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Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and the Economy in the US, China, and India

Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and the Economy in the US, China, and India
  • Author : Rajiv Shah,Zhijie Gao,Harini Mittal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-07
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9780128018651
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Summary : What drives innovation and entrepreneurship in India, China, and the United States? Our data-rich and evidence-based exploration of relationships among innovation, entrepreneurship, and economic growth yields theoretical models of economic growth in the context of macroeconomic factors. Because we know far too little about the key characteristics of Chinese and Indian entrepreneurs and the ways they innovate, our balanced, systematic comparison of entrepreneurship and innovation results in a new approach to looking at economic growth that can be used to model empirical data from other countries. The importance of innovation and entrepreneurship to any economy has been recognized since the pioneering work of Joseph Schumpeter. Our analysis of the major factors that affect innovation and entrepreneurship in these three parts of the world – US, China and India –provides a comprehensive view of their effects and their likely futures. Looks at elements important for innovation and entrepreneurship and compares them against each other within the three countries Places theoretical modeling of economic growth in the context of the overall macroeconomic factors Explores questions about the relationships among innovation, entrepreneurship and economic growth in China, India and the US

Disruptive Innovation in Chinese and Indian Businesses

Disruptive Innovation in Chinese and Indian Businesses
  • Author : Peter Ping Li
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9780415680813
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Summary : A novel mix of key attributes distinctive from those of established technologies or business models, disruptive innovations are typically inferior, yet affordable and "good-enough" products or services, which originate in lower-end market segments, but later move up to compete with those provided by incumbent firms. This book sheds new light on disruptive innovations both from and for the bottom of the pyramid in China and India, from the point of view of local entrepreneurs and international firms seeking to operate their businesses there. It covers both the theoretical and practical implications of disruptive innovation using conceptual frameworks alongside detailed case studies, whilst also providing a comparison of conditions and strategic options in India and China.

Sustainability-oriented Innovation Systems in China and India

Sustainability-oriented Innovation Systems in China and India
  • Author : Tilman Altenburg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-02
  • Total pages :168
  • ISBN : 9781317383925
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Summary : Global economic growth, recently fuelled by Asia’s emerging economies, has greatly accelerated the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and boosted demand for scarce natural resources, including energy, food and mineral raw materials. These developments are pushing the planet close to its ecological boundaries. Transforming the world economy towards sustainability, while ensuring decent levels of resource use for all global citizens, is the greatest challenge of our time. This book explores how innovation systems need to be adapted to successfully confront these challenges. The first chapter introduces the concept of sustainability-oriented innovation systems which highlights the systematic differences between systems that have developed along current resource-intensive technological trajectories and those that address the impending environmental mega-problems. The subsequent articles present case studies of sustainability-oriented innovations in a number of policy areas, including energy efficiency, electric mobility and generation of renewable energy, in China and India. These case studies confirm the specificities of innovation systems geared towards a green techno-economic paradigm. This book was originally published as a special issue of Innovation and Development.

Innovation, Economic Development, and Intellectual Property in India and China

Innovation, Economic Development, and Intellectual Property in India and China
  • Author : Kung-Chung Liu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9789811381027
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Summary :

The Roles of Immigrants and Foreign Students in US Science, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship

The Roles of Immigrants and Foreign Students in US Science, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship
  • Author : Ina Ganguli,Shulamit Kahn,Megan MacGarvie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-19
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : 9780226695761
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Summary : The number of immigrants in the US science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce and among recipients of advanced STEM degrees at US universities has increased in recent decades. In light of the current public debate about immigration, there is a need for evidence on the economic impacts of immigrants on the STEM workforce and on innovation. Using new data and state-of-the-art empirical methods, this volume examines various aspects of the relationships between immigration, innovation, and entrepreneurship, including the effects of changes in the number of immigrants and their skill composition on the rate of innovation; the relationship between high-skilled immigration and entrepreneurship; and the differences between immigrant and native entrepreneurs. It presents new evidence on the postgraduation migration patterns of STEM doctoral recipients, in particular the likelihood these graduates will return to their home country. This volume also examines the role of the US higher education system and of US visa policy in attracting foreign students for graduate study and retaining them after graduation.

Subcommittee on Contracting and Technology Hearing on Helping Small Business Innovators Through the Research and Experimentation Tax Credit

Subcommittee on Contracting and Technology Hearing on Helping Small Business Innovators Through the Research and Experimentation Tax Credit
  • Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Small Business. Subcommittee on Contracting and Technology
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :63
  • ISBN : UOM:39015090385744
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Summary :

Global Innovation in Emerging Economies

Global Innovation in Emerging Economies
  • Author : Prasada Reddy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-12
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9780415888905
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Summary : This title examines the dynamics of the globalisation processes and the emergence of new locations for innovation and its implications.

Innovation and Industrialization in Asia

Innovation and Industrialization in Asia
  • Author : Rajah Rasiah,Yeo Lin,Yuri Sadoi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-13
  • Total pages :168
  • ISBN : 9781135703202
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Summary : Existing accounts of East Asia’s meteoric growth and structural change has either been explained as one dictated essentially by markets with strong macroeconomic fundamentals, or a consequence of proactive governments. This book departs from such a dichotomy by examining inductively the drivers of the experiences. Given the evolutionary treatment of each economic good and service as different, this book examines technological catch up with a strong focus on the industries contributing significantly to the economic growth of the countries selected in Asia. The evidence produced supports the evolutionary logic of macro, meso and micro interactions between several institutions, depending on the actors involved, structural location and typology of taxonomies and trajectories. The book carefully picks out experiences from the populous economies of China, India and Indonesia, the high income economies of Korea and Taiwan, the middle income economies of Malaysia and Thailand, and the transitional least developed country of Myanmar. Chapters 1-7 of this book were originally published as a special issue of Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy.

Financing Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Markets

Financing Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Markets
  • Author : Lourdes Casanova,Peter Klaus Cornelius,Soumitra Dutta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-17
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : 9780128040263
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Summary : Financing Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Emerging Markets offers an original perspective on the links between macro data on innovation, data on micro-entrepreneurial processes and venture capital supply. The authors synthesize two disparate fields of research and thinking—innovation and entrepreneurship and economics—to illuminate how domestic companies compete and the business environment in which entrepreneurial firms operate. Its broad scope and firm linkages between processes at different levels leapfrogs research topics. For those investigating entrepreneurship and innovation in the early stages of economic development, this book demonstrates how micro and macro foundations of productivity, and hence economic growth and development, are inextricably intertwined. Combines macro and micro perspectives on innovation processes Reveals how economic growth and development are inextricably intertwined Uses case studies to portray the entrepreneurial firm and its role in accelerating the speed of innovation and dissemination of new technologies Identifies common flaws undermining public venture programs, including poor design, a lack of understanding for the entrepreneurial process and implementation problems

Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission

Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission
  • Author : U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : MINN:31951D02724570P
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Summary :

Billions of Entrepreneurs

Billions of Entrepreneurs
  • Author : Tarun Khanna
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-02-01
  • Total pages :353
  • ISBN : 9781422163276
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Summary : China and India are home to one-third of the world's population. And they're undergoing social and economic revolutions that are capturing the best minds--and money--of Western business. In Billions of Entrepreneurs, Tarun Khanna examines the entrepreneurial forces driving China's and India's trajectories of development. He shows where these trajectories overlap and complement one another--and where they diverge and compete. He also reveals how Western companies can participate in this development. Through intriguing comparisons, the author probes important differences between China and India in areas such as information and transparency, the roles of capital markets and talent, public and private property rights, social constraints on market forces, attitudes toward expatriates abroad and foreigners at home, entrepreneurial and corporate opportunities, and the importance of urban and rural communities. He explains how these differences will influence China's and India's future development, what the two countries can learn from each other, and how they will ultimately reshape business, politics, and society in the world around them. Engaging and incisive, this book is a critical resource for anyone working in China or India or planning to do business in these two countries.

Chasing Innovation

Chasing Innovation
  • Author : Lilly Irani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-12
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9780691175140
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Summary : A vivid look at how India has developed the idea of entrepreneurial citizens as leaders mobilizing society and how people try to live that promise Can entrepreneurs develop a nation, serve the poor, and pursue creative freedom, all while generating economic value? In Chasing Innovation, Lilly Irani shows the contradictions that arise as designers, engineers, and businesspeople frame development and governance as opportunities to innovate. Irani documents the rise of "entrepreneurial citizenship" in India over the past seventy years, demonstrating how a global ethos of development through design has come to shape state policy, economic investment, and the middle class in one of the world’s fastest-growing nations. Drawing on her own professional experience as a Silicon Valley designer and nearly a decade of fieldwork following a Delhi design studio, Irani vividly chronicles the practices and mindsets that hold up professional design as the answer to the challenges of a country of more than one billion people, most of whom are poor. While discussions of entrepreneurial citizenship promise that Indian children can grow up to lead a nation aspiring to uplift the poor, in reality, social, economic, and political structures constrain whose enterprise, which hopes, and which needs can be seen as worthy of investment. In the process, Irani warns, powerful investors, philanthropies, and companies exploit citizens' social relations, empathy, and political hope in the quest to generate economic value. Irani argues that the move to recast social change as innovation, with innovators as heroes, frames others—craftspeople, workers, and activists—as of lower value, or even dangers to entrepreneurial forms of development. With meticulous historical context and compelling stories, Chasing Innovation lays bare how long-standing power hierarchies such as class, caste, language, and colonialism continue to shape opportunity in a world where good ideas supposedly rule all.

Grassroots Innovation

Grassroots Innovation
  • Author : Anil K Gupta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-07-20
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9788184007794
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Summary : A moral dilemma gripped Professor Gupta when he was invited by the Bangladeshi government to help restructure their agricultural sector in 1985. He noticed how the marginalized farmers were being paid poorly for their otherwise unmatched knowledge. The gross injustice of this constant imbalance led Professor Gupta to found what would turn into a resounding social and ethical movement—the Honey Bee Network—bringing together and elevating thousands of grassroots innovators. For over two decades, Professor Gupta has travelled through rural lands unearthing innovations by the ranks—from the famed Mitti Cool refrigerator to the footbridge of Meghalaya. He insists that to fight the largest and most persistent problems of the world we must eschew expensive research labs and instead, look towards ordinary folk. Innovation—that oft-flung around word—is stripped to its core in this book. Poignant and personal, Grassroots Innovation is an important treatise from a social crusader of our time.

Business Week

Business Week
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105133499694
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Summary :

The Innovative Entrepreneur

The Innovative Entrepreneur
  • Author : Daniel F. Spulber
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-06-16
  • Total pages :380
  • ISBN : 9781107047259
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Summary : Innovative entrepreneurs are the prime movers of the economy. The innovative entrepreneur helps to overcome two types of institutional frictions. First, existing firms may not innovate efficiently due to incumbent inertia resulting from adjustment costs, diversification costs, the replacement effect, and imperfect adjustment of expectations. The innovative entrepreneur compensates for incumbent inertia by embodying innovations in new firms that compete with incumbents. Second, markets for inventions may not operate efficiently due to transaction costs, imperfect intellectual property protections, costs of transferring tacit knowledge, and imperfect information about discoveries. The innovative entrepreneur addresses inefficiencies in markets for inventions through own-use of discoveries and adoption of innovative ideas. The Innovative Entrepreneur presents an economic framework that addresses the motivation of the innovative entrepreneur, the innovative advantage of entrepreneurs versus incumbent firms, the effects of competitive pressures on incentives to innovate, the consequences of creative destruction, and the contributions of the innovative entrepreneur to the wealth of nations.

Intellectual Property, Innovation and Management in Emerging Economies

Intellectual Property, Innovation and Management in Emerging Economies
  • Author : Ruth Taplin,Alojzy Z. Nowak
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-09-13
  • Total pages :192
  • ISBN : 9781136919879
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Summary : This book argues that intellectual property (IP) management development and innovation are fundamental to economic development , especially in newly emerging economies which often hold vast reserves of natural resources and human knowledge that remain unprotected. It sheds light on countries that are gradually realising this situation, with examples from many parts of the world, including Eastern Europe, Africa and especially Asia including India, where a great deal is being made of innovation and intellectual property to stimulate economic growth. These case studies are seen within the theoretical context of the future of cross-border IP which is slowly becoming a reality. Specific examples go beyond the patent prosecution highway, to which China has also recently signed up, and India’s development of generic drugs at lower costs. Experts in the field including practising IP lawyers explain and criticise current and new models being tested in emerging economies concerning IPR. Original case studies of hitherto little understood breaches of African trademarks by the US and Japan, and patenting mistakes in relation to little known Indian forest plants all damage emerging economies and their native people's lives. While proper implementation of IP laws by emerging economies themselves can lead to positive outcomes for all involved, the key is an independent judiciary coupled by thoughtful and thoroughly understood implementation of IP laws within the context of cross border IP. The book shows through models how different emerging economies are at various levels of developing their IPR and what paths they are taking to do this. Finally, it provides a comprehensive assessment of the ways in which innovation, protection and enforcement of IP laws can help newly emerging economies achieve economic growth without destroying natural and human resources, while moving ahead from the current global financial crisis.

Innovation and IPRs in China and India

Innovation and IPRs in China and India
  • Author : Kung-Chung Liu,Uday S. Racherla
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-19
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 9789811004063
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Summary : This book examines the two most populous nations on earth – India and China – in an effort to demystify the interaction between intellectual property rights (IPR) regimes, innovation and economic growth by critically looking at the economic and legal realities. In addition, it analyzes the question of how innovation can best be transformed into IPR, and how IPR can best be exploited to encourage innovation. Comparing and contrasting these two giant nations can be highly beneficial as China and India were the two fastest-growing economies in the last three decades, and together their populations make up one third of the world’s total population; as such, exploring how to sustain their growth via innovation and commercialization of IPR could have a tremendous positive impact on global well-being. While a study of these two mega countries with such diverse dimensions and magnitudes can never be truly comprehensive, this joint effort by scholars from law, business management and economics disciplines that pursues an empirical approach makes a valuable contribution. Divided into three parts, the first offers an in-depth doctrinal and empirical analysis. The second part exclusively focuses on India, while the last is dedicated to China.

Unleashing India's Innovation

Unleashing India's Innovation
  • Author : Mark Dutz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-10-15
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 0821371983
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Summary : India's recent growth rate has been impressive, with real GDP rising by over 8 percent a yearsince 2004. The country is also becoming a top global innovator for high-tech products andservices. Still, India is underperforming relative to its innovation potential. Even a dynamicyoung population--more than half of whom are under 25 years of age--is constrained when skillstraining and higher education are insufficient. To sustain competitiveness, economic growth, andrising living standards over the long term, India needs to aggressively harness its innovation potential. The term innovation is broadly defined in this book to include both the creation andcommercialization of new knowledge and the diffusion and absorption of existing knowledge in newcontexts. A unique feature is the book's focus on inclusive innovation, that is, knowledge creationand absorption activities most relevant to the needs of the poor. Concrete recommendations aremade for increasing productivity and welfare through the disciplining role of competition, includingtraining and education, information infrastructure, and public and private finance as supportmechanisms for broad-based innovation. 'Unleashing India's Innovation: Toward Sustainable and Inclusive Growth' provides nationaland local policy makers, private sector enterprises, academic and research institutions, international organizations, and civil society with a better understanding of the power of innovation to fuel economic growth and poverty reduction.

The Business Week

The Business Week
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-07
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UVA:X030298575
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Summary :

Green Innovation in China

Green Innovation in China
  • Author : Joanna I. Lewis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :282
  • ISBN : 9780231153300
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Summary : Just a decade ago, China maintained only a handful of operating wind turbines -- all imported from Europe and the United States.

Transnational Corporations and Local Innovation

Transnational Corporations and Local Innovation
  • Author : Jose Cassiolato,Graziela Zucoloto,Dinesh Abrol,Xielin Liu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-11-30
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9781000084252
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Summary : This series of books brings together results of an intensive research programme on aspects of the national systems of innovation (NSI) in the five BRICS countries — Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. It provides a comprehensive and comparative examination of the challenges and opportunities faced by these dynamic and emerging economies. In discussing the impact of innovation with respect to economic, geopolitical, socio-cultural, institutional, and technological systems, it reveals the possibilities of new development paradigms for equitable and sustainable growth. This volume explores the relationship between transnational corporations (TNCs) and NSI across BRICS economies. The essays highlight the role of foreign direct investment (FDI), the evolution of TNCs and examine local factors — such as government policies, human resources, market structures, and technological capabilities — that affect collaborative efforts with indigenous firms towards innovation and development. The authors approach the thesis of technological globalisation with some caution, refuting the idea that research and development (R&D) activities have been inexorably internationalised. Original and detailed data, together with expert analyses on wide-ranging issues, make this book an invaluable resource for researchers and scholars in economics, development studies and political science, in addition to policy makers and development practitioners interested in the BRICS countries.