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Mass Transport, Gravity Flows, and Bottom Currents

Mass Transport, Gravity Flows, and Bottom Currents
  • Author : G. Shanmugam
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-11-02
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780128225745
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Summary : Mass Transport, Gravity Flows, and Bottom Currents: Downslope and Alongslope Processes and Deposits focuses solely on important downslope and alongslope processes. The book provides clear definitions and characteristics based on soil mechanics, fluid mechanics and sediment concentration by volume. It addresses Slides, Slumps, and Debris Flows, Grain Flows, Liquefied/Fluidized Flows, and Turbidity Currents, Density plumes, Hyperpycnal Flows, the Triggering Mechanisms of Downslope Processes, Bottom Currents, and Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures. The mechanics of each process are described in detail and used to provide empirically-driven categories to help recognize these deposits it the rock record. Case studies clearly illustrate of the problems inherent in recognizing these processes in the rock record, and potential solutions are provided alongside future avenues of research. An appendix also provides step-by-step guidance in describing and interpreting sediments. Comprehensively addresses modern downslope and alongslope processes, including definitions and mechanisms Provides key criteria for the recognition of depositional facies in the rock record Includes case studies to illustrate each downslope and alongslope process Identifies key problems and potential solutions for future research Uses pragmatic, empirical, data-driven interpretations to revise conventional facies models

Encyclopedia of Geology

Encyclopedia of Geology
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-12-16
  • Total pages :5622
  • ISBN : 9780081029091
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Summary : Encyclopedia of Geology, Second Edition presents in six volumes state-of-the-art reviews on the various aspects of geologic research, all of which have moved on considerably since the writing of the first edition. New areas of discussion include extinctions, origins of life, plate tectonics and its influence on faunal provinces, new types of mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, new methods of dating rocks, and geological processes. Users will find this to be a fundamental resource for teachers and students of geology, as well as researchers and non-geology professionals seeking up-to-date reviews of geologic research. Provides a comprehensive and accessible one-stop shop for information on the subject of geology, explaining methodologies and technical jargon used in the field Highlights connections between geology and other physical and biological sciences, tackling research problems that span multiple fields Fills a critical gap of information in a field that has seen significant progress in past years Presents an ideal reference for a wide range of scientists in earth and environmental areas of study

Deep-Water Processes and Facies Models: Implications for Sandstone Petroleum Reservoirs

Deep-Water Processes and Facies Models: Implications for Sandstone Petroleum Reservoirs
  • Author : G. Shanmugam
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-03-31
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 0080458424
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Summary : This rock-based book is an attempt to link deep-water process sedimentology with sandstone petroleum reservoirs. In presenting a consistent process interpretation, the author has relied on his description and interpretation of core and outcrop (1:20 to 1:50 scale) from 35 case studies (which include 32 petroleum reservoirs), totaling more than 30,000 feet (9,145 m), carried out during the past 30 years (1974-2004). This book should serve as an important source of information for students on history, methodology, first principles, advanced concepts, controversies, and practical applications on deep-water sedimentology and petroleum geology. * Discusses the link between deep-water process sedimentology and petroleum geology * Addresses criteria for recognizing deposits of gravity-driven, thermohaline-driven, wind-driven, and tide-driven processes in deep-water environments * Provides head-on approach to resolve controversial process-related problems

Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts

Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCAL:B4357337
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Summary :

Sedimentation in Submarine Canyons, Fans, and Trenches

Sedimentation in Submarine Canyons, Fans, and Trenches
  • Author : Daniel J. Stanley,Gilbert Kelling
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1978
  • Total pages :395
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822011428240
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Summary :

New Perspectives on Deep-water Sandstones

New Perspectives on Deep-water Sandstones
  • Author : G. Shanmugam
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :488
  • ISBN : 9780444563354
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Summary : This handbook is vital for understanding the origin of deep-water sandstones, emphasizing sandy-mass transport deposits (SMTDs) and bottom-current reworked sands (BCRSs) in petroleum reservoirs. This cutting-edge perspective, a pragmatic alternative to the conventional turbidite concepts, is crucial because the turbidite paradigm is built on a dubious foundation without empirical data on sandy turbidity currents in modern oceans. In the absence of evidence for sandy turbidity currents in natural environments, elegant theoretical models and experimental observations of turbidity currents are irrelevant substitutes for explaining the origin of sandy deposits as "turbidites." In documenting modern and ancient SMTDs (sandy slides, sandy slumps, and sandy debrites) and BCRSs (deposits of thermohaline [contour] currents, wind-driven currents, and tidal currents), the author describes and interprets core and outcrop (1:20 to 1:50 scale) from 35 case studies worldwide (which include 32 petroleum reservoirs), totaling more than 10,000 m in cumulative thickness, carried out during the past 36 years (1974-2010). The book dispels myths about the importance of sea level lowstand and provides much-needed clarity on the triggering of sediment failures by earthquakes, meteorite impacts, tsunamis, and cyclones with implications for the distribution of deep-water sandstone petroleum reservoirs. Promotes pragmatic interpretation of deep-water sands using alternative possibilities Validates the economic importance of SMTDs and BCRS in deep-water exploration and production Rich in empirical data and timely new perspectives

Turbidites Reworked by Bottom Currents

Turbidites Reworked by Bottom Currents
  • Author : Daniel J. Stanley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988
  • Total pages :79
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822024159592
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Summary :

Deep-sea Sediments

Deep-sea Sediments
  • Author : Heiko Hüneke,Thierry Mulder
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :849
  • ISBN : 9780444530004
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Summary : 'Deep-Sea Sediments' focuses on the sedimentary processes operating within the various modern and ancient deep-sea environments. The chapters track the way of sedimentary particles from continental erosion or production in the marine realm, to transport into the deep sea, to final deposition on the sea floor.

The Influence of Bottom Currents on the Sedimentary Evolution of the Alboran Sea During the Pliocene and Quaternary

The Influence of Bottom Currents on the Sedimentary Evolution of the Alboran Sea During the Pliocene and Quaternary
  • Author : Carmen Juan Valenzuela
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :351
  • ISBN : OCLC:986665681
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Summary : "An interdisciplinary study of the geomorphology, sedimentology, stratigraphy and physical oceanography of the deep-sea environments of the Alboran Sea (south-western Mediterranean Sea) has been carried out with the purpose of evidencing and understanding the role of bottom currents in the sedimentary evolution of the Spanish and Moroccan continental margins and adjacent basins during the Pliocene and Quaternary. This study was conducted using swath bathymetry data, more than 1900 profiles consisting of parametric, single- and multi-channel seismic records, scientific and commercial wells, sediment cores, and hydrographic data comprising: Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) profiles, Acoustic Doppler Current (ADCP) profiles, and EK60 echograms. Here, for the first time, a morphosedimentary scenario with a wide spectrum of depositional (plastered, sheeted, channel-related, mounded confined, elongated and separated drifts) and erosional (terraces, escarpments, moats, channels and furrows) contourite features are described in the Alboran Sea, from the shelf break to the basin floor. Hydrographic data offers new insights into the distribution of the Mediterranean water masses, and reveals that the bottom circulation of the Western Intermediate Water (WIW) and the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) interact with the Spanish slope, and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) with the Moroccan slope, Spanish base- of-slope and deep basins. The integration of distinct datasets and approaches allow a new sedimentary model to be proposed for the Alboran Sea that underlines the significance of bottom current processes in shaping deep-sea morphology. This model suggests that the bottom circulation of water masses governs physiography that the interface positions of water-masses with contrasting densities sculpt terraces at a regional scale, and that morphological obstacles play an essential role in the local control of processes and water- mass distribution. An analysis of the seismic stratigraphy from the Pliocene and Quaternary sequences has enabled to update and rename the stratigraphic boundaries and establish a new seismic stratigraphy for the Alboran Sea, after relocating the base of the Quaternary from 1.8 to 2.6Ma. Additionally, the seismic analysis involves the presentation and discussion for the first time of the evidence for contourite features reaching the scale of the Alboran Basin. Contourite drifts (plastered, sheeted, elongated separated and confined mounded drifts) and erosive features (terraces, escarpments, moats, channels, furrows) were developed under the continuous influence of Mediterranean water masses after the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar ( -5.33Ma). At least two primary factors have controlled the contourite features in this sea: i) tectonics, which has governed the relocation of the main Mediterranean flow pathways and their circulation patterns; and ii) climate, which has influenced both water-mass conditions (depth and density contrast of the interfaces) and hinterland sediment sources, conditioning the morphoseismic expression and growth pattern of drifts and terrace formation (dimensions). The distribution of contourite features through time and space allows to propose three main scenarios for ocean circulation since the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar: i) Atlantic Zanclean flooding; ii) the Pliocene sea, with two different stages for the dense circulation and characterised by poorly-defined and unstable interfaces for the Atlantic Waters (AW), light and dense Mediterranean waters and the presence of a strong countercurrent in the Western Basin; and iii) the Quaternary sea, characterised by tabular Mediterranean water masses with multiple current dynamics, increasingly important density contrasts, and climate shifts causing major vertical and horizontal displacement of the interfaces. These stages reflect variability in the bottom current regimes and related alongslope efficiency in terms of transport, deposition and erosion. The detailed seismic analysis of the units making up the Pliocene and Quaternary sequences allows for the first time, to make an in-depth analysis of the contourite features, turbidite systems and mass-movement deposits, and map them through time. These maps are enormously helpful when it comes to understanding the sedimentary architecture of the Spanish and Moroccan continental margins and basins, as well as for decoding the palaeoceanographic processes from a geological perspective. Two main contourite depositional systems are defined: the Intermediate Mediterranean Contourite System (IMCS), formed under the action of the Light Mediterranean Waters (LMW) on the Spanish margin, and the Deep Mediterranean Contourite System (DMCS), formed under the action of the Dense Mediterranean Waters (DMW) mainly on the Moroccan margin and basins. The characterisation of the terraces as contourite features that form under the combination of two water masses, has also led to the definition of the Atlantic Contourite System (ACS). The occurrence of several contourite depositional systems has led to the suggestion of a new term, not heretofore considered in the literature: Multiple Contourite Depositional System (MCDS), which refers to the set of different CDSs that occurs in the same area and evolving under the action of multiple water masses. In addition, twenty turbidite systems have been characterised, revealing that they are responsible for the different sedimentary architecture of the Spanish margin, where they coexist with contourites, as on the Moroccan margin the turbidite systems are less well developed. The mass-movement deposits are mainly related to the reworking of the contourites draping the highs. Mainly contourites but also turbidites, allowed to define from a geological perspective the basic oceanographic processes and to determine their occurrence, relative magnitude and energy, and time of action. This PhD thesis also explains the uneven development of the turbidite systems in the Alboran Sea, which is interpreted to be conditioned by the interaction of alongslope with downslope processes. Several morphological and sedimentary signatures produced by the interaction between both processes have been identified in the Pliocene and Quaternary records, as well as on the present-day seafloor of the Alboran Sea. The interaction scenarios move between two-end-members: from bottom currents dominating gravity flows to gravity flows dominating contour currents. In between these extreme cases, the alternation and mutual influence of both processes can occur. Two different conceptual models of interaction are proposed for the Spanish and Moroccan margins. i) On the Spanish margin, the alongslope and downslope interaction is especially complex and varied, with both regional and local effects on the turbidite systems. This is because here the turbidite systems are influenced at different water depths by Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses and their interfaces, with current flows that change across- and downslope. ii) On the Moroccan margin, the vigorous action of the WMDW primarily inhibits the formation of canyons and associated deposits. The findings of this PhD thesis suggest that the relevance of bottom-water processes in deep sea must be reevaluated. It is concluded that understanding the influence of bottom currents is not only essential for reconstructing present and past water mass circulation, but also for recognising sea floor morphologies and decoding the sedimentary stacking pattern and evolution of deposits, as well as global climate and periods of eustatic variation."--TDX.

Messinian Events in the Mediterranean

Messinian Events in the Mediterranean
  • Author : Cornelis Willem Drooger,J. A. Broekman,Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1973
  • Total pages :272
  • ISBN : UOM:39015031050894
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Summary :

Free-Surface Flow

Free-Surface Flow
  • Author : Nikolaos D. Katopodes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-21
  • Total pages :1020
  • ISBN : 9780128162514
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Summary : Free Surface Flow: Environmental Fluid Mechanics introduces a wide range of environmental fluid flows, such as water waves, land runoff, channel flow, and effluent discharge. The book provides systematic analysis tools and basic skills for study fluid mechanics in natural and constructed environmental flows. As the prediction of changes in free surfaces in rivers, lakes, estuaries and in the ocean directly affects the design of structures that control surface waters, and because planning for the allocation of fresh-water resources in a sustainable manner is an essential goal, this book provides the necessary background and research. Helps users determine the transfer of solute mass through the air-water interface Presents tactics on the impact of free shear flow in the environment and how to quantify mixing mechanisms in turbulent jets and wakes Gives users tactics to predict the fate and transport of contaminants in stratified lakes and estuaries

Mass-transport Deposits in Deepwater Settings

Mass-transport Deposits in Deepwater Settings
  • Author : R. Craig Shipp,Paul Weimer,Henry W. Posamentier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :4
  • ISBN : 9781565762862
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Summary : Historically, submarine-mass failures or mass-transport deposits have been a focus of increasingly intense investigation by academic institutions particularly during the last decade, though they received much less attention by geoscientists in the energy industry. With recent interest in expanding petroleum exploration and production into deeper water-depths globally and more widespread availability of high-quality data sets, mass-transport deposits are now recognized as a major component of most deep-water settings. This recognition has lead to the realization that many aspects of these deposits are still unknown or poorly understood. This volume contains twenty-three papers that address a number of topics critical to further understanding mass-transport deposits. These topics include general overviews of these deposits, depositional settings on the seafloor and in the near-subsurface interval, geohazard concerns, descriptive outcrops, integrated outcrop and seismic data/seismic forward modeling, petroleum reservoirs, and case studies on several associated topics. This volume will appeal to a broad cross section of geoscientists and geotechnical engineers, who are interested in this rapidly expanding field. The selection of papers in this volume reflects a growing trend towards a more diverse blend of disciplines and topics, covered in the study of mass-transport deposits.

Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae

Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822009184565
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Summary :

Deep Marine Systems

Deep Marine Systems
  • Author : Kevin Pickering,Richard Hiscott
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-03-23
  • Total pages :696
  • ISBN : 9781405125789
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Summary :

Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences

Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1977
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105008275674
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Summary :

Depositional Systems of Active Continental Margin Basins

Depositional Systems of Active Continental Margin Basins
  • Author : Robert G. Douglas,Ivan P. Colburn,Donn S. Gorsline
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1981
  • Total pages :165
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822005113386
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Summary :

Free-Surface Flow:

Free-Surface Flow:
  • Author : Nikolaos D. Katopodes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-30
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128154885
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Summary : Free-Surface Flow: Shallow-Water Dynamics presents a novel approach to this phenomenon. It bridges the gap between traditional books on open-channel flow and analytical fluid mechanics. Shallow-water theory is established by formal integration of the Navier-Stokes equations, and boundary resistance is developed by a rigorous construction of turbulent flow models for channel flow. In addition, the book presents a comprehensive description of shallow-water waves by mathematical analysis. These methods form the foundation for understanding flood routing, sudden water releases, dam and levee break, sluice gate dynamics and wave-current interaction. Bridges the gap between traditional books on open-channel flow and wave mechanics. Presents a comprehensive description of shallow-water waves by characteristic and bicharacteristic analysis. Presents techniques for wave control and active flood mitigation.

Oceanic Abstracts with Indexes

Oceanic Abstracts with Indexes
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1985
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015013028702
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Summary :

Subaqueous Gravity Flows and Associated Deposits in the Rader Member, Capitan Reef Complex (Permian), Delaware Mountains, West Texas

Subaqueous Gravity Flows and Associated Deposits in the Rader Member, Capitan Reef Complex (Permian), Delaware Mountains, West Texas
  • Author : Ellen C. Lawson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :320
  • ISBN : WISC:89016707424
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Summary :

Parallel Laminated Deep-sea Muds and Coupled Gravity Flow-hemipelagic Settling in the Mediterranean

Parallel Laminated Deep-sea Muds and Coupled Gravity Flow-hemipelagic Settling in the Mediterranean
  • Author : Daniel J. Stanley,Robert P. Higgins,Stephen J. Culver,Walter H. Adey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1982
  • Total pages :19
  • ISBN : COLUMBIA:CU11591293
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Summary :

Shelf Sands and Sandstone Reservoirs

Shelf Sands and Sandstone Reservoirs
  • Author : Donald J. P. Swift,Roderick W. Tillman,Roger G. Walker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1985
  • Total pages :708
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105032923018
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Summary :