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Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Randolf Menzel,Paul Benjamin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780123982605
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Summary : Understanding how memories are induced and maintained is one of the major outstanding questions in modern neuroscience. This is difficult to address in the mammalian brain due to its enormous complexity, and invertebrates offer major advantages for learning and memory studies because of their relative simplicity. Many important discoveries made in invertebrates have been found to be generally applicable to higher organisms, and the overarching theme of the proposed will be to integrate information from different levels of neural organization to help generate a complete account of learning and memory. Edited by two leaders in the field, Invertebrate Learning and Memory will offer a current and comprehensive review, with chapters authored by experts in each topic. The volume will take a multidisciplinary approach, exploring behavioral, cellular, genetic, molecular, and computational investigations of memory. Coverage will include comparative cognition at the behavioral and mechanistic level, developments in concepts and methodologies that will underlie future advancements, and mechanistic examples from the most important vertebrate systems (nematodes, molluscs, and insects). Neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the neural control of cognitive behavior will benefit, as will as will those in the field of invertebrate learning. Presents an overview of invertebrate studies at the molecular / cellular / neural levels and correlates findings to mammalian behavioral investigations Linking multidisciplinary approaches allows for full understanding of how molecular changes in neurons and circuits underpin behavioral plasticity Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available Comprehensive coverage synthesizes widely dispersed research, serving as one-stop shopping for comparative learning and memory researchers

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Randolf Menzel,Paul R. Benjamin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071496
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Summary : In 1984, Hawkins and Kandel published a seminal paper titled “Is There a Cell-Biological Alphabet for Simple Forms of Learning?” Based on their early findings of the cooperative regulation of adenylyl cyclase in sensory neurons of Aplysia, an overarching concept was presented which opened our mind to molecular mechanisms of experience-dependent neural plasticity. Several basic forms of nonassociative and associative learning (habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning) were explained on the level of rather simple molecular reaction cascades in specific neurons. At that time, these were radical ideas, and even today we struggle with the question whether cognitive faculties such as learning and memory formation can be reduced to ubiquitous cellular functions, and what such a reduction might mean. The concepts presented in this paper were also radical in the sense that they broke with the speculation that the information of acquired memories is stored in molecules like RNA. Meanwhile, it is well accepted in neuroscience that neural circuits acquire new information by changing network properties on the level of specified neurons and their synaptic connections. Multiple key elements contribute to these adaptations, and it is the task of today’s neuroscience to unravel the complex hierarchies of interactions from the molecular to the systems level in solving the problem of predicting future behavior from experience in the past.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Dorothea Eisenhardt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071816
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Summary : The behavioral phenomenon of extinction resembles the decrease of a conditioned behavior when animals experience the presentation of a previously reinforced stimulus. In honeybees, extinction is studied in an appetitive learning paradigm, the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. Here, I describe recent work on extinction in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and its underlying molecular mechanisms. I demonstrate that extinction in honeybees shares behavioral and molecular similarities with extinction in vertebrates, and I discuss whether these similarities might indicate that extinction is a phylogenetically old mechanism.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Paul R. Benjamin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071625
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Summary : Understanding how network mechanisms contribute to behavioral plasticity is a key objective in learning and memory studies. This is likely to be complex because the different types of synaptic and nonsynaptic (cellular and neuronal) changes that underlie memory are known to occur at multiple locations within the neural network. Determining how these multiple changes are integrated to generate network correlates of learning is the major goal of a systems analysis. Gastropod mollusks offer the advantage that behavioral plasticity can be directly linked to network and the cellular analysis of learning because of the ability to identify individual neurons and determine their synaptic connectivity. Important progress has been made in understanding the synaptic and nonsynaptic contributions to network changes underlying simple forms of nonassociative (habituation and sensitization) and associative (classical and operant conditioning) learning and, to a lesser extent, more complex types of behavior such as second-order conditioning.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Binyamin Hochner,Tal Shomrat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071724
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Summary : Cephalopod mollusks such as octopus, cuttlefish, and squid (coleoids) are of special interest for studying the evolution and function of learning and memory mechanisms at the system level. They are believed to have the most advanced cognitive behaviors of all invertebrates, rivaling the abilities of many vertebrates. The phylum Mollusca shows the most diversified range of behavioral complexity among the invertebrates, with behavioral complexity correlating roughly with the size of the nervous system (a few thousand vs. half a billion neurons) and its morphological organization (centralized vs. distributed). The mollusks therefore provide an excellent opportunity for assessing conservation and convergent processes in the evolution and development of learning and memory systems subserving complex behaviors. The pioneering work of J. Z. Young, M. J. Wells, and colleagues confirmed that a specific structure in the brain of the modern cephalopods, the vertical lobe, is involved in their highly sophisticated behaviors. This chapter summarizes recent neurophysiological research in the octopus and cuttlefish vertical lobe system that, for the first time, allows a functional and computational approach to the evolution of learning and memory systems.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Alan Gelperin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071700
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Summary : Terrestrial slugs and snails are particularly favorable subjects for studies of comparative cognition. Chemosensation is their dominant distance sense for locating food, mates, predators, and nest sites. A variety of conditioning phenomena have been demonstrated using odors as conditioned stimuli, including higher order conditioning such as second-order conditioning and blocking. Learning has been evaluated by measuring local reflexes and whole body orientation to odors. Behaviors with learned components involve homeostatic mechanisms for water, temperature, nutrition, and circadian activity. Cellular substrates and neural correlates for plasticity in odor processing have focused on a unique brain region, the procerebral lobe, which is necessary and sufficient for learning about odor stimuli. The rich set of learning phenomena displayed by terrestrial slugs and snails emphasize the importance of seeking evidence for complex cognitive tasks by asking experimental questions appropriate to the Ümwelt of the animal. In general, invertebrates can implement most vertebrate learned logic operations.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Andrea H. McEwan,Catharine H. Rankin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071571
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Summary : Despite its apparent simplicity, the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has a surprisingly large capacity to learn and remember. Previous characterization of C. elegans genome and neuronal circuit makes this worm an ideal choice for studying behavior and the mechanisms that underlie it. Through careful behavioral and genetic studies, nematodes have been shown to form both short-term and long-term memory in associative and nonassociative training paradigms. Investigations of mechanosensory habituation and context-dependent learning in C. elegans have uncovered important similarities between learning in C. elegans and learning in vertebrates. These results include the discovery of common behavioral features in nonassociative learning between C. elegans and other organisms along with the identification of conserved genes that govern both nonassociative and associative learning. High-throughput studies have identified hundreds of genes implicated in memory and will potentially lead to insights into the fundamental strategies for encoding memory.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : György Kemenes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071687
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Summary : Lymnaea provides highly valuable experimental models for top-down analyses of associative learning and memory. Using classical conditioning paradigms, molecular mechanisms of consolidation, maintenance, retrieval, and reconsolidation of associative memory have been investigated. Long-term memory (LTM) forms after multitrial reward and aversive conditioning but, unusually, also after single-trial reward conditioning (“flashbulb memory”). Molecular mechanisms of LTM involve highly conserved signaling pathways (NO/cGMP, cAMP/PKA, MAPK, NMDA receptors, and CaMKII), transcriptional regulation of gene expression by CREB and C/EBP, and new protein synthesis. Cellular mechanisms of LTM involve synaptic or nonsynaptic plasticity in key modulatory interneurons of the feeding network. Importantly, a number of molecular processes involved in LTM have been traced from the behavioral level to single identified neurons.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Shin Murakami
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071601
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Summary : Age-related memory impairment (AMI), also called aging associated memory impairment, is a normal condition observed in a wide variety of species from Caenorhabditis elegans to human. AMI occurs unexpectedly early during the reproductive phase, which may be a tradeoff relevant to evolution. An important but frequently missed concept is that the early phase of AMI is associated with reduced memory of new information but also with well-retained memory of certain old information, leading to a shift of behavioral plasticity. Early AMI affects short-term memory and long-term memory, which are modulated by the serotonin pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway, and the genes involved in memory formation. This chapter describes the current understanding of AMI and clarifies misunderstandings in this emerging field of C. elegans AMI. It discusses the “middle-life crisis” theory that can apply to cognitive aging, including endocrine and epigenetic changes.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Martin Giurfa,Randolf Menzel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071519
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Summary : The behavior of insects transcends elementary forms of adaptive responding to environmental changes. We discuss examples of exploration, instrumental and observational learning, expectation, learning in a social context, and planning of future actions. We show that learning about sensory cues allows insects to transfer flexibly their responses to novel stimuli attaining thereby different levels of complexity, from basic generalization to categorization and concept learning consistent with rule extraction. We argue that updating of existing memories requires multiple forms of memory processing. A key element in these processes is working memory, an active form of memory considered to allow evaluation of actions on the basis of expected outcome. We discuss which of these cognitive faculties can be traced to specific neural processes and how they relate to the overall organization of the insect brain.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : David L. Glanzman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071656
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Summary : The marine snail Aplysia californica exhibits a simple defensive withdrawal reflex that can undergo several forms of learning. In particular, the reflex can exhibit long-term sensitization (LTS), a form of nonassociative memory. LTS is mediated by long-term facilitation (LTF) of the monosynaptic connection between the sensory and motor neurons that mediate the withdrawal reflex. LTS and LTF represent one of the best understood model systems of long-term memory extent. Furthermore, discoveries from work on this system have provided fundamental insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate the induction and maintenance of long-term memory. This chapter reviews this work; it concludes with a discussion of recent studies of the role of protein kinase M in the persistence of the long-term memory and of memory reconsolidation in Aplysia. It is suggested that the study of LTS and LTF can provide important mechanistic information on these two intriguing memory phenomena.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Douglas A. Baxter,Enrico Cataldo,John H. Byrne
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071557
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Summary : Mathematical models and computer simulations play important roles in developing a better understanding of learning and memory mechanisms. Models provide a means for representing, integrating, and manipulating diverse and complex empirical data. This chapter provides an overview of computational studies of learning and memory in invertebrates, including gene regulatory networks, signal transduction cascades, single neurons, and neural networks. These computational studies are helping to link specific component processes (e.g., changes in protein levels and phosphorylation, modulation of membrane conductances, synaptic plasticity, and network architecture) to features of nonassociative and associative learning. Moreover, these computational studies highlight mechanistic features that are common among different animals and common to multiple forms of learning and memory. Thus, computational analyses provide insights into the relationships among simple and complex forms of learning.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Robert D. Hawkins,Igor Antonov,Iksung Jin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071649
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Summary : Whereas short-term (minutes) plasticity is either presynaptic or postsynaptic, long-term (days) plasticity involves synaptic remodeling and growth, which require both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. In addition, an intermediate-term stage has been identified that lasts tens of minutes and involves the recruitment of synaptic proteins but not growth. These findings have raised two fundamental questions: How are the different stages of plasticity related, and when and how does plasticity spread from one side of the synapse to both sides? Studies of the mechanisms of short-term and intermediate-term facilitation in Aplysia have begun to answer these questions. Intermediate-term facilitation is the first stage to involve both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Furthermore, increased spontaneous transmitter release from the presynaptic neuron during the short-term stage acts as an anterograde signal to recruit postsynaptic mechanisms of intermediate-term facilitation, which may be first steps in a cascade that can lead to synaptic growth during long-term facilitation.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Ludovic Dickel,Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq,Christelle Jozet-Alves,Cécile Bellanger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071731
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Summary : This chapter summarizes the literature on the anatomical and functional organization of the cuttlefish brain, with a focus on the structures involved in learning and memory processes (namely the vertical lobe system and optic lobes). Also, different learning paradigms that are commonly used in Sepia officinalis are described with, when possible, their neural correlates. Recent work on the early development of brain and memory is also reviewed. Some research directions to follow in the field of neurobiology of learning and memory in cuttlefish are suggested to better understand the extraordinary behavioral plasticity of these sophisticated invertebrates.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Jean-Christophe Sandoz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071786
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Summary : A general question in the study of associative learning and memory is how stimulus-specific and outcome-related information is acquired, stored and retrieved by the nervous system. The honeybee antennal lobe is a tractable structure for studying this question, with its modular organization with clearly identified glomeruli. This chapter deals with the search for functional and structural plasticity in the bee brain as a result of olfactory conditioning. After detailing the different forms of olfactory learning that can be studied in laboratory conditions, a short description of the olfactory system of honeybees is provided, with a special emphasis on the antennal lobe, detailing the reasons why plasticity may be expected in this structure. Then, we will review the results procured by studies coupling different olfactory conditioning protocols with neurophysiological and neuroanatomical quantification techniques. Lastly, we will discuss where research should focus next in order to understand how stimulus-specific and outcome-related memories are formed and stored in the bee brain.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Stevanus Rio Tedjakumala,Martin Giurfa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071847
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Summary : Studies on learning and memory in honeybees have been historically framed in an appetitive context because bees learn remarkably well about sensory stimuli if these are associated with food. We review studies in which bees learn about olfactory stimuli associated with the noxious stimulation of an electric shock. In response to such stimulation, bees exhibit a sting extension response (SER). Pairing a neutral odor with shock results in associative learning so that bees exhibit conditioned SER to the originally neutral stimulus and avoid afterwards that stimulus when given the possibility of moving away from it. SER conditioning leads to long-term memory formation, which depends on transcription and translation. Aversive reinforcement properties are mediated by dopamine, and a rich network of dopaminergic neurons exists in the bee brain. Taken together, these studies open new research avenues to understand how bees learn about aversive events in their environment.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Ken Lukowiak,Sarah Dalesman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071694
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Summary : Stress can alter adaptive behaviors and also either enhance or diminish learning, memory formation, and/or memory recall. We focus our studies on how environmentally relevant stressors such as predator detection, crowding, and low concentrations of environmental Ca2+ alter learning and long-term memory (LTM) formation in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We specifically focus on operant conditioning of aerial respiration and whether or not LTM forms following the acquisition of the learned event. In addition, we have begun to assay the consequences of combing different stressors together. Our conclusion so far is that the effects of different combinations of stressors on LTM formation are an emergent property and thus can only be ascertained following direct experimentation. We also examine the strain differences in Lymnaea that allow or cause isolated populations to possess different heritable capabilities, as manifested by differing abilities to form LTM.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Seth M. Tomchik,Ronald L. Davis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071755
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Summary : The study of learning and memory using Drosophila melanogaster has evolved across four broad areas of investigation: genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology, neuroanatomy, and systems neuroscience. Research into the genetics of learning and memory has revealed critical signaling pathways underlying memory formation, ranging from the centrality of cAMP signaling in memory acquisition to the roles of Rac and dopamine in forgetting. Biochemistry and molecular biology have characterized the molecular functions of these signaling pathways that regulate memory. Neuroanatomical studies have established the role of the mushroom body in the encoding and retrieval of memories and identified other components of the memory circuits. Finally, circuit- and systems-level analysis have revealed how multiple sets of neurons interact to generate the functional changes in circuits that encode memories. Here, we review the progress across these domains and provide an outlook for future contributions of Drosophila to the study of learning and memory.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : M. Heisenberg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071502
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Summary : Animals owe much of their fitness to their behavior. They often have a large behavioral repertoire that they have to manage. For this, they need their brain. Using Drosophila as the study case, this chapter depicts animals as autonomous agents and the brain as a behavioral organizer. Behavior is active. It is generated for its consequences. It serves to change or restore the animal’s condition, with no guarantee for improvement. There are two kinds of activity—reactivity and initiating activity. If in a special situation, the animal’s repertoire contains a behavior with sufficiently positive inferred outcome and this is activated, it is called a reaction. Most situations, however, provide no special cues for which reactions would be available. Animals do not have to wait. They can activate behaviors ‘by themselves,’ in search of one with positive outcome.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Randolf Menzel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071779
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Summary : What is the engram, the memory trace that stores the content of memory? Here, I argue that the engram is more than just the sum of all learning-related neural changes. Rather, it is an integrated part of the whole nervous system, from sensory integration to interneuron processing and motor control. Emphasis is given to those neural processing components that do not express themselves in the behavior of the animal. To date, the search for the olfactory engram in the bee brain has focused on network properties in the antennal lobe (AL), the input and output regions of the mushroom body region (calyx), the mushroom body extrinsic neurons, and the reward pathway. I conclude that the olfactory memory trace in the AL relates predominantly to attention-generating properties. The memory trace in the calyx is characterized by the high-order combinatorial integration of multiple sensory inputs. Mushroom body extrinsic neurons are tentatively related to multiple processing categories that represent the acquired values (e.g., favorable conditions and to be avoided condition) and provide neural commands for goal-directed behavior and decision making. The system of VUM neurons stores appetitive memory related to appetitive internal states and controls nonassociative and associative memories. A model is presented that aims to capture the multifaceted and distributed nature of the engram and may help to guide our future search of the engram at a systems level.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Author : Thomas Riemensperger,André Fiala
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-18
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780128071540
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Summary : Localizing and determining biochemical and physiological mechanisms in the brain that are causally related to experience-dependent changes of behavior (i.e., learning) can be accomplished by combining different experimental approaches. First, disabling neuronal structure and function, such as by mutations leading to ablation of neurons or reversibly blocking of synaptic transmission, can provide information about which neuronal structures and processes are required for learning. Second, monitoring neuronal activity during and after learning informs about changes in neuronal processing that correlate with learning, memory formation, and retrieval. Third, artificial induction of neuronal activity can be used to mimic learning-induced changes in neuronal function. Advances in the development of molecular tools to optically monitor correlates of neuronal activity and to manipulate neuronal activity through light or temperature increase have substantially expanded the toolkit for such approaches. In this chapter, we review applications of these techniques for analyzing neuronal mechanisms underlying associative olfactory learning in Drosophila melanogaster.