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Kenya - A Natural Outlook

Kenya - A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Paolo Paron
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :374
  • ISBN : 0444595597
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Summary : Kenya is a thriving country in East Africa: its economy is largely based on the natural environment that frames the tourism sector, mainly through safaris and holidays on the coast. The natural environment also underpins the second largest industry: agriculture. Kenya's social, technological, and industrial developments are a reference for many neighboring countries. Kenya plays a leading role in Africa and attracts huge amounts of investments. Furthermore, the humanitarian community has made Nairobi its base for international headquarters and regional offices. This makes Kenya a possible model for development and investment in its widest sense. This book aims at updating the holistic view on Kenya's natural environment and resources. It provides a sound scientific introduction to this country's physical and socioeconomic setting and its evolution through time and will appeal to a broad audience of students - in Kenya and abroad - as well as those working in the development and humanitarian sectors and to international donors looking for a scientific compendium on Kenya's environment. Its structure and references allow the reader to deepen his or her knowledge of every theme touched on in the book. Combines different aspects of physical geography, water and soil resources and their management strategies Written by a blend of international and national experts Includes specific case studies

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780444595478
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Summary : Kenya is a thriving country in East Africa: its economy is largely based on the natural environment that frames the tourism sector, mainly through safaris and holidays on the coast. The natural environment also underpins the second largest industry: agriculture. Kenya’s social, technological, and industrial developments are a reference for many neighboring countries. Kenya plays a leading role in Africa and attracts huge amounts of investments. Furthermore, the humanitarian community has made Nairobi its base for international headquarters and regional offices. This makes Kenya a possible model for development and investment in its widest sense. This book aims at updating the holistic view on Kenya’s natural environment and resources. It provides a sound scientific introduction to this country’s physical and socioeconomic setting and its evolution through time and will appeal to a broad audience of students – in Kenya and abroad – as well as those working in the development and humanitarian sectors and to international donors looking for a scientific compendium on Kenya’s environment. Its structure and references allow the reader to deepen his or her knowledge of every theme touched on in the book. Combines different aspects of physical geography, water and soil resources and their management strategies Written by a blend of international and national experts Includes specific case studies

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Elijah K. Biamah,Jacqueline Kiio,Benjamin Kogo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083963
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Summary : In Kenya, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been used to ensure that environmental management is integrated into project planning and decision-making with a view of achieving ecologically sustainable development. Best-practice EIA identifies environmental risks, lessens resource use conflicts by promoting community participation, minimizes adverse environmental effects, informs decision-makers, and helps lay the base for environmentally sound projects. In the integration of an EIA, due considerations are made in all stages of a project, from exploration and planning through construction, operations, decommissioning, and beyond site closure. Therefore, this chapter brings out an in-depth understanding of the EIA in the Kenyan context. Some of the key issues looked into are the goals and principles of the EIA, the EIA process, public consultation and participation in environmental assessment, social dimensions in environmental assessment, and the legislative and regulatory framework for environmental management in Kenya.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Charles Maina-Gichaba,Enoch K. Kipseba,Moses Masibo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083987
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Summary : Natural disasters disrupt people's lives through displacements, destruction of livelihoods and property, deaths, and injuries. Consequently, they take back years of development, thus posing a major challenge to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals especially the target of halving extreme poverty by 2015 and Kenya's set development goals as contained in Vision 2030. The nature of natural disasters in Kenya especially landslides has constantly eroded the recovery capacity of communities especially in the affected areas, hence affecting their economic development year in year out. This requires more vigorous attention and planning to mitigate the effects as they have impacted greatly on the country's fight against poverty and efforts to reduce the number of people living below the poverty line. The economic cost of the impact of landslides in the past has been estimated in millions of shillings. This chapter provides a background on landslides in Kenya, the most common locations/areas affected by landslides in Kenya, factors contributing to vulnerability to landslides in Kenya, and economic and social impacts of landslides in Kenya. The impact of such hazards is compounded by poverty and lack of adequate resources to develop the affected areas, rendering the populations more vulnerable. The chapter highlights on the need to take up a proactive strategy in the management of natural disasters in Kenya, which would improve the coping capacity of communities, lessen the impact, and therefore improve the lives of Kenyans in the areas prone to harsh weather conditions. A clear vision for future actions is inevitably necessary to set the pace for development aimed at mitigating the impact of landslides in Kenya, thereby improving the lives of communities in Kenya.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Daniel O. Olago
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083826
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Summary : The Quaternary evolution of Kenya is set in a dynamic climatic, environmental, volcanic and tectonic context. Climate has been controlled by orbital forcing with a dominant precessional cycle of 23,000 years driving hydrological changes that have had dramatic impacts on lake levels. Climate has interacted with tectonism and volcanism to continually modify the landscapes and environments, partly influencing hominin, animal and plant evolution. The most prominent feature is the Rift Valley, whose evolution was associated with flood volcanism, rift deformation and migration, formation of caldera volcanoes and the rise and establishment of many lakes, up to about 0.3 Ma. In the western part of the country, Lake Victoria arose in the Middle Pleistocene as a consequence of rift margin uplift and resulting river reversal and ponding. In the eastern part of the country, the landscape is dominated by the Plio-Pleistocene evolution of Mount Kenya and the Nyambeni Volcanic Series which comprises of a large field of basaltic cones and vents that extend to the arid to semi-arid northern part of the country. Several factors such as the tectonic evolution, climate, wave and tidal regime, marine transgressions and regressions, sedimentation and river discharge control the geomorphology of the Kenyan coast. Geomorphological features include dune sands, coral reefs and terraces which indicate that sea level was above present levels at least four times during the Pleistocene.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Christine A. Omuombo,Daniel O. Olago,Eric O. Odada
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083871
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Summary : The Indian Ocean waters off the Kenyan coast is stratified due to temperature, salinity and pressure differences between the warm less saline less dense surface waters and the deep saline cooler waters. This stratification displays local variations influenced by rainfall or heavy water discharges of the deltas of Tana and Sabaki as well as the monsoon with maximum temperatures during the transition periods of the monsoons when the winds are light and the solar insolation is high. Turbidity increases due to sediment discharges at the mouths of the Tana and Sabaki deltas has been noted with high turbidity during the long rains in April–May and short rains in October–November, the East African Coastal Current transports the sediment northwards to the northern banks with a minimum influence on the water quality south of the coast. Sedimentation rates of 3–4 mg/cm2/day have been recorded from the Galana and Tana deltas where increased concentrations of elements such as Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn have been reported. The semidiurnal tidal regime is influenced by the monsoon winds with the larger waves (>1.5 m) during the southeast monsoons and the lower waves (

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Dorothy Wanja Nyingi,Nathan Gichuki,Mordecai O. Ogada
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083949
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Summary : Freshwater ecosystems of Kenya are the lifeline of economic and social development; however, most of these are threatened or on the verge of collapse. The need to maintain them in their natural condition, reduce disturbance and conserve their biodiversity has been stressed in the face of severe drought, food insecurity and water stress conditions including inability to maintain constant hydroelectric power. However, without a clear picture of how many freshwater rivers, wetlands and lakes exist and their precise locality, size, sources and uses, it would be impossible for the authorities charged with their protection to put in place management or mitigation measures. Highland freshwater ecosystems of Kenya include Mount Kenya, Aberdares, Mau Forest, Mount Elgon and Cherangani Hills, which are referred to Kenya's water towers since they jointly supply most of the freshwater resources of the country. They are fragile ecosystems with streams flowing through montane forest belts and are critical reservoirs of biodiversity. They are characterized by high rainfall; steep slopes and erodible soils induce severe surface runoff, soil erosion and landslides. Sediments from erosion cause pollution of water in the streams. In countries with limited resources such as Kenya only small portions of rivers can be effectively conserved. It is imperative that significant effort is targeted at the upper reaches, because any conservation effort in the lower reaches of the river are easily negated by upstream disturbances. Their importance is primarily due to their ability to store and distribute water to lowlands and for ground water recharge. For example, 90% of dry season flow of the Northern Ewaso Ng'iro River is derived from the Mount Kenya. Montane areas in Kenya are also often associated with sacred sites and areas of cultural and social importance to the communities around them. Kenya's highland ecosystems face great anthropogenic threats due to deforestation and agricultural pressure. These areas have been ideal for tea and coffee plantations and human settlements. The Mau Forest, which is the largest indigenous forest in Kenya, has had vast areas cleared for settlements by immigrants, which in turn has caused reduction of flows of the Sondu Miriu River, which is dammed downstream for hydroelectric power. Even though sections of the Aberdares and Mount Kenya occur in protected areas, the lack of management and inability to patrol large areas has had led to various conflicts over land and water uses. Lowland freshwater ecosystems include those occurring on the lower sections of the eastwards-flowing rivers of Kenya including Rivers Tana, Athi, Northern Ewaso Ng'iro and the Ramisi. These are areas of low altitude and the rivers are slow moving and characterized by high sediment load, which is rich in nutrients and important for agriculture along the banks of these rivers. However, reductions and changes in flow regimes in the lowlands are more recently becoming a reason for concern. In the Tana River Delta, a large number of communities and biodiversity rely on the water for agriculture, pastoralism, fishing and other socioeconomic uses related to ecosystem services. The two main factors affecting river flows in lowlands are water abstractions and land-use change and intensification, both related to growing human populations. Climate change poses a further complication to both highland and lowland ecosystems due to changes in rainfall patterns reducing not only river flows but also the high rainfall events that cause unprecedented floods.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Bernard K. Kirui
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083932
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Summary : Mangroves are important ecosystems in Kenya, producing goods and services of immense importance to the communities living adjacent to them. Their coverage is estimated at 46,590 hectares and is found along the 536km coastline which extends over 3° latitude from 1°42′ south to 4°40′ south. Mangroves are common features in protected bays, creeks, estuaries and river deltas spread all along the Kenya coast. Two communities of mangroves (fringe and creek) formations occur along the Kenya coast. The largest formations occur in the north coast around the Lamu area and at the River Tana delta. Nine species of mangroves are found in Kenya with Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia marina being the dominant species. The mangrove management in Kenya is contained in the Forest Act of 2005 where it is treated as part of the natural environment (forests/flora). The act created Kenya Forest Service with the mandate of managing forests in Kenya including mangroves. The legislation also provides for comprehensive community involvement in forest management through creation of community forests associations. Through its licencing system, the service regulates the harvesting mangroves. However, due to lack of comprehensive management plans, coupled with lack of resources to monitor harvesting system used by mangrove cutters, mangrove cutting is unregulated in all areas. Participatory management is also at its infancy stages. In this chapter, the status of mangroves in Kenya, their uses, dynamics and threats (anthropogenic and natural) are discussed and suggestions made on their wise use.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Petri K.E. Pellikka,Barnaby J.F. Clark,Alemu Gonsamo Gosa,Nina Himberg,Pekka Hurskainen,Eduardo Maeda,James Mwang’ombe,Loice M.A. Omoro,Mika Siljander
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083918
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Summary : The indigenous cloud forests in the Taita Hills have suffered substantial degradation for several centuries due to agricultural expansion. Additionally, climate change imposes an imminent threat for local economy and environmental sustainability. In such circumstances, elaborating tools to conciliate socioeconomic growth and natural resources conservation is an enormous challenge. This chapter describes applications of remote sensing and geographic information systems for assessing land-cover changes in the Taita Hills and its surrounding lowlands. Furthermore, it provides an overall assessment on the consequences of land-cover changes to water resources, biodiversity and livelihoods. The analyses presented in this study were undertaken at multiple spatial scales, using field data, airborne digital images and satellite imagery. Furthermore, a modelling framework was designed to delineate agricultural expansion projections and evaluate the future impacts of agriculture on soil erosion and irrigation water demand.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Zoltan Balint,Francis Mutua,Peris Muchiri,Christian T. Omuto
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128084014
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Summary : A first step in any drought management system is to monitor the state and the evolution of the drought. This study addresses the problem of nonexistent operational drought monitoring systems and presents a new methodology for monitoring the evolution and severity of drought with the new, Combined Drought Index (CDI). It is based on the fact that drought is a natural phenomenon created by a combination of several factors, such as deficiency in rainfall amount, persistence of below average rainfall, temperature excess and soil moisture characteristics. By combining the factors in the preceding text, the CDI compares present conditions with multiyear average (normal) conditions for the same time period. The methodology was applied at selected locations of different climate zones in Kenya. The results were compared with available official records of drought events (impacts), showing a very good positive relationship between the two. An attempt to detect the long-term trends of drought events using the CDI indicates that there is an increasing trend of drought events in the country, while the drought severity is not necessarily getting worse in all stations. The CDI method also revealed the possibility of drought early warning and drought-related climate change analysis in Kenya.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Norbert Opiyo Akech,Christine A. Omuombo,Moses Masibo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083796
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Summary : The oldest supracrustal rocks in Kenya are the Archaean Nyanzian meta-volcanics and the Kavirondian meta-sediments. These rocks are found to the west of the country in the areas adjacent to Lake Victoria. The Neo-Proterozoic Mozambique belt rocks occupy the central parts of Kenya. These are in most parts separated from the Archaean rocks by the Tertiary volcanics associated with the East African Rift System. The eastern parts of Kenya from the north to the south are dominated by sedimentary rock sequences ranging in age from the Jurassic to Recent. Large volumes of sediments are also found within the rift floor. Faulting and rifting characterizes the Mesozoic and Quaternary rocks and sediments. Sedimentary deposits of the Permo-Triassic are as a consequence of faulting and subsequent rifting during the break-up of Gondwanaland leading to the distribution of Karoo-like sediments in an intracratonic basin to the east along the Kenyan coast. These sediments are extensively exposed in the south-eastern coastal region and are locally referred to as the Duruma Group, while the small exposures to the northeast are referred to as the Mansa Guda Formation. Notably, Jurassic shales and limestones associated with shallow to deep marine environments are present alongside the Permo-Triassic sediments. The development of the East African Rift System led to the distribution of the Quaternary volcanics and sediments on the floor of the tectonic rift valley trough. Evidence of the Cenozoic history that is characterized by relict erosion surfaces is seen on certain areas of the coastal zone. Quaternary sediments are widely distributed in the country with extensive deposits in the eastern region (east of the Rift Valley) with limited exposures to the northwest.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Christine A. Omuombo,Daniel O. Olago,Eric O. Odada
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128084007
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Summary : This chapter focuses on the existing information on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes along the Kenyan coastline. Although the low-lying coastline is under threat from coastal erosion that has led to its destabilization, the factors are linked to local and global processes. Changes in land used for agriculture have led to increase sediment fluxes which have resulted in increase in turbidity and siltation. Other activities such as coral and mangrove harvesting, seawall construction, urbanization and lack of regulations on the construction of structures along of the coastline can be linked to the coastal erosion processes. Among the global factors, the Kenyan coastline has been affected by the extreme events such as the El Niño event of 1997/1998, which led to devastating effects such as an increase in sediment fluxes and turbidity, coral bleaching and mortality and substantial sea level rise. A 1.3 °C sea surface temperature rise on the western side of the Indian Ocean has been recorded since 1880; this makes the coastline vulnerable to the impacts of the predicted 6 °C temperature rise in East Africa due to climate change. It is estimated that the biggest coastal city of Mombasa will be 17% submerged by 2100 and the Tana delta will experience a 5% loss as a consequence of climate change due to the frequent storms that are anticipated. Although the 2004 global tsunami events did not have devastating effects on the Kenyan coast, the event hit the coastline at low tide and this led to the limited damage. In the management of the shoreline, currently an Integrated Coastal Zone Management strategy does not exist although efforts are underway to develop a shoreline management strategy that incorporates the principles of the integration in the management of the coastline. These efforts are encouraged by the success of the marine protected areas of Malindi and Watamu and the current co-management strategy adapted by the Ministry of Fisheries through the Beach Management Units that engages the resource users as equal partners in the management of the coastal resources.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Andreas B. Brink,Catherine Bodart,Graeme Buchanan,Marco Clerici,François Donnay,George Eshiamwata,Jean-Marie Gregoire,Bernard K. Kirui,Andrea Lupi,Ilaria Palumbo,Jean-François Pekel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083901
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Summary : Monitoring vegetation dynamics and land cover change in Kenya are essential for the sustainable management of natural resources and biodiversity conservation. However, accurate status of seasonal variation in vegetation and long-term land cover change data valid at the regional and country level generally do not exist or are hard to obtain. Here, we describe the various ecological regions of Kenya and the associated rainfall and land cover patterns of each ecological zone. This includes the use of low-resolution satellite data time series to characterise for each ecoregion and land cover type the interannual variability of the vegetation cycle, including the start-, mid- and end of the growing season. Seasonal variation in vegetation phenology is mapped to highlight the areas of greatest interannual variation and compared to rainfall patterns over the focal study period. Statistical estimates of land cover change are produced for six broad classes for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010, based on detailed land cover change assessed by a systematic sampling of high-resolution satellite imagery. Rates of change for Kenya are presented and discussed in light of the low-resolution time series analysis. Results highlight information on land cover change processes such as vegetation dynamics and deforestation. These are discussed within the context of the drivers of changes to the natural ecosystem—their potential impact on land availability for human activities such as agriculture and logging for timber and fire wood production on the one side and habitat and biodiversity conservation on the other side. Finally, biodiversity and habitat value, ecosystems and threats are analysed for Kenya’s conservation and protected areas so as to identify the status of and pressures on the country’s protected areas. Six indicators of species irreplaceability, habitat irreplaceability and the level of perceived threat to a protected area’s habitat and species from agriculture and human population are analysed. In addition, high-resolution satellite images taken over conservation areas are used for assessing land cover changes inside protected areas and in the surrounding 20km buffer zone. The results show the importance and effectiveness of protected areas in reducing the loss of natural vegetation and hence protecting the habitats and biodiversity.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : John B. Kyalo Kiema
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083840
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Summary : This chapter begins with a synopsis of the basic concept of remote sensing with the various stages and interactions that characterize the entire remote sensing process described. A brief recapitulation of the status of stored water in Kenya is then presented. The monumental challenge facing many poor Kenyan households in accessing clean and safe water in sufficient quantities is reiterated. The chapter underscores the critical value of accurate and timely geospatial and hydro-meteorological datasets in supporting integrated water resources management. It is argued that the availability of techniques that deliver information on the changes in stored water at a more local scale is the first step towards realizing an efficient water society. Finally, two case studies that employ diverse remote sensing datasets to provide an evidence based explanation of the decline in stored water in Lakes Victoria and Naivasha are elucidated.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Norbert Opiyo Akech,Moses Masibo,Daniel O. Olago
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083802
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Summary : The mineral, oil and gas sectors have not played an important role in the economy of Kenya in the past, but the recent discovery of mineral sands and rare earth elements at the coast and oil in the Lokichar Basin in the northern part of the country are proving to be game changers in the mining, oil and gas sectors. The most important minerals mined in the past have been mainly industrial minerals with soda ash and fluorspar being the most important products. Significant tonnage of gold was mined in western parts of Kenya, but currently only minor exploration and production from the old mine sites is taking place. However, with the increased interest and the government resolve to improve mineral exploration, new mineral finds are possible. Exploration for oil and gas has been taking place in Kenya since the 1950s, but it is only recently that significant oil finds have been reported. The findings have inspired several companies to explore for oil and gas within all the major sedimentary basins in Kenya, namely, the Lokichar Basin, Turkana Basin, the Kerio and Baringo Basin, the Anza Basin, and the Lamu Basin.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Charles Maina-Gichaba
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083819
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Summary : Kenya's relief stretches from sea level to just over 5000m at the peak of Mt. Kenya. Combined with its tropical latitudinal location, this relief range creates varied physical environment with characteristics that are almost equatorial sharply contrasting with semi-arid and arid environments. Topography is described as both simple and diverse. Its simplistic form is shown by the fact that the relief can easily be separated into lowlands and uplands while diversity is exemplified by the presence of varied landform types which include Equatorial, Savannah, Aeolian, Glacial, Volcanic and Tectonic. The Kenyan landscape, with its wide variety of forms, is closely linked with such factors as climate, micro-climate, water supply, soils, vegetation and agricultural potential. Some of the sharp contrasts in Kenya’s landscape result from the considerable differences in age of the component landforms. These are now warped and broken by faults in many areas while elsewhere volcanic activity has produced further modifications. Earth movements particularly in late Tertiary, Pleistocene and recent times, have resulted in the formation of the major mountain blocks and Rift Valley systems. These were accompanied by extensive volcanic lava emissions, which cover a significant percentage of the country's land surface. As a consequence of volcanism and earth movements, the drainage has been dislocated, interrupted and modified, and there is hardly a river that has not been affected. Many lakes have been formed in downwarped or downfaulted areas. In coastal regions, the history has been further complicated by Pleistocene changes of sea level. Major physiographic regions seems to be associated with the drainage patterns of the country. A combination of the relief, drainage systems and physiographic regions seem to influence the management and planning of the country’s development strategy. The policy makers must therefore design projects and programs for information gathering, analysis and dissemination on the basis of physical geographic factors as well as the man-made innovative improvements of nature. A superimposition of these attributes through Geographic Information System may show areas that are likely to give the greatest production-increasing effects on the basis of a combination of all the resident attributes.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Ilaria Palumbo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083925
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Summary : In this chapter, we discuss the ecological role of fire and how this is relevant to biodiversity and park management. We summarize the role fire has in different types of ecosystems and why conservation programmes would benefit from including fire plans. We present the fire activity in the Kenyan protected areas between the years 2002 and 2012. The information is derived from satellite observations and processed to show the fire seasonality and how fire occurrence is distributed in different vegetation classes. We also provide insights about how fire can contribute to land-cover change looking at long time series of data.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : John P.O. Obiero,Japheth O. Onyando
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083833
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Summary : Climatic characteristics, factors influencing them and effects on agro-climatic zonation and crop productions is discussed. It is recognized that climate plays a key role in agricultural production which is the mainstay of the Kenyan economy. Factors influencing climatic characteristics are notably latitude, altitude, characteristics of prevailing winds, distance from water body, topography, vegetal cover and pressure belts. Air masses, their sources and influence on dry and rainy seasons for various regions of the country are described. Rainfall and temperature distribution in various parts of the country are observed to have significant influence on agricultural practices. Variations in rainfall and temperatures are attributed to differences in characteristics that influence these climate variables. Subsequently, seven climatic regions are identified as residing in various sections of the country. Based on rainfall and temperature which determine moisture availability and evaporation rates, distinct agro-climatic zones are have been established and which play a significant role in determining appropriate land use practices for various regions of the country as well as serving as a tool for assessing suitable crops to be grown in these distinct zones. The effects of climate extremes resulting into natural disasters like floods and droughts are further discussed and strategies for their management proposed to minimize their effects on agricultural production. The role of meteorological network in monitoring weather information is noted to be important for predicting weather related disasters.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Mordecai O. Ogada,Dorothy Wanja Nyingi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083956
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Summary : This chapter examines the challenges facing the management of wildlife and fisheries in Kenya using the historical perspectives of the current systemic weaknesses therein. Statutory institutions managing wildlife and fisheries resources in Kenya still operate under the colonial ‘policing’ model that presumed absence of any local management capacity in situ. Examples are given of unsuccessful attempts to manage wildlife and fisheries resources over the years using interventions that failed to include local human dimensions. The colonial model is thus demonstrated to be still in place but inapplicable to address the current challenges in Kenya. The chapter finally recommends the deliberate inclusion of local communities as intellectual participants to ensure socially and environmentally sustainable management of wildlife and fisheries resources in Kenya.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Michael E. McClain,Amanda L. Subalusky
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083857
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Summary : Freshwater is key to Kenya’s socioeconomic development but also essential for maintaining environmental integrity and human welfare. Here, we report the results of a comprehensive and collaborative assessment of the ecological status of the Mara River and the environmental flow regime needed to sustain the ecological function of the river and related systems in the Mara/Serengeti Ecoregion. Field surveys indicate only modest evidence of degradation based on the geomorphology of the river channel and the presence and vitality of select indicator riparian plants, fish, and macroinvertebrates. Environmental flow recommendations were based on hydraulic modelling and field observations and were determined through a consensus building process involving members of the research team. During normal rainfall years, recommendations range from average monthly values of 1.3 to 15.0m3 s−1. During drought years, the respective recommended flows are 0.3 to 6.0m3 s−1. These recommendations fall between the 45th percentile of monthly flow durations curve during wet months of normal years and the 98th percentile of the annual flow duration curves during drought years. Recommended floods range from 2-day events of 12m3 s−1 to an annual 3-day flood of 90m3 s−1. Results of the assessment suggest that during years of normal rainfall there is sufficient flow in the river to allow additional water extractions and still meet environmental requirements, but environmentally friendly storage is needed and uncontrolled abstractions could easily exhaust the available resource. During drought years, however, the river may already drop to flows incapable of simultaneously meeting both extractive water demands and environmental flow recommendations.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
  • Author : Christopher Oludhe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :402
  • ISBN : 9780128083888
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Summary : Energy is an important input in a country's development process since it provides the stimulus, drive and momentum for socioeconomic development. It forms one of the foundations on which the three key pillars of the Kenya Vision 2030 (Economic, Social and Political Governance) are anchored on. The country therefore needs to generate more energy and increase efficiency in energy consumption in order to realize Vision 2030 and the overall socioeconomic growth in the country. Kenya is endowed with significant amounts of renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, geothermal, small hydro and biomass. However, few renewable energy resources in the country have been fully assessed, mapped and appraised for their technical and economic viability. If harnessed, these resources can play a significant role in the country's energy supply mix. Kenya has made a significant effort to assess wind, solar and small-hydro potential in the country. However, comprehensive assessment, mapping and appraisal of all the renewable energy resources in the country have not been fully done in order to determine their technical and economic viability. The sections below present the renewable energy situation in Kenya.