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Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Richard Smith Jr.,Hiroshi Inomata,Cor Peters
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-08
  • Total pages :752
  • ISBN : 9780080931302
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Summary : This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols

Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols
  • Author : Tony Clifford
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9781592590308
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Summary : Because of their unique properties and relatively low environmental impact, supercritical fluids have proven highly useful in the extraction and separation of organic compounds, in particle production, as reaction media, and for the destruction of toxic waste. In Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols, experienced practitioners present detailed accounts of a wide variety of techniques using supercritical fluids. These range from the supercritical fluid extraction methods for numerous compounds to the ninhydrin staining of fingerprints on checks and banknotes, and from the detection of impurities in pharmaceuticals to a wide variety of applications throughout environmental and food science, and across analytical, clinical, and medicinal chemistry. Detailed step-by-step instructions enable users to apply these essential techniques successfully the first time, and include modifications that permit their effective adaptation to novel experimental or process conditions. For each application, additional discussions provide needed background information, lists of materials and apparatus, and advice about common pitfalls and how to avoid them. Versatile and comprehensive, Supercritical Methods and Protocols offers both novice and experienced investigators and laboratory analysts powerful tools that will enable successful biological and bioprocess analyses and optimizations today.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction
  • Author : Mark McHugh,Val Krukonis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780080518176
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Summary : Supercritical Fluid Extraction is a technique in which CO2 is used under extremely high pressure to separate solution (e.g., removing caffeine from coffee). Separations is basic to all process industries and supercritical fluid extraction is a specific type which is receiving a high level of attention. The book will combine basic fundamentals with industrial applications. The second edition has been expanded and updated and includes new chapters on chromatography and food processing. "...this is an excellent book which is both instructive and amusing to read. Its true value is neatly summarised in one of the closing sentences: 'We have supplied you with the guidelines and criteria which you can now apply when considering supercritical fluids for your own needs.'' - Chemistry in Britain, February 1995

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds
  • Author : Can Erkey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-10-27
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9780080914480
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Summary : Organometallic compounds are utilized as reagents in the preparation and processing of advanced nanostructured materials, as catalysts in the production of a wide variety of specialty chemicals and polymers, and as drugs. Supercritical fluid science and technology has a wide variety of applications ranging from extraction of pharmaceutically active compounds to the synthesis of advanced materials. The combination of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids has significant potential. This book covers the fundamental aspects and related applications in this rapidly growing area. Covers the preparation of nanostructured composite materials using supercritical fluids Focuses on the intersection of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids Addresses the behavior of organometallic compounds in supercritical fluid environments

Gas Extraction

Gas Extraction
  • Author : Gerd Brunner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-29
  • Total pages :387
  • ISBN : 9783662073803
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Summary : Application of compressed gases as solvents has found widespread interest within the scientific community. Its processes have industrial applications. Gas Extraction deals with the possibilities of supercritical gases as solvents for separation processes. The volume combines physico-chemical aspects with chemical engineering methods. The text generalizes as far as possible, and treats examples in detail. Gas Extraction covers, for the first time, the subject in textbook form. Most of the examples provide new results that will be helpful for practicing scientists, engineers, and students who want to make use of the techniques.

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning
  • Author : Samuel P. Sawan,Samuel P Sawan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-12-31
  • Total pages :306
  • ISBN : 9780815519164
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Summary : Although supercritial fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. The objective is to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It is particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It is also useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature. The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.

Chemical Synthesis Using Supercritical Fluids

Chemical Synthesis Using Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Philip G. Jessop,Walter Leitner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-07-11
  • Total pages :500
  • ISBN : 9783527613694
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Summary : For 'better solutions' - this practical guide describes how to take advantage of supercritical fluids in chemical synthesis. Well-established in extractions and materials processing, supercritical fluids are becoming increasingly popular as media for modern chemical syntheses. Historically, the application of compressed gases has been restricted mainly to the production of bulk chemicals. In the last decade, however, research has turned to exploiting the unique properties of supercritical fluids for the synthesis of fine chemicals and specialized materials. Now that the necessary equipment is more readily available, the use of supercritical fluids should become more widespread in both laboratory and industrial scale syntheses. More than merely a concise introduction to the properties of supercritical fluids, here leading experts give a thorough, up-to-date account of chemistry in these alternative media. In-depth scientific commentary, detailed reaction protocols, descriptions of necessary equipment, and an outline of spectroscopic techniques add to the value of this handbook aimed at innovative synthetic chemists.

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Y. Arai,T. Sako,Y. Takebayashi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-07
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9783642562389
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Summary : The potential of supercritical fluid methods is presented in a comprehensive way. On the basis of a careful discussion of physical and chemical principles, the application of this method in process technology is demonstrated.

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : E. Kiran,Pablo G. Debenedetti,Cor J. Peters
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :596
  • ISBN : 9789401139298
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Summary : Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.

Analysis with Supercritical Fluids: Extraction and Chromatography

Analysis with Supercritical Fluids: Extraction and Chromatography
  • Author : Bernd Wenclawiak
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :214
  • ISBN : 9783642774744
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Summary : The use of supercritical fluids in analytical chemistry is still grow ing. More and more analysts are discovering the favorable advan tages for a number of applications. Especially supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has attracted a lot of interest in recent years due to its simplicity. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has become better established and the development of this technique has been accelerated by the many applications with capillary col umns which have been published in the literature. At first SFC equipment was based on instruments commonly used for liquid chromatography, and the first commercial in struments were derived from this technology. However, capillary columns can be much more easily interfaced to gas chromatogra phy equipment especially to the detectors commonly used for Oc. Many stationary phases both for packed micro columns and capillary columns have been designed for SFC purposes extending this technology to LC and OC. The most common fluid applied in SFC and SFE is carbon dioxide. The advantages of supercritical CO , such as having dif 2 fusivity like a gas and solvating power depending on temperature and pressure, are also valid for other fluids and modified fluids. Both properties are valuable for sample extraction and extraction selectivity.

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Michael Türk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-06
  • Total pages :152
  • ISBN : 9780444594433
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Summary : Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties

Applications of Supercritical Fluids in Industrial Analysis

Applications of Supercritical Fluids in Industrial Analysis
  • Author : J.R. Dean
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 9789401121460
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Summary : The continued search for rapid, efficient and cost-effective means of analytical measurement has introduced supercritical fluids into the field of analytical chemistry. Two areas are common: supercritical fluid chroma tography and supercritical fluid extraction. Both seek to exploit the unique properties of a gas at temperatures and pressures above the critical point. The most common supercritical fluid is carbon dioxide, employed because of its low critical temperature (31 °C), inertness, purity, non-toxicity and cheapness. Alternative supercritical fluids are also used and often in conjunction with modifiers. The combined gas-like mass transfer and liquid-like solvating characteristics have been used for improved chroma tographic separation and faster sample preparation. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is complementary to gas chro matography ( GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), providing higher efficiency than HPLC, together with the ability to analyse thermally labile and high molecular weight analytes. Both packed and open tubular columns can be employed, providing the capability to analyse a wide range of sample types. In addition, flame ionization detection can be used, thus providing 'universal' detection.

High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria
  • Author : Ulrich K Deiters,Thomas Kraska
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-26
  • Total pages :370
  • ISBN : 9780444563545
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Summary : The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Current Trends of Supercritical Fluid Technology in Pharmaceutical, Nutraceutical and Food Processing Industries

Current Trends of Supercritical Fluid Technology in Pharmaceutical, Nutraceutical and Food Processing Industries
  • Author : Ana Rita C. Duarte,Catarina Maria Martins Duarte
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-13
  • Total pages :124
  • ISBN : 9781608050468
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Summary : Supercritical fluid technology can be seen as a green and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional. Current information on these topics is spread through different publications in different peer-reviewed journals. The editors were therefore of

Heat Transfers and Related Effects in Supercritical Fluids

Heat Transfers and Related Effects in Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Bernard Zappoli,Daniel Beysens,Yves Garrabos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-17
  • Total pages :454
  • ISBN : 9789401791878
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Summary : This book investigates the unique hydrodynamics and heat transfer problems that are encountered in the vicinity of the critical point of fluids. Emphasis is given on weightlessness conditions, gravity effects and thermovibrational phenomena. Near their critical point, fluids indeed obey universal behavior and become very compressible and expandable. Their comportment, when gravity effects are suppressed, becomes quite unusual. The problems that are treated in this book are of interest to students and researchers interested in the original behavior of near-critical fluids as well as to engineers that have to manage supercritical fluids. A special chapter is dedicated to the present knowledge of critical point phenomena. Specific data for many fluids are provided, ranging from cryogenics (hydrogen) to high temperature (water). Basic information in statistical mechanics, mathematics and measurement techniques is also included. The basic concepts of fluid mechanics are given for the non-specialists to be able to read the parts he is interested in. Asymptotic theory of heat transfer by thermoacoustic processes is provided with enough details for PhD students or researchers and engineers to begin in the field. Key spaces are described in details, with many comparisons between theory and experiments to illustrate the topics.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction
  • Author : Larry T. Taylor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996-03-13
  • Total pages :181
  • ISBN : UOM:39015037351429
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Summary : By encouraging a deliberate, systematic approach to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) methods and techniques, this book enables scientists and technicians to avoid disappointing results and erroneous conclusions and develop reliable guidelines for using this versatile technology.

Supercritical and Other High-pressure Solvent Systems

Supercritical and Other High-pressure Solvent Systems
  • Author : Andrew J Hunt,Thomas M Attard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-24
  • Total pages :678
  • ISBN : 9781788015189
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Summary : Exploring the range and utility of high-pressure solvent systems across a variety of different chemical applications, this book brings together recent advances in supercritical technology and other pressurised-solvent systems. It provides an in-depth overview of the latest advances and developments and discusses the limitations and drawbacks that need to be addressed. Wherever possible, the greenness and economic viability of the different solvent systems is highlighted. This book is ideal for researchers and industrialists working in environmental science, green chemistry and biorefineries.

Supercritical Water

Supercritical Water
  • Author : Yizhak Marcus
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-06-26
  • Total pages :218
  • ISBN : 9780470889473
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Summary : Discover the many new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent Drawing from thousands of original research articles, this book reviews and summarizes what is currently known about the properties and uses of supercritical water. In particular, it focuses on new and emerging applications of supercritical water as a green solvent, including the catalytic conversion of biomass into fuels and the oxidation of hazardous materials. Supercritical Water begins with an introduction that defines supercritical fluids in general. It then defines supercritical water in particular, using the saturation curve to illustrate its relationship to regular water. Following this introduction, the book: Describes the bulk macroscopic properties of supercritical water, using equations of state to explain temperature-pressure-density relationships Examines supercritical water's molecular properties, setting forth the latest experimental data as well as computer simulations that shed new light on structure and dynamics Explores the solubilities of gases, organic substances, salts, and ions in supercritical water in terms of the relevant phase equilibria Sets forth the practical uses of supercritical water at both small scales and full industrial scales Throughout the book, the author uses tables for at-a-glance reviews of key information. Summaries at the end of each chapter reinforce core principles, and references to original research and reviews serve as a gateway and guide to the extensive literature in the field. Supercritical Water is written for students and professionals in physical chemistry, chemistry of water, chemical engineering, and organic chemistry, interested in exploring the applications and properties of supercritical water.

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes

Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes
  • Author : Gerd Brunner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-04
  • Total pages :604
  • ISBN : 9780444594181
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Summary : Hydrothermal and Supercritical Water Processes presents an overview on the properties and applications of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. It combines fundamentals with production process aspects. Water is an extraordinary substance. At elevated temperatures (and pressures) its properties change dramatically due to the modifications of the molecular structure of bulk water that varies from a stable three-dimensional network, formed by hydrogen bonds at low and moderate temperatures, to an assembly of separated polar water molecules at high and supercritical temperatures. With varying pressure and temperature, water is turned from a solvent for ionic species to a solvent for polar and non-polar substances. This variability and an enhanced reactivity of water have led to many practical applications and to even more research activities, related to such areas as energy transfer, extraction of functional molecules, unique chemical reactions, biomass conversion and fuel materials processing, destruction of dangerous compounds and recycling of useful ones, growth of monolithic crystals, and preparation of metallic nanoparticles. This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further information Summarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applications Compares process and reactor designs Evaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints

Separation, Extraction and Concentration Processes in the Food, Beverage and Nutraceutical Industries

Separation, Extraction and Concentration Processes in the Food, Beverage and Nutraceutical Industries
  • Author : Syed S. H. Rizvi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-10-28
  • Total pages :694
  • ISBN : 9780857090751
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Summary : Separation, extraction and concentration are essential processes in the preparation of key food ingredients. They play a vital role in the quality optimization of common foods and beverages and there is also increasing interest in their use for the production of high-value compounds, such as bioactive peptides from milk and whey, and the recovery of co-products from food processing wastes. Part one describes the latest advances in separation, extraction and concentration techniques, including supercritical fluid extraction, process chromatography and membrane technologies. It also reviews emerging techniques of particular interest, such as pervaporation and pressurised liquid extraction. Part two then focuses on advances in separation technologies and their applications in various sectors of the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries. Areas covered include dairy and egg processing, oilseed extraction, and brewing. This section discusses the characteristics of different foods and fluids, how food constituents are affected by separation processes and how separation processes can be designed and operated to optimize end product quality. With its team of experienced international contributors, Separation, extraction and concentration processes in the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries is an important reference source for professionals concerned with the development and optimisation of these processes. Describes the latest advances in separation, extraction and concentration techniques and their applications in various sectors of the food, beverage and nutraceutical industries Reviews emerging techniques of particular interest, such as pervaporation and pressurised liquid extraction Explores the characteristics of different foods and fluids and how food constituents are affected by separation processes

Modern Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

Modern Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
  • Author : Larry M. Miller,J. David Pinkston,Larry T. Taylor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-05
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9781119625995
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Summary : Explains why modern supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is the leading "green" analytical and purification separations technology. Modern supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is the leading method used to analyze and purify chiral and achiral chemical compounds, many of which are pharmaceuticals, pharmaceutical candidates, and natural products including cannabis-related compounds. This book covers current SFC instrumentation as it relates to greater robustness, better reproducibility, and increased analytical sensitivity. Modern Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: Carbon Dioxide Containing Mobile Phases covers the history, instrumentation, method development and applications of SFC. The authors provided readers with an overview of analytical and preparative SFC equipment, stationary phases, and mobile phase choices. Topics covered include: Milestones of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography; Physical Properties of Supercritical Fluids; Instrumentation for SFC; Detection in SFC; Achiral SFC Method Development; Chiral SFC Method Development; and Preparative Scale SFC. The book also includes highlights of modern applications of SFC in the final chapters—namely pharmaceuticals, consumer products, foods, polymers, petroleum-related mixtures, and cannabis—and discusses the future of SFC. Provides a clear explanation of the physical and chemical properties of supercritical fluids, which gives the reader a better understanding of the basis for improved performance in SFC compared to HPLC and GC Describes the advantages of SFC as a green alternative to HPLC and GC for the analysis of both polar, water-soluble, and non-polar analytes Details both achiral and chiral SFC method development, including modifiers, additives, the impact of temperature and pressure, and stationary phase choices Details why SFC is the premier modern preparative chromatographic technique used to purify components of mixtures for subsequent uses, both from performance and economic perspectives Covers numerous detectors, with an emphasis on SFC-MS, SFC-UV, and SFC-ELSD (evaporative light scattering detection) Describes the application of SFC to numerous high-value application areas Modern Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: Carbon Dioxide Containing Mobile Phases will be of great interest to professionals, students, and professors involved in analytical, bioanalytical, separations science, medicinal, petroleum, and environmental chemistries. It will also appeal to pharmaceutical scientists, natural-product scientists, food and consumer-products scientists, chemical engineers, and managers in these areas.