 Ga. The circulation of hot aqueous solution (hydrothermal systems) at, and below, the Earth’s surface is ultimately driven by magmatic heat. This book presents an in-depth review of hydrothermal proceses and systems that form beneath the oceans and in intracontinental rifts, continental margins and magmatic arcs. The interaction of hydrothermal fluids with rockwalls, the hydrophere and the biophere, together with changes in their composition through time and space, contribute to the formation of a wide range of mineral deposit types and associated wallrock alteration. On Earth, sites of hydrothermal activity support varied ecosystems based on a range of chemotrophic microorganisms both at surface and in the subsurface. This book also provides an overview of hydrothermal systems associated with meteorite impacts and explores the possibility that hydrothermal processes operate on other terrestrial planets, such as Mars, or satellites of the outer planets such as Titan and Europa. Possible analogues of extraterrestrial putative hydrothermal processes pose the intriguing question of whether primitive life, as we know it, may exist or existed in these planetary bodies. Audience: This volume will be of interest to scientists and researchers in geosciences and life sciences departments, as well as to professionals and scientists involved in mining and mineral exploration.

Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits

Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits
  • Author : Franco Pirajno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :709
  • ISBN : 9783642756719
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Summary : This book is intended primarily for exploration geologists and post graduate students attending specialist courses in mineral exploration. Exploration geologists are engaged not only in the search for new mineral deposits, but also in the extension and re-assessment of existing ones. To succeed in these tasks, the exploration geologist is required to be a "generalist" of the Earth sciences rather than a specialist. The exploration geologist needs to be familiar with most aspects of the geology of ore deposits, and detailed knowledge as well as experience play an all important role in the successful exploration for mineral commodities. In order to achieve this, it is essential that the exploration geologist be up to date with the latest developments in the evolution of concepts and ideas in the Earth sciences. This is no easy task, as thousands of publications appear every year in an ever increasing number of journals, periodicals and books. For this reason it is also difficult, at times, to locate appropriate references on a particular mineral deposit type, although this problem is alleviated by the existence of large bibliographic data bases of geological records, abstracts and papers on computers. During my teaching to explorationists and, indeed, during my years of work as an explorationist, the necessity of having a text dealing with the fundamental aspects of hydrothermal mineral deposits has always been compelling. Metallic mineral deposits can be categorised into three great families, namely: (I) magmatic; (2) sedimentary and residual; (3) hydrothermal.

Ore Deposit Geology

Ore Deposit Geology
  • Author : John Ridley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-04
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781107244764
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Summary : Mapping closely to how ore deposit geology is now taught, this textbook systematically describes and illustrates the major ore deposit types, linking this to their settings in the crust and the geological factors behind their formation. Written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students with a basic background in the geosciences, it provides a balance of practical information and coverage of the relevant geological sciences, including petrological, geochemical, hydrological and tectonic processes. Important theory is summarized without unnecessary detail and integrated with students' learning in other topics, including magmatic processes and sedimentary geology, enabling students to make links across the geosciences. Students are supported by further reading, a comprehensive glossary, and problems and review questions that test the application of theoretical approaches and encourage students to use what they have learnt. A website includes visual resources and combines with the book to provide students and instructors with a complete learning package.

Ore Deposits and Mantle Plumes

Ore Deposits and Mantle Plumes
  • Author : Franco Pirajno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :556
  • ISBN : 0412811405
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Summary : This book discusses the controls and consequences that processes in the Earth's mantle have on mineralising events in the crust. In developing this theme, the author takes into consideration recent advances in the theory of mantle plumes and examines the links, direct or indirect, that past and present plumes activities have in generating ore systems. Also included is an overview of the major volcanic features of terrestrial planets, and their possible origin in terms of plume-related magmatism. The book provides a time-space global overview of the relationship between mantle processes, associated igneous activities, such as the impressive continental flood basalts and the emplacement of layered igneous complexes, and the formation of metalliferous deposits. The links between mantle plumes and mafic-ultramafic igneous activity are treated in some detail and are followed by descriptions of selected, world-class, magmatic mineral deposits. The relationship between mantle plumes and hydrothermal mineral deposits is less obvious, nevertheless this topic is considered by examining the inception of continental rift systems, associated basins and the flow of fluids, which is catalysed by thermal gradients induced by mantle upwellings. Examples of metalliferous deposits that are typically associated with thick volcano-sedimentary or sedimentary sequences, which accumulated in modern and ancient rift-related basins, are discussed. The book concludes with a review of metalliferous mineral deposits hosted by black shales, iron and manganese formations, and the possible link that these remarkable geological entities have with mantle plumes. Audience: This book is intended for a broad audience of readers including postgraduate students specializing in ore deposits geology, volcanology, and tectonics. This volume will also be of interest to professionals and specialists in the mineral exploration and mining industries.

Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes

Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes
  • Author : Laurence Robb
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-17
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9781119232384
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Summary : A comprehensive account of ore-forming processes, revised and updated The revised second edition of Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes offers a guide to the multiplicity of geological processes that result in the formation of mineral deposits. The second edition has been updated to reflect the most recent developments in the study of metallogeny and earth system science. This second edition contains new information about global tectonic processes and crustal evolution that continues to influence the practice of economic geology and maintains the supply of natural resources in a responsible and sustainable way. The replenishment of depleted natural resources is becoming more difficult and environmentally challenging. There is also a change in the demand for mineral commodities and the concern around the non-sustainable supply of ‘critical metals’ is now an important consideration for planners of the future. The book puts the focus on the responsible custodianship of natural resources and the continuing need for all earth scientists to understand metallogeny and the resource cycle. This new edition: Provides an updated guide to the processes involved in the formation of mineral deposits Offers an overview of magmatic, hydrothermal and sedimentary ore-forming processes Covers the entire range of mineral deposit types, including the fossil fuels and supergene ores Relates metallogeny to global tectonics by examining the distribution of mineral deposits in space and time Contains examples of world famous ore deposits that help to provide context and relevance to the process-oriented descriptions of ore genesis Written for students and professionals alike, Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes offers a revised second edition that puts the focus on the fact that mineral deposits are simply one of the many natural wonders of geological process and evolution.

Experimental and Thermodynamical Modeling of Ore-Forming Processes in Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems

Experimental and Thermodynamical Modeling of Ore-Forming Processes in Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems
  • Author : Galina Palyanova
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-11
  • Total pages :216
  • ISBN : 9783038975151
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Summary : This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Experimental and Thermodynamical Modeling of Ore-Forming Processes in Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems" that was published in Minerals

The World of Mineral Deposits

The World of Mineral Deposits
  • Author : Florian Neukirchen,Gunnar Ries
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-28
  • Total pages :371
  • ISBN : 9783030343460
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Summary : This vivid introduction to economic geology not only describes the most important deposit types, but also the processes involved in their formation. Magmatic, hydrothermal and sedimentary processes as well as weathering and alteration are explained in the framework of plate tectonics and the history of the Earth. The chapter about fossil fuels includes unconventional deposits and the much-debated fracking. Other topics covered are exploration, mining and economic aspects like commodity prices.

Hydrothermal Processes at Seafloor Spreading Centers

Hydrothermal Processes at Seafloor Spreading Centers
  • Author : Peter A. Rona,Kurt Boström,Lucien Laubier,Kenneth L. Smith
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-21
  • Total pages :796
  • ISBN : 9781489904027
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Summary : During the past ten years, evidence has developed to indicate that seawater convects through oceanic crust driven by heat derived from creation of lithosphere at the Earth-encircling oceanic ridge-rift system of seafloor spreading centers. This has stimulated multiple lines of research with profound implications for the earth and life sciences. The lines of research comprise the role of hydrothermal convection at seafloor spreading centers in the Earth's thermal regime by cooling of newly formed litho sphere (oceanic crust and upper mantle); in global geochemical cycles and mass balances of certain elements by chemical exchange between circulating seawater and basaltic rocks of oceanic crust; in the concentration of metallic mineral deposits by ore-forming processes; and in adaptation of biological communities based on a previously unrecognized form of chemosynthesis. The first work shop devoted to interdisciplinary consideration of this field was organized by a committee consisting of the co-editors of this volume under the auspices of a NATO Advanced Research Institute (ARI) held 5-8 April 1982 at the Department of Earth Sciences of Cambridge University in England. This volume is a product of that workshop. The papers were written by members of a pioneering research community of marine geologists, geophysicists, geochemists and biologists whose work is at the stage of initial description and interpretation of hydrothermal and associated phenomena at seafloor spreading centers.

Characterization of Ore-Forming Systems from Geological, Geochemical and Geophysical Studies

Characterization of Ore-Forming Systems from Geological, Geochemical and Geophysical Studies
  • Author : K. Gessner,T.G. Blenkinsop,P. Sorjonen-Ward
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-07
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9781786203137
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Summary : Economically viable concentrations of mineral resources are uncommon in Earth’s crust. Most ore deposits that were mined in the past or are currently being extracted were found at or near Earth’s surface, often serendipitously. To meet the future demand for mineral resources, exploration success hinges on identifying targets at depth. Achieving this requires accurate and informed models of the Earth's crust that are consistent with all available geological, geochemical and geophysical information, paired with an understanding of how ore-forming systems relate to Earth’s evolving structure. Contributions to this volume address the future resources challenge by (i) applying advanced microscale geochemical detection and characterization methods, (ii) introducing more rigorous 3D Earth models, (iii) exploring critical behaviour and coupled processes, (iv) evaluating the role of geodynamic and tectonic setting and (v) applying 3D structural models to characterize specific ore-forming systems.

The Geology and Tectonic Settings of China's Mineral Deposits

The Geology and Tectonic Settings of China's Mineral Deposits
  • Author : Franco Pirajno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-08-13
  • Total pages :682
  • ISBN : 9789400744448
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Summary : Extensive descriptions of a wide range of key or world-class mineral deposits of China are presented in the context of the country’s general geology, tectonic units and mineral systems and their geodynamic evolution within the tectonic framework of the Asian continent. This comprehensive overview, incorporating the latest geological concepts, is the first such coverage written in English by a western expert, and will be of benefit to mineral explorers and miners, as well as to research scientists and students in institutions of higher education. In his compilation of this compendium of Chinese geology and mineral systems, Franco Pirajno draws on first-hand knowledge of China’s geology and mineral deposits gained in numerous field visits and research projects with Chinese colleagues from various academic institutions over the past 18 years. First time that a western-based book on China’s geology and mineral deposits is published Appropriate for use by the mineral exploration industry Modern English-language geological and mineral deposits information on China Most useful to Western (and Chinese) geoscientists

Physical Geology

Physical Geology
  • Author : Steven Earle
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :807
  • ISBN : 1774200287
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Summary : "Physical Geology is a comprehensive introductory text on the physical aspects of geology, including rocks and minerals, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, glaciation, groundwater, streams, coasts, mass wasting, climate change, planetary geology and much more. It has a strong emphasis on examples from western Canada, especially British Columbia, and also includes a chapter devoted to the geological history of western Canada. The book is a collaboration of faculty from Earth Science departments at Universities and Colleges across British Columbia and elsewhere"--BCcampus website.

Mineral Deposits of Finland

Mineral Deposits of Finland
  • Author : Wolfgang Derek Maier,Raimo Lahtinen,Hugh O'Brien
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-23
  • Total pages :802
  • ISBN : 9780124104761
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Summary : Mineral Deposits of Finland is the only up-to-date and inclusive reference available that fully captures the scope of Finland’s mineral deposits and their economic potential. Finland hosts Europe’s most mature rocks and large cratonic blocks, analogous to western Australia and Southern Africa, which are the most mineralized terrains on Earth. Authored by the world’s premier experts on Finnish mineral exploration and mining, Mineral Deposits of Finland offers a thorough summary of the mineral deposits and their petrogenesis, helping readers to map, explore, and identify Finland’s renewed potential for mineral exploration and extraction. Presents a thoroughly inclusive catalogue of Finland’s mineral deposits and their economic potential Features full-color figures, illustrations, working examples and photographs to aid the reader in retaining key concepts to underscore major advances in the exploration of Finland’s mineral resources Offers concise chapter summaries authored by leaders in geological research, which provide accessible overviews of deposit classes

The Role of Halogens in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Geochemical Processes

The Role of Halogens in Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Geochemical Processes
  • Author : Daniel E. Harlov,Leonid Aranovich
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-30
  • Total pages :1030
  • ISBN : 9783319616674
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Summary : The book summarizes the knowledge and experiences concerning the role of halogens during various geochemical processes, such as diagenesis, ore-formation, magma evolution, metasomatism, mineralization, and metamorphism in the crust and mantle of the Earth. It comprises the role of halogens in other terrestrial worlds like volatile-rich asteroids, Mars, and the ice moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Review chapters outline and expand upon the basis of our current understanding regarding how halogens contribute to the geochemical/geophysical evolution and stability of terrestrial worlds overall.

Epithermal Mineralization of the Western Carpathians

Epithermal Mineralization of the Western Carpathians
  • Author : Ferenc Molnár,Jaroslav Lexa,J. W. Hedenquist
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999
  • Total pages :274
  • ISBN : UOM:39015062424950
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Summary :

Understanding Mineral Deposits

Understanding Mineral Deposits
  • Author : Kula Misra
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :845
  • ISBN : 0045530092
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Summary : The challenge of finding new orebodies to satisfy the ever increasing demands for mineral commodities has to be met, in addition to improved techniques of exploration, mining, extraction, and management, by a better understanding of the geologic setting and genesis of the various classes of mineral deposits. A substantial part of the book is devoted to a discussion, with appropriate examples, of principles that govern the formation of mineral deposits and the various kinds of field and laboratory data that can be used to interpret their genesis. The rest of the book discusses the characteristics of selected classes of deposits, their relationship with the crustal evolution in space and time, and on the application of available data to the formulation of viable genetic models that provide the basis for exploration strategies. Audience: The book is intended as a text for an introductory course in economic geology at senior undergraduate and graduate levels, but it should also serve as a useful information resource for professional economic geologists.

Gold

Gold
  • Author : Boyle
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :676
  • ISBN : 9781461319696
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Summary : GOLD: History and Genesis of Deposits is the product of an effort by the Society of Economic Geologists to publish materials that will expand knowl edge concerning timely, specific topics important to the study of economic geology and to economic geologists. A volume on gold was selected for a general review-type publication because of the importance of the gold mining industry in the 1980s. The officers and council of the Society of Economic Geologists authorized the preparation of this book on gold in 1981, and Dr. Robert W. Boyle was selected as its author. Dr. Boyle has extensive experience in the study of gold deposits. He has an international reputation and a broad interest and understanding of the gold mining industry, the origin of gold deposits, and the history of gold as a metal and ore from prehistoric times to recent. Dr. Boyle uses important publications on gold deposits as source materials to document the various pathways of geological thought over time to introduce the reader to modern concepts. The book contains a wealth of information concerning gold.

Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes

Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes
  • Author : Laurence Robb
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-03
  • Total pages :384
  • ISBN : 9781118687574
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Summary : Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes is the first seniorundergraduate – postgraduate textbook to focus specificallyon the multiplicity of geological processes that result in theformation of mineral deposits. Opens with an overview of magmatic ore-forming processes Moves systematically through hydrothermal and sedimentarymetallogenic environments, covering as it does the entire gamut ofmineral deposit types, including the fossil fuels and supergeneores The final chapter relates metallogeny to global tectonics byexamining the distribution of mineral deposits in space andtime Boxed examples of world famous ore deposits are featuredthroughout providing context and relevance to the process-orienteddescriptions of ore genesis Brings the discipline of economic geology back into the realmof conventional mainstream earth science by emphasizing the factthat mineral deposits are simply one of the many natural wonders ofgeological process and evolution. Artwork from the book is available to instructors atwww.blackwellpublishing.com/robb.

Experimental and Thermodynamical Modeling of Ore-Forming Processes in Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems

Experimental and Thermodynamical Modeling of Ore-Forming Processes in Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems
  • Author : Galina Palyanova
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-11
  • Total pages :216
  • ISBN : 9783038975151
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Summary : This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Experimental and Thermodynamical Modeling of Ore-Forming Processes in Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems" that was published in Minerals

Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges

Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges
  • Author : Peter A. Rona,Colin W. Devey,Jérôme Dyment,Bramley J. Murton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-02
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9781118671504
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Summary : Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 188. Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges presents a multidisciplinary overview of the remarkable emerging diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges in the Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic oceans. When hydrothermal systems were first found on the East Pacific Rise and other Pacific Ocean ridges beginning in the late 1970s, the community consensus held that the magma delivery rate of intermediate to fast spreading was necessary to support black smoker-type high-temperature systems and associated chemosynthetic ecosystems and polymetallic sulfide deposits. Contrary to that consensus, hydrothermal systems not only occur on slow spreading ocean ridges but, as reported in this volume, are generally larger, exhibit different chemosynthetic ecosystems, produce larger mineral deposits, and occur in a much greater diversity of geologic settings than those systems in the Pacific. The full diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges, reflected in the contributions to this volume, is only now emerging and opens an exciting new frontier for ocean ridge exploration, including Processes of heat and chemical transfer from the Earth's mantle and crust via slow spreading ocean ridges to the oceans The major role of detachment faulting linking crust and mantle in hydrothermal circulation Chemical reaction products of mantle involvement including serpentinization, natural hydrogen, abiotic methane, and hydrocarbon synthesis Generation of large polymetallic sulfide deposits hosted in ocean crust and mantle Chemosynthetic vent communities hosted in the diverse settings The readership for this volume will include schools, universities, government laboratories, and scientific societies in developed and developing nations, including over 150 nations that have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

Volcanic, Geothermal, and Ore-forming Fluids

Volcanic, Geothermal, and Ore-forming Fluids
  • Author : Stuart Frank Simmons,Ian Graham
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :343
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105113622703
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Summary :