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Measuring Transport Equity

Measuring Transport Equity
  • Author : Karen Lucas,Karel Martens,Floridea Di Ciommo,Ariane Dupont-Kieffer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-15
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9780128148181
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Summary : Measuring Transport Equity provides a methodology with the potential to shape the transportation decision-making processes, thus allowing for the adoption of more equitable transport solutions. Focusing on numerous applied methodological approaches to transport equity assessment, the book formalizes the disciplinary practice, definitions and methodologies for transport equity. In addition, it recognizes the different types of equity and acknowledges that each requires their own assessment methodologies. Bringing together the most up-to-date perspectives and practical approaches for assessing transportation accessibility, environmental impacts, health and wellbeing, the book sets standards for researchers, policymakers and practitioners for conducting social impact analyses. Written by a collection of top researchers in the transport field Shows how to apply transport equity measurement ideas in the real-world through case study examples Covers emerging transport topics, including the use of the Gini index for measuring inequality Includes learning aids, such as methodology, application, policy relevance and further reading

Transport Justice

Transport Justice
  • Author : Karel Martens
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-07-01
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9781317599579
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Summary : Transport Justice develops a new paradigm for transportation planning based on principles of justice. Author Karel Martens starts from the observation that for the last fifty years the focus of transportation planning and policy has been on the performance of the transport system and ways to improve it, without much attention being paid to the persons actually using – or failing to use – that transport system. There are far-reaching consequences of this approach, with some enjoying the fruits of the improvements in the transport system, while others have experienced a substantial deterioration in their situation. The growing body of academic evidence on the resulting disparities in mobility and accessibility, have been paralleled by increasingly vocal calls for policy changes to address the inequities that have developed over time. Drawing on philosophies of social justice, Transport Justice argues that governments have the fundamental duty of providing virtually every person with adequate transportation and thus of mitigating the social disparities that have been created over the past decades. Critical reading for transport planners and students of transportation planning, this book develops a new approach to transportation planning that takes people as its starting point, and justice as its end.

Accessibility, Equity and Efficiency

Accessibility, Equity and Efficiency
  • Author : Karst T. Geurs,Roberto Patuelli,Tomaz Ponce Dentinho
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-02-26
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9781784717896
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Summary : Leading researchers from around the world show, in this volume, the importance of accessibility in contemporary issues such as rural depopulation, investments in public services and public transport, and transport infrastructure investments in Europe. The trade-offs between accessibility, economic development and equity are comprehensively examined, and a variety of approaches to measuring accessibility and equality presented. The book’s interdisciplinary contributions also provide different geographical contexts, from the US to various European and developing countries, and cover ex ante and ex post evaluation of transport investment. Improving transport accessibility is a main objective in transport policy and planning in developed and developing countries all over the world. Investment is motivated by the need to develop and/or reduce spatial or social inequalities. However, the economic and equity implications of investments in transport are not straightforward. The concepts of accessibility and equity can be defined and operationalized in many different ways, influencing outcomes and conclusions. Moreover, equity and efficiency goals are often conflicting. Accessibility models not only help to explain spatial and transport patterns in developed and developing countries but are also powerful tools to explain the equity and efficiency impacts of urban and transport policies and projects. This state-of-the-art overview of the accessibility–economic efficiency–equity relationship will appeal to researchers as well as transport and urban planners interested in accessibility issues and transport/regional developments.

The Right to Transportation

The Right to Transportation
  • Author : Thomas Sanchez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-04
  • Total pages :262
  • ISBN : 9781351177887
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Summary : Does transportation affect the lives of minority, low-income, elderly, and physically disabled citizens? The answer is yes, and those effects can be profound, according to The Right to Transportation. The authors argue that transportation policies can limit access to education, jobs, and services for some individuals while undermining the economy and social cohesion of entire communities. Policies that have nurtured the U.S. highway system and let public transportation wither have also led to ghettos and social isolation. More and more communities are recognizing the problem. This book explains the strategies and policies that can address inequities in the nation's transportation and transportation planning systems so that the benefits and burdens of those systems can be shared equally across all communities. With a close examination of how transportation policies affect individuals and communities, the book is a guide to transportation fairness. It explains the demographic trends, historical events, and current policies that have shaped transportation in the U.S. and offers recommendations for moving to equity.

Handbook of Sustainable Transport

Handbook of Sustainable Transport
  • Author : Carey Curtis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-12-25
  • Total pages :512
  • ISBN : 9781789900477
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Summary : Exploring the need for a sustainable transport paradigm, which has been sought after by local and national authorities internationally over the last 30 years, this illuminating and timely Handbook offers insights into how this can be secured more broadly and what it may involve, as well as the challenges that the sustainable transport approach faces. The Handbook offers readers a holistic understanding of the paradigm by drawing on a wide range of research and relevant case studies that showcase where the principles of sustainable transport have been implemented.

Equity and Well-Being

Equity and Well-Being
  • Author : Hyun Hwa Son
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-03
  • Total pages :272
  • ISBN : 9781136579325
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Summary : Equity is an abstract concept covering philosophical issues such as fairness and social justice, making its definition and measurement complex. This volume tackles these complexities head-on. The book is enriched with many empirical analyses and provides a comprehensive analysis of equity ranging from concepts and measurements to empirical illustrations and policy implications. After an extensive discussion on equity in the introduction, this volume begins with a chapter on well-being where the concepts of functioning and capability are discussed. This is followed by a few chapters on what an equitable distribution is and how equity can be measured. The volume then provides a definition and a methodology to measure equitable growth, examining the relationship between growth, inequality, and poverty. It also presents various empirical illustrations and country-specific experiences with three country case studies which assess whether publicly provided health and education services are equitable in developing Asia, examining the extent to which these social services favor the poor as well as the policy challenges to a more equitable delivery of these services. Finally, these country studies provide evidence–based policy recommendations to improve equity in social service delivery in developing countries. Achieving social equity has long been an important policy goal. There are relatively few studies on equity. This book aims to help fill this gap with an in-depth analysis of the issues associated with equity, covering its concept, measurement, and policy practices and implications.

From Mobility to Accessibility

From Mobility to Accessibility
  • Author : Jonathan Levine,Joe Grengs,Louis A. Merlin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-15
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9781501716102
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Summary : In From Mobility to Accessibility, an expert team of researchers flips the tables on the standard models for evaluating regional transportation performance. Jonathan Levine, Joe Grengs, and Louis A. Merlin argue for an "accessibility shift" whereby transportation planning, and the transportation dimensions of land-use planning, would be based on people's ability to reach destinations, rather than on their ability to travel fast. Existing models for planning and evaluating transportation, which have taken vehicle speeds as the most important measure, would make sense if movement were the purpose of transportation. But it is the ability to reach destinations, not movement per se, that people seek from their transportation systems. While the concept of accessibility has been around for the better part of a century, From Mobility to Accessibility shows that the accessibility shift is compelled by the fundamental purpose of transportation. The book argues that the shift would be transformative to the practice of both transportation and land-use planning but is impeded by many conceptual obstacles regarding the nature of accessibility and its potential for guiding development of the built environment. By redefining success in transportation, the book provides city planners, decisionmakers, and scholars a path to reforming the practice of transportation and land-use planning in modern cities and metropolitan areas.

The Evaluation of Transportation Investment Projects

The Evaluation of Transportation Investment Projects
  • Author : Joseph Berechman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-05-26
  • Total pages :22
  • ISBN : 9781135214074
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Summary : Throughout the world, the use of some kind of a formal transportation project evaluation procedure is a requirement. Yet, by and large, these are partial; in fact, much weight is often placed on the initial -pre-engineering -phases of the planning process, when vital information, such as accurate costs and demand projections, is largely missing. Moreover, many of these procedures neglect to consider key issues such as project’s risks, capital costs financing, latent demand, market imperfections, labor force availability and various incompatibilities between trip rates, travel times and activity location. As a result, projects, which are judged as viable under such deficient evaluation schemes, may have had a significantly different projection of capital costs and demand should a well-founded, thorough, and efficient evaluation process be used. Against this background, this book’s main objective is to construct a comprehensive and methodical economic, planning and decision-making framework for the evaluation of proposed transportation infrastructure investment projects. Such a framework is founded on four key principles. It is based on well-established economic, transportation and policy-analysis theoretical principles; it is comprehensive enough to encompass all relevant evaluation issues; it is applicable to a wide range of transportation investment projects; and it is amenable to empirical application including a sensitivity analysis and alternative scenarios regarding urban, regional and national developments.

Measuring Transportation Network Performance

Measuring Transportation Network Performance
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :76
  • ISBN : UCBK:C101165521
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Summary :

Integrating Gender Into Transport Planning

Integrating Gender Into Transport Planning
  • Author : Christina Lindkvist Scholten,Tanja Joelsson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : 3030050432
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Summary : This edited collection brings together feminist research on transport and planning from different epistemologies, with the intention to contribute to a more holistic transport planning practice. With a feminist perspective on transport policy and planning, the volume insists on the political character of transport planning and policy, and challenges gender-blindness in a policy area that impacts the everyday lives of women, men, girls, and boys. The chapters discuss everyday mobility as an embodied and situated activity in both conceptual and theoretical ways and suggest practical tools for change. The contributions of this collection are threefold: integrating gender research and transport planning, combining quantitative and qualitative gender research perspectives and methods, and highlighting the need to acknowledge the politicization of transport planning and transport practice.

The Transport System and Transport Policy

The Transport System and Transport Policy
  • Author : Bert van Wee,Jan Anne Annema,David Banister
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :399
  • ISBN : 9780857936905
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Summary : ÔThis very interesting book provides an excellent multi-disciplinary introduction into the functioning of transport systems and the interaction with their environments.Õ Ð Erik Verhoef, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands ÔThe editors of this important book have clearly identified that few writings on transport treat the transport system as a whole. Implicit in this is a need for a genuinely multidisciplinary approach. An impressive list of contributors ensures that the book draws on the latest research whilst providing new insights into some of the key challenges facing transport students and researchers, transport providers and policy makers.Õ Ð Roger Vickerman, University of Kent, UK ÔSince ancient times transportation has brought our world together. But the need for connectivity and accessibility in a spatially differentiated world has prompted the emergence of very complex transportation systems. This book offers a fresh and operational contribution to a better understanding of the complexity and manageability of a mobile world, by addressing in a balanced way both conceptual and applied or policy aspects of modern transportation systems.Õ Ð Peter Nijkamp, Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands Transport impacts on people and businesses in many different ways, and presents some of the key problems that decision-makers need to address. This comprehensive textbook introduces the transport system in a holistic and multidisciplinary way, bringing together the myriad components of transport. This textbook is written for an international readership of undergraduate and postgraduate students in transport and related subjects, as well as for professionals and policy decision-makers across both public and private sectors. Key features include: ¥ Discussion of the importance of transport accessibility and the impacts of transport on the environment and safety ¥ Policy issues relating to all of the discussed issues and prescribed future options. ¥ Transport evaluation methods and modelling approaches. ¥ Examples to highlight the linkages between components of the transport system Ð for example infrastructures, land-use, vehicle technologies Ð and the relevance of these linkages for decision making.

Measuring the Unmeasurable in Education

Measuring the Unmeasurable in Education
  • Author : Elaine Unterhalter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-04-28
  • Total pages :170
  • ISBN : 9780429815249
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Summary : Debates around quality versus quantity in education can generate controversy about how quality is measured. Many question the drive to delineate and quantify precisely what works, suggesting that much value either cannot be measured or is distorted by measurement. This book explores how we can understand measurement in areas of education policy, planning, and practice that have not previously been considered measurable. The contributors ask four main questions: What do we measure and not measure when we try to measure the unmeasurable in education? When attempts have been made to measure the unmeasurable in education, what metrics have been adopted in which contexts, and with what outcomes? Why have measures been adopted as indicators of the unmeasurable, such as human rights? And how have particular organisations approached the problem of measuring the apparently unmeasurable in education, with what epistemological, normative, and conceptual resources, and consequences? The book draws on analyses from philosophy, history, sociology, and economics, with insights from national and international contexts. The contributions consider philosophical distinctions, historical experiences, and contemporary reflections on how to refine existing approaches to measurement of poverty, capability, rights, and the benefits of education. The discussion shows how measuring the unmeasurable takes account of the inequalities, complexities and uncertainties of work in education, thus suggesting a considerable deepening of the notion of education quality and measurement. This book was originally published as a special issue of Comparative Education.

Transportation Decision Making

Transportation Decision Making
  • Author : Kumares C. Sinha,Samuel Labi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-09-09
  • Total pages :576
  • ISBN : 9781118169667
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Summary : This pioneering text provides a holistic approach to decisionmaking in transportation project development and programming, whichcan help transportation professionals to optimize their investmentchoices. The authors present a proven set of methodologies forevaluating transportation projects that ensures that all costs andimpacts are taken into consideration. The text's logical organization gets readers started with asolid foundation in basic principles and then progressively buildson that foundation. Topics covered include: Developing performance measures for evaluation, estimatingtravel demand, and costing transportation projects Performing an economic efficiency evaluation that accounts forsuch factors as travel time, safety, and vehicle operatingcosts Evaluating a project's impact on economic development and landuse as well as its impact on society and culture Assessing a project's environmental impact, including airquality, noise, ecology, water resources, and aesthetics Evaluating alternative projects on the basis of multipleperformance criteria Programming transportation investments so that resources can beoptimally allocated to meet facility-specific and system-widegoals Each chapter begins with basic definitions and concepts followedby a methodology for impact assessment. Relevant legislation isdiscussed and available software for performing evaluations ispresented. At the end of each chapter, readers are providedresources for detailed investigation of particular topics. Theseinclude Internet sites and publications of international anddomestic agencies and research institutions. The authors alsoprovide a companion Web site that offers updates, data foranalysis, and case histories of project evaluation and decisionmaking. Given that billions of dollars are spent each year ontransportation systems in the United States alone, and that thereis a need for thorough and rational evaluation and decision makingfor cost-effective system preservation and improvement, this textshould be on the desks of all transportation planners, engineers,and educators. With exercises in every chapter, this text is anideal coursebook for the subject of transportation systems analysisand evaluation.

Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South

Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South
  • Author : Jemimah Njuki,John R. Parkins,Amy Kaler
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-25
  • Total pages :312
  • ISBN : 9781317190011
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Summary : Drawing on studies from Africa, Asia and South America, this book provides empirical evidence and conceptual explorations of the gendered dimensions of food security. It investigates how food security and gender inequity are conceptualized within interventions, assesses the impacts and outcomes of gender-responsive programs on food security and gender equity and addresses diverse approaches to gender research and practice that range from descriptive and analytical to strategic and transformative. The chapters draw on diverse theoretical perspectives, including transformative learning, feminist theory, deliberative democracy and technology adoption. As a result, they add important conceptual and empirical material to a growing literature on the challenges of gender equity in agricultural production. A unique feature of this book is the integration of both analytic and transformative approaches to understanding gender and food security. The analytic material shows how food security interventions enable women and men to meet the long-term nutritional needs of their households, and to enhance their economic position. The transformative chapters also document efforts to build durable and equitable relationships between men and women, addressing underlying social, cultural and economic causes of gender inequality. Taken together, these combined approaches enable women and men to reflect on gendered divisions of labor and resources related to food, and to reshape these divisions in ways which benefit families and communities. Co-published with the International Development Research Centre.

Quality of Life in Cities

Quality of Life in Cities
  • Author : Alessandra Michelangeli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-03-27
  • Total pages :168
  • ISBN : 9781317653615
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Summary : In the last few decades, urban quality of life has received increasing interest from policy makers who aim to make cities better places to live. In addition to the aim of improving quality of life, sustainable and equitable development is also often included in the policy agendas of decision makers. This book aims to link quality of life to related issues such as sustainability, equity, and subjective well-being. While less than one-third of the world's population lived in cities in 1950, about two thirds of humanity is expected to live in urban areas by 2030. This dramatic increase in the number of people living in urban areas serves as the backdrop for this book’s analysis of cities. This book will be useful to students and researchers in economics, architecture and urban planning, sociology and political sciences, as well as policy makers.

Urban Transport Systems

Urban Transport Systems
  • Author : Hamid Yaghoubi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-18
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9789535128731
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Summary : This book contains a collection of latest research developments on the urban transportation systems. It describes rail transit systems, subways, bus rapid transit (BRT) systems, taxicabs, automobiles, etc. This book also studies the technical parameters and provides a comprehensive overview of the significant characteristics for urban transportation systems, including energy management systems, wireless communication systems, operations and maintenance systems, transport serviceability, environmental problems and solutions, simulation, modelling, analysis, design, safety and risk, standards, traffic congestion, ride quality, air quality, noise and vibration, financial and economic aspects, pricing strategies, etc. This professional book as a credible source can be very applicable and useful for all professors, researchers, students, experienced technical professionals, practitioners and others interested in urban transportation systems.

Educational Research and Innovation Measuring Innovation in Education 2019 What Has Changed in the Classroom?

Educational Research and Innovation Measuring Innovation in Education 2019 What Has Changed in the Classroom?
  • Author : Vincent-Lancrin Stéphan,Urgel Joaquin,Kar Soumyajit,Jacotin Gwénaël
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-05
  • Total pages :336
  • ISBN : 9789264311671
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Summary : Measuring innovation in education and understanding how it works is essential to improve the quality of the education sector. Monitoring systematically how pedagogical practices evolve would considerably increase the international education knowledge base. We need to examine whether, and how ...

The Geography of Transport Systems

The Geography of Transport Systems
  • Author : Jean-Paul Rodrigue,Claude Comtois,Brian Slack
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-18
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9781136777325
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Summary : Mobility is fundamental to economic and social activities such as commuting, manufacturing, or supplying energy. Each movement has an origin, a potential set of intermediate locations, a destination, and a nature which is linked with geographical attributes. Transport systems composed of infrastructures, modes and terminals are so embedded in the socio-economic life of individuals, institutions and corporations that they are often invisible to the consumer. This is paradoxical as the perceived invisibility of transportation is derived from its efficiency. Understanding how mobility is linked with geography is main the purpose of this book. The third edition of The Geography of Transport Systems has been revised and updated to provide an overview of the spatial aspects of transportation. This text provides greater discussion of security, energy, green logistics, as well as new and updated case studies, a revised content structure, and new figures. Each chapter covers a specific conceptual dimension including networks, modes, terminals, freight transportation, urban transportation and environmental impacts. A final chapter contains core methodologies linked with transport geography such as accessibility, spatial interactions, graph theory and Geographic Information Systems for transportation (GIS-T). This book provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the field, with a broad overview of its concepts, methods, and areas of application. The accompanying website for this text contains a useful additional material, including digital maps, PowerPoint slides, databases, and links to further reading and websites. The website can be accessed at: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans This text is an essential resource for undergraduates studying transport geography, as well as those interest in economic and urban geography, transport planning and engineering.

Streetfight

Streetfight
  • Author : Janette Sadik-Khan,Seth Solomonow
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-08
  • Total pages :368
  • ISBN : 9780698409415
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Summary : Like a modern-day Jane Jacobs, Janette Sadik-Khan transformed New York City's streets to make room for pedestrians, bikers, buses, and green spaces. Describing the battles she fought to enact change, Streetfight imparts wisdom and practical advice that other cities can follow to make their own streets safer and more vibrant. As New York City’s transportation commissioner, Janette Sadik-Khan managed the seemingly impossible and transformed the streets of one of the world’s greatest, toughest cities into dynamic spaces safe for pedestrians and bikers. Her approach was dramatic and effective: Simply painting a part of the street to make it into a plaza or bus lane not only made the street safer, but it also lessened congestion and increased foot traffic, which improved the bottom line of businesses. Real-life experience confirmed that if you know how to read the street, you can make it function better by not totally reconstructing it but by reallocating the space that’s already there. Breaking the street into its component parts, Streetfight demonstrates, with step-by-step visuals, how to rewrite the underlying “source code” of a street, with pointers on how to add protected bike paths, improve crosswalk space, and provide visual cues to reduce speeding. Achieving such a radical overhaul wasn’t easy, and Streetfight pulls back the curtain on the battles Sadik-Khan won to make her approach work. She includes examples of how this new way to read the streets has already made its way around the world, from pocket parks in Mexico City and Los Angeles to more pedestrian-friendly streets in Auckland and Buenos Aires, and innovative bike-lane designs and plazas in Austin, Indianapolis, and San Francisco. Many are inspired by the changes taking place in New York City and are based on the same techniques. Streetfight deconstructs, reassembles, and reinvents the street, inviting readers to see it in ways they never imagined.

Accessibility Analysis and Transport Planning

Accessibility Analysis and Transport Planning
  • Author : Karst T. Geurs,Kevin J. Krizek,Aura Reggiani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-01
  • Total pages :300
  • ISBN : 9781781000113
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Summary : Accessibility is a concept central to integrated transport and land use planning. The goal of improving accessibility Ð for all modes, for all people Ð has made its way into mainstream transport policy and planning in communities worldwide. This unique book introduces new accessibility approaches to transport planning across Europe and the United States. The expert contributors present advanced interdisciplinary approaches in accessibility research and modelling with best practices in accessibility planning and evaluation, to better support integrated transport and land-use policy-making. This book will prove an absorbing read for scholars, researchers and students working on accessibility issues across different academic fields including transport geography, spatial economics and social science. Transport and urban planners will also find the book to be an invaluable reference tool.

Measuring Productivity - OECD Manual Measurement of Aggregate and Industry-level Productivity Growth

Measuring Productivity - OECD Manual Measurement of Aggregate and Industry-level Productivity Growth
  • Author : OECD
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-07-16
  • Total pages :156
  • ISBN : 9789264194519
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Summary : This manual presents the theoretical foundations to productivity measurement, and discusses implementation and measurement issues.