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Light Scattering by Particles in Water

Light Scattering by Particles in Water
  • Author : Miroslaw Jonasz,Georges Fournier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-29
  • Total pages :714
  • ISBN : 0080548679
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Summary : Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data on light scattering by particles in water, the authors employ simple models. The book concludes with extensive critical reviews of the experimental constraints of light scattering models: results of measurements of light scattering and of the key properties of the particles: size distribution, refractive index (composition), structure, and shape. These reviews guide the reader through literature scattered among more than 210 scientific journals and periodicals which represent a wide range of disciplines. A special emphasis is put on the methods of measuring both light scattering and the relevant properties of the particles, because principles of these methods may affect interpretation and applicability of the results. The book includes extensive guides to literature on light scattering data and instrumentation design, as well as on the data for size distributions, refractive indices, and shapes typical of particles in natural waters. It also features a comprehensive index, numerous cross-references, and a reference list with over 1370 entries. An errata sheet for this work can be found at: http://www.tpdsci.com/Ref/Jonasz_M_2007_LightScatE.php *Extensive reference section provides handy compilations of knowledge on the designs of light scattering meters, sources of experimental data, and more *Worked exercises and examples throughout

Particles in Water

Particles in Water
  • Author : John Gregory
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-09-06
  • Total pages :200
  • ISBN : 0203508459
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Summary : Based on the author’s more than 35 years of experience, Particles in Water: Properties and Processes examines particles and their behavior in water systems. The book offers clear and accessible methods for characterizing a range of particles both individually and as aggregates. The author delineates the principles for understanding particle properties and shows how such information contributes to the understanding and improvement of water treatment processes, including sedimentation, flocculation, and filtration. A distillation of the author's years of experience, the book explores practical applications of fundamental principles. Outlining the origin, nature, and properties of particles in water, the author covers particle size, transport processes, and light scattering and provides a broad outline of important techniques for particle size determination. He discusses the important topic of surface charge, which plays a major role in colloid stability and interactions between particles, with some emphasis on the role of dissolved salts. The book gives an account of particle aggregation kinetics, the form of aggregates, and aggregate strength and explores coagulation and flocculation and the modes of action of some common additives used in these processes. The book concludes with an overview of important solid-liquid separation processes and the principles on which they are based. The author presents the material in an easily accessible style, using just enough math to be clear but not so much as to be overwhelming. Highlighting the growing importance of advanced filtration systems in water treatment, this book provides an excellent summary of the behavior of particles in water systems and in relation to the techniques designed to capture and remove them.

Light Scattering by Small Particles

Light Scattering by Small Particles
  • Author : H. C. van de Hulst
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-06-08
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 9780486139753
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Summary : Comprehensive treatment of light-scattering properties of small, independent particles, including a full range of useful approximation methods for researchers in chemistry, meteorology, and astronomy. 46 tables. 59 graphs. 44 illustrations.

Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles

Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles
  • Author : Craig F. Bohren,Donald R. Huffman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-09-26
  • Total pages :544
  • ISBN : 9783527618163
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Summary : Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles Treating absorption and scattering in equal measure, this self-contained, interdisciplinary study examines and illustrates how small particles absorb and scatter light. The authors emphasize that any discussion of the optical behavior of small particles is inseparable from a full understanding of the optical behavior of the parent material-bulk matter. To divorce one concept from the other is to render any study on scattering theory seriously incomplete. Special features and important topics covered in this book include: * Classical theories of optical properties based on idealized models * Measurements for three representative materials: magnesium oxide, aluminum, and water * An extensive discussion of electromagnetic theory * Numerous exact and approximate solutions to various scattering problems * Examples and applications from physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, and biophysics * Some 500 references emphasizing work done since Kerker's 1969 work on scattering theory * Computer programs for calculating scattering by spheres, coated spheres, and infinite cylinders

Particle Characterization: Light Scattering Methods

Particle Characterization: Light Scattering Methods
  • Author : Renliang Xu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-04-11
  • Total pages :399
  • ISBN : 9780306471247
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Summary : Particle characterization is an important component in product research and development, manufacture, and quality control of particulate materials and an important tool in the frontier of sciences, such as in biotechnology and nanotechnology. This book systematically describes one major branch of modern particle characterization technology - the light scattering methods. This is the first monograph in particle science and technology covering the principles, instrumentation, data interpretation, applications, and latest experimental development in laser diffraction, optical particle counting, photon correlation spectroscopy, and electrophoretic light scattering. In addition, a summary of all major particle sizing and other characterization methods, basic statistics and sample preparation techniques used in particle characterization, as well as almost 500 latest references are provided. The book is a must for industrial users of light scattering techniques characterizing a variety of particulate systems and for undergraduate or graduate students who want to learn how to use light scattering to study particular materials, in chemical engineering, material sciences, physical chemistry and other related fields.

Light Scattering by Optically Soft Particles

Light Scattering by Optically Soft Particles
  • Author : Subodh K. Sharma,David J. Sommerford
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-08-29
  • Total pages :195
  • ISBN : 9783540376644
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Summary : This book deals with a particular class of approximation methods in the context of light scattering by small particles. Soft particles occur in ocean optics, biomedical optics, atmospheric optics and in many industrial applications. This class of approximations has been termed as eikonal or soft particle approximations. The study of these approximations is very important because soft particles occur abundantly in nature.

Ocean Optics

Ocean Optics
  • Author : Richard W. Spinrad,Kendall L. Carder,Mary Jane Perry
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994
  • Total pages :283
  • ISBN : 9780195068436
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Summary : Since the publication of Jerlov's classic volume on optical oceanography in 1968, the ability to predict or model the submarine light field, given measurements of the inherent optical properties of the ocean, has improved to the point that model fields are very close to measured fields. In the last three decades, remote sensing capabilities have fostered powerful models that can be inverted to estimate the inherent optical properties closely related to substances important for understanding global biological productivity, environmental quality, and most nearshore geophysical processes. This volume presents an eclectic blend of information on the theories, experiments, and instrumentation that now characterize the ways in which optical oceanography is studied. Through the course of this interdisciplinary work, the reader is led from the physical concepts of radiative transfer to the experimental techniques used in the lab and at sea, to process-oriented discussions of the biochemical mechanisms responsible for oceanic optical variability. The text will be of interest to researchers and students in physical and biological oceanography, biology, geophysics, limnology, atmospheric optics, and remote sensing of ocean and global climate change.

Light Scattering by Ice Crystals

Light Scattering by Ice Crystals
  • Author : Kuo-Nan Liou,Ping Yang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-06
  • Total pages :443
  • ISBN : 9780521889162
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Summary : This volume outlines the fundamentals and applications of light scattering, absorption and polarization processes involving ice crystals.

Selected Water Resources Abstracts

Selected Water Resources Abstracts
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1976
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : WISC:89062715354
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Summary :

Particle Size Measurements

Particle Size Measurements
  • Author : Henk G. Merkus
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-01-07
  • Total pages :534
  • ISBN : 9781402090165
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Summary : This book focuses on the practical aspects of particle size measurement: a major difference with existing books, which have a more theoretical approach. Of course, the emphasis still lies on the measurement techniques. For optimum application, their theoretical background is accompanied by quantitative quality aspects, limitations and problem identification. In addition the book covers the phenomena of sampling and dispersion of powders, either of which may be dominant in the overall analysis error. Moreover, there are chapters on the general aspects of quality for particle size analysis, quality management, reference materials and written standards, in- and on-line measurement, definitions and multilingual terminology, and on the statistics required for adequate interpretation of results. Importantly, a relation is made to product performance, both during processing as well as in final application. In view of its set-up, this book is well suited to support particle size measurement courses.

Electromagnetic Scattering by Particles and Particle Groups

Electromagnetic Scattering by Particles and Particle Groups
  • Author : Michael I. Mishchenko
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-24
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780521519922
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Summary : A self-contained, accessible introduction to the basic concepts, formalism and recent advances in electromagnetic scattering, for researchers and graduate students.

Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles

Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles
  • Author : Michael I. Mishchenko,Larry D. Travis,Andrew A. Lacis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-06-06
  • Total pages :445
  • ISBN : 052178252X
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Summary : A thorough and up-to-date treatment of electromagnetic scattering by small particles.

1980 European Conference on Optical Systems and Applications, Utrecht (The Netherlands), 23-25 September 1980

1980 European Conference on Optical Systems and Applications, Utrecht (The Netherlands), 23-25 September 1980
  • Author : W. J. Merz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1980
  • Total pages :281
  • ISBN : UCLA:L0065817041
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Summary :

Optical Particle Sizing

Optical Particle Sizing
  • Author : Gerard Gouesbet,Gerard Grehan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-18
  • Total pages :642
  • ISBN : 9781475719833
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Summary : Optical particle s1z1ng is undoubtedly a fascinating field of research of the utmost practical importance. In the Universe fluids are nearly everywhere, and when they occur they almost invariably contain particles. Inside our bodies we can take the example of blood transporting a vi tal procession of red and white cells. Around us, we can find various particles in the air we breathe, bubbles in the champagne or the soda we drink, or natural and artificial (polluting!) particles in the lakes we swim in. Industrial processes and systems are also concerned with particles, from pulverized coal flames to fluidized beds, in a range of applications involving rocket exhausts, pneuma tic transport and more generally the infinite realm of mul tiphase situations. Such an obviously vast field would require a whole volume like this one merely to attempt to describe it superficially. To be sure, we would need a scientific Prevert to catalogue such an endless inventory. Finally, even outside our terrestrial spaceship particles can be detected in alien atmospheres or between stars. Theorists will enjoy analyzing the richness of light/particle interact. ion, a subject which is very far from being exhausted. Experimental researchers will love designing and studying various probing instruments with a laser source at the input and a computer at the output, two requisites of today' s technological revolution.

Light Scattering Reviews 7

Light Scattering Reviews 7
  • Author : Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-08-23
  • Total pages :247
  • ISBN : 9783642219078
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Summary : Light Scattering Reviews (vol.7) is aimed at the description of modern advances in radiative transfer and light scattering. The following topics will be considered: the general - purpose discrete - ordinate algorithm DISORT for radiative transfer, fast radiative transfer techniques, use of polarization in remote sensing, Markovian approach for radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres, coherent and incoherent backscattering by turbid media and surfaces,advances in radiative transfer methods as used for luminiscence tomography, optical properties of aerosol, ice crystals, snow, and oceanic water. This volume will be a valuable addition to already published volumes 1-6 of Light Scattering Reviews.

Application of Light Scattering to Coatings

Application of Light Scattering to Coatings
  • Author : Michael P. Diebold
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-18
  • Total pages :196
  • ISBN : 9783319120157
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Summary : The book begins with the fundamentals of light scattering, first by individual particles, then by small groups of particles, and finally by the trillions of particles present in a real-life paint film. From there, Dr. Diebold focuses on application of these fundamentals to paint formulation. The scope includes both theory and practice with an emphasis on application (from both performance and cost standpoints). The book gives a clear understanding of light scattering principles and application of these principles to paint formulation (with a focus on TiO2 – the strongest scattering material available to paint formulators). The reader will be in a position to formulate and reformulate paints for maximum cost effectiveness. Application of Light Scattering to Coatings: A Users Guide is ideal for a range of professions working in paint formulation and manufacturing. This book also: Distills difficult theories (light scattering, paint formulation) into easy-to-understand concepts Adopts a qualitative perspective, with minimal use of complex equations, making key scientific concepts accessible to all paint formulators without a prerequisite of higher mathematics Offers an accessible resource for formulators new to the field while maintaining a high degree of relevance to experienced coating formulators Discusses the interplay between resin, TiO2 pigments, and paint extenders with regard to paint performance and cost Presents an unbiased assessment of opacifying potential of TiO2 alternatives Outlines strategies for minimizing overall costs of paints.

Drinking Water and Health, Volume 7

Drinking Water and Health, Volume 7
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Safe Drinking Water Committee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1987-02-01
  • Total pages :212
  • ISBN : 9780309037419
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Summary : Chlorination in various forms has been the predominant method of drinking water disinfection in the United States for more than 70 years. The seventh volume of the Drinking Water and Health series addresses current methods of drinking water disinfection and compares standard chlorination techniques with alternative methods. Currently used techniques are discussed in terms of their chemical activity, and their efficacy against waterborne pathogens, including bacteria, cysts, and viruses, is compared. Charts, tables, graphs, and case studies are used to analyze the effectiveness of chlorination, chloramination, and ozonation as disinfectant processes and to compare these methods for their production of toxic by-products. Epidemiological case studies on the toxicological effects of chemical by-products in drinking water are also presented.

Multi Length-Scale Characterisation

Multi Length-Scale Characterisation
  • Author : Duncan W. Bruce,Dermot O'Hare,Richard I. Walton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-04
  • Total pages :312
  • ISBN : 9781118683583
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Summary : This volume examines important experimental techniques needed tocharacterise inorganic materials in order to elucidate theirproperties for practical application. Addressing methods thatexamine the structures and properties of materials over lengthscales ranging from local atomic order to long-range order on themeso- and macro-scopic scales, Multi Length-ScaleCharacterisation contains five detailed chapters: Measurement of Bulk Magnetic Properties Thermal Methods Atomic Force Microscopy Gas Sorption in the Analysis of Nanoporous Solids Dynamic Light Scattering Ideal as a complementary reference work to other volumes in theseries (Local Structural Characterisation and Structurefrom Diffraction Methods) or as an examination of the specificcharacterisation techniques in their own right, MultiLength-Scale Characterisation is a valuable addition to theInorganic Materials Series.

Electromagnetic Scattering in Disperse Media

Electromagnetic Scattering in Disperse Media
  • Author : Victor A. Babenko,Ludmila G. Astafyeva,Vladimir N. Kuzmin,Vladimir N. Kuz'min
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-09-12
  • Total pages :434
  • ISBN : 3540436499
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Summary : This is the first book devoted specifically to the problem of light scattering and absorption by inhomogeneous and anisotropic spherical particles. Unlike other books in the field, Electromagnetic Scattering in Disperse Media pays considerable attention to various aspects of light absorption inside particles, including internal field distributions, MDR resonances, and absorption in restricted regions inside particles. It contains many results (and more than 100 figures) computed for polydisperse particle systems and algorithms and provides the possibility to use them (web site). Although the main emphasis is given to optical properties of atmospheric aerosol, the book also deals with many other practical applications involving inhomogeneous and anisotropic particles

Light Scattering Reviews 8

Light Scattering Reviews 8
  • Author : Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-12
  • Total pages :634
  • ISBN : 9783642321061
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Summary : Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

Light Scattering Reviews 3

Light Scattering Reviews 3
  • Author : Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-08-22
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 9783540485469
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Summary : This is the 3rd volume of a "Light Scattering Reviews" series devoted to current knowledge of light scattering problems and both experimental and theoretical research techniques related to their solution. This volume covers applications in remote sensing, inverse problems and geophysics, with a particular focus on terrestrial clouds. The influence of clouds on climate is poorly understood. The theoretical aspects of this problem constitute the main emphasis of this work.