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Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments

Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments
  • Author : Salom Thanga
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-15
  • Total pages :500
  • ISBN : 012815165X
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Summary : Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments: Structure and Functions presents research gained on coastal microbiology over the past two decades. The book covers the source of organic matter, which is found to design sediment microbial communities, and goes on to consider the quality of this matter with regard to degradation in coastal sediment. The book explores human induced changes in coastal ecosystems, then later focuses on the availability of nutrients, source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the sediment, and the sequencing of microbial structures and functions when using molecular tools. Despite the years of research, this is the first book to focus purely on coastal microbes in coastal ecosystems. As such, it is for gaining a better understanding of the diversity and functions of different types of microbes in coastal ecosystems across the globe. The book outlines the microbial community structure in marine sediments while also elaborating on the methods of assessment of the microbial community, making it of great relevance to aquatic microbiologists, marine ecologists, marine microbiologists, aquatic researchers, and scientists alike. Presents data on physico-chemical and biological features of coastal ecosystems and microbial community composition, allowing researchers to compare their data with pre-existing data Includes unique figures, schematic diagrams and photographs related to microbial processes of coastal ecosystems, providing a clear representation on the different aspects of microbial structure and functions Provides analytical methods and detailed molecular techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microbial community structure, enabling scientists and students to follow the protocols provided in the book for assessment in their own research

The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems

The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems
  • Author : Joel E. Kostka,Andreas P. Teske,Samantha B. Joye,Ian Head
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-15
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889193462
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Summary : Biodegradation mediated by indigenous microbial communities is the ultimate fate of the majority of oil hydrocarbon that enters the marine environment. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight recent advances in our knowledge of the pathways and controls of microbially-catalyzed hydrocarbon degradation in marine ecosystems, with emphasis on the response of microbial communities to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In this Research Topic, we encouraged original research and reviews on the ecology of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, the rates and mechanisms of biodegradation, and the bioremediation of discharged oil under situ as well as near in situ conditions.

The Responses of Marine Microorganisms, Communities and Ecofunctions to Environmental Gradients

The Responses of Marine Microorganisms, Communities and Ecofunctions to Environmental Gradients
  • Author : Stefan M. Sievert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-05
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889458073
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Summary : Marine environments are fluid. Microorganisms living in the ocean experience diverse environmental changes over wide spatiotemporal scales. For microorganisms and their communities to survive and function in the ocean, they need to have the capacity to sense, respond to, adapt to and/or withstand periodic and sporadic environmental changes. This eBook collates a variety of recent research reports and theoretical discussions on the ecoenergetic strategies, community structure, biogeochemical and ecosystem functions as well as regulatory processes and mechanisms that marine microorganisms employ in response to environmental gradients and variations.

Performance Assessment and Enrichment of Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Microbial Communities from Marine Sediments in Bioreactors

Performance Assessment and Enrichment of Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Microbial Communities from Marine Sediments in Bioreactors
  • Author : Susma Bhattarai Gautam
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-03
  • Total pages :22
  • ISBN : 9780429826467
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Summary : Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (AOM-SR) is a biological process mediated by anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria. It has scientifi c and societal relevance in regulating the global carbon cycle and biotechnological application for treating sulfate-rich wastewater. This research aimed to enhance the recent knowledge on ANME distribution and its enrichment in different bioreactor confi gurations, i.e. membrane bioreactor (MBR), biotrickling fi lter (BTF) and high pressure bioreactor (HPB). Marine sediment from Ginsburg mud volcano, Gulf of Cadiz was used as inoculum in the BTF and MBR. The BTF operation showed the enrichment of ANME in the biofi lm, especially ANME-1 (40%) and ANME-2 (10%). Whereas, the dominancy of ANME-2 and Desulfosarcina aggregates was observed in the MBR. Moreover, HPB study was performed by using highly enriched ANME-2 community from Captain Arutyunov mud volcano. During the study of HPB at different temperature and pressure conditions, the incubation at 10 MPa pressure and 15 ̊C was observed to be the most suitable condition for the studied AOM-SR community. Furthermore, AOM-SR activity in the coastal sediments from marine Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands) was explored and the microbial community was characterised which was dominated by ANME-3 among known ANME types.

Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments

Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments
  • Author : Erik Kristensen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-01-14
  • Total pages :390
  • ISBN : 9780875902746
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Summary : Marine sediments support complex interactions between macro-and microorganisms that have global implications for carbon and nutrient cycles. What is the state of the science on such interactions from coastal and estuarine environments to the deep sea? How does such knowledge effect environmental management? And what does future research hold in store for scientists, engineers, resource managers, and educators?Interactions between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments responds to these questions, and more, by focusing on:? Interactions between plants, microorganisms, and marine sediment? Interactions between animals, microorganisms, and marine sediment? Interactions between macro- and microorganisms and the structuring of benthic communities? Impact of macrobenthic activity on microbially-mediated geochemical cycles in sediments? Conceptual and numeric models of diagenesis that incorporate interactions between macro- and microorganismsHere is an authoritative overview of the research, experimentation and modeling approaches now in use in our rapidly evolving understanding of life in marine sediments.

The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems

The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems
  • Author : Joel E. Kostka,Andreas P. Teske,Samantha B. Joye,Ian Head
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-15
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889193462
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Summary : Biodegradation mediated by indigenous microbial communities is the ultimate fate of the majority of oil hydrocarbon that enters the marine environment. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight recent advances in our knowledge of the pathways and controls of microbially-catalyzed hydrocarbon degradation in marine ecosystems, with emphasis on the response of microbial communities to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In this Research Topic, we encouraged original research and reviews on the ecology of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, the rates and mechanisms of biodegradation, and the bioremediation of discharged oil under situ as well as near in situ conditions.

Coastal Sediments 2019 - Proceedings Of The 9th International Conference

Coastal Sediments 2019 - Proceedings Of The 9th International Conference
  • Author : Rosati Julie D,Wang Ping,Vallee Mathieu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-17
  • Total pages :3050
  • ISBN : 9789811204494
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Summary : This Proceedings contains over 260 papers on cutting-edge research presented at the 9th International Conference on Coastal Sediments 2019 (CS19), held in Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida, USA from May 27-31, 2019. This technical specialty conference is devoted to promoting an interdisciplinary exchange of state-of-the-art knowledge among researchers in the fields of coastal engineering, geology, oceanography, and related disciplines.With the theme of 'Advancing Science & Engineering for Resilient Coastal Systems', this Proceedings covers a wide range of research topics on coastal sediment processes from nearshore sediment transport and modelling to beach processes, shore protection, and coastal management.

Microbial Mats

Microbial Mats
  • Author : Joseph Seckbach,Aharon Oren
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-17
  • Total pages :606
  • ISBN : 9048137993
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Summary : This book provides information about microbial mats, from early fossils to modern mats located in marine and terrestrial environments. Microbial mats – layered biofilms containing different types of cells – are most complex systems in which representatives of various groups of organisms are found together. Among them are cyanobacteria and eukaryotic phototrophs, aerobic heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic bacteria, protozoa, anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, and other types of microorganisms. These mats are perfect models for biogeochemical processes, such as the cycles of chemical elements, in which a variety of microorganisms cooperate and interact in complex ways. They are often found under extreme conditions and their study contributes to our understanding of extremophilic life. Moreover, microbial mats are models for Precambrian stromatolites; the study of modern microbial mats may provide information on the processes that may have occurred on Earth when prokaryotic life began to spread.

Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing

Biodiversity, Ecosystem Functioning, and Human Wellbeing
  • Author : Shahid Naeem
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-07-30
  • Total pages :368
  • ISBN : 9780199547951
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Summary : In an age of accelerating biodiversity loss, this timely and critical volume summarizes recent advances in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research and explores the economics of biodiversity and ecosystem services. The book starts by summarizing the development of the basic science and provides a meta-analysis that quantitatively tests several biodiversity and ecosystem functioning hypotheses. It then describes the natural science foundations of biodiversityand ecosystem functioning research including: quantifying functional diversity, the development of the field into a predictive science, the effects of stability and complexity, methods to quantifymechanisms by which diversity affects functioning, the importance of trophic structure, microbial ecology, and spatial dynamics. Finally, the book takes research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning further than it has ever gone into the human dimension, describing the most pressing environmental challenges that face humanity and the effects of diversity on: climate change mitigation, restoration of degraded habitats, managed ecosystems, pollination, disease, and biological invasions.

The Marine Microbiome

The Marine Microbiome
  • Author : Lucas J. Stal,Mariana Silvia Cretoiu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-03
  • Total pages :498
  • ISBN : 9783319330006
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Summary : This book describes the state-of-the-art concerning the ‘marine microbiome’ and its uses in biotechnology. The first part discusses the diversity and ecology of marine microorganisms and viruses, including all three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. It discusses whether marine microorganisms exist and, if so, why they might be unique. The second part presents selected marine habitats, their inhabitants and how they influence biogeochemical cycles, while the third discusses the utilization of marine microbial resources, including legal aspects, dissemination, and public awareness. The marine microbiome is the total of microorganisms and viruses in the ocean and seas and in any connected environment, including the seafloor and marine animals and plants. The diversity of microbial life remains unquantified and largely unknown, and could represent a hidden treasure for human society. Accordingly, this book is also intended to connect academics and industry, providing essential information for microbiologists from both fields.

The Estuarine Ecosystem

The Estuarine Ecosystem
  • Author : Donald S. McLusky,M. Elliott,Michael Elliott
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-04-29
  • Total pages :214
  • ISBN : 9780198525080
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Summary : For the inhabitants of many of the world's major towns & cities estuaries provide their first & nearest glimpse of a natural habitat. This text will be of use to advanced undergraduate & graduate students on a general ecology course, & to professional researchers in aquatic/marine ecology & environmental science.

The Prokaryotes

The Prokaryotes
  • Author : Edward F. DeLong,Stephen Lory,Erko Stackebrandt,Fabiano Thompson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-19
  • Total pages :1063
  • ISBN : 3642301398
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Summary : The Prokaryotes is a comprehensive, multi-authored, peer reviewed reference work on Bacteria and Achaea. This fourth edition of The Prokaryotes is organized to cover all taxonomic diversity, using the family level to delineate chapters. Different from other resources, this new Springer product includes not only taxonomy, but also prokaryotic biology and technology of taxa in a broad context. Technological aspects highlight the usefulness of prokaryotes in processes and products, including biocontrol agents and as genetics tools. The content of the expanded fourth edition is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains review chapters dealing with the most important general concepts in molecular, applied and general prokaryote biology; Part 2 describes the known properties of specific taxonomic groups. Two completely new sections have been added to Part 1: bacterial communities and human bacteriology. The bacterial communities section reflects the growing realization that studies on pure cultures of bacteria have led to an incomplete picture of the microbial world for two fundamental reasons: the vast majority of bacteria in soil, water and associated with biological tissues are currently not culturable, and that an understanding of microbial ecology requires knowledge on how different bacterial species interact with each other in their natural environment. The new section on human microbiology deals with bacteria associated with healthy humans and bacterial pathogenesis. Each of the major human diseases caused by bacteria is reviewed, from identifying the pathogens by classical clinical and non-culturing techniques to the biochemical mechanisms of the disease process. The 4th edition of The Prokaryotes is the most complete resource on the biology of prokaryotes.

Deep Subsurface Microbiology

Deep Subsurface Microbiology
  • Author : Andreas Teske,Jennifer F. Biddle,Virginia P. Edgcomb, Axel Schippers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-01
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889195367
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Summary : Deep subsurface microbiology is a highly active and rapidly advancing research field at the interface of microbiology and the geosciences; it focuses on the detection, identification, quantification, cultivation and activity measurements of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes that permeate the subsurface biosphere of deep marine sediments and the basaltic ocean and continental crust. The deep subsurface biosphere abounds with uncultured, only recently discovered and – at best - incompletely understood microbial populations. In spatial extent and volume, Earth's subsurface biosphere is only rivaled by the deep sea water column. So far, no deep subsurface sediment has been found that is entirely devoid of microbial life; microbial cells and DNA remain detectable at sediment depths of more than 1 km; microbial life permeates deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs, and is also found several kilometers down in continental crust aquifers. Severe energy limitation, either as electron acceptor or donor shortage, and scarcity of microbially degradable organic carbon sources are among the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the genomic and physiological repertoire of the deep subsurface biosphere. Its biogeochemical role as long-term organic carbon repository, inorganic electron and energy source, and subduction recycling engine continues to be explored by current research at the interface of microbiology, geochemistry and biosphere/geosphere evolution. This Research Topic addresses some of the central research questions about deep subsurface microbiology and biogeochemistry: phylogenetic and physiological microbial diversity in the deep subsurface; microbial activity and survival strategies in severely energy-limited subsurface habitats; microbial activity as reflected in process rates and gene expression patterns; biogeographic isolation and connectivity in deep subsurface microbial communities; the ecological standing of subsurface biospheres in comparison to the surface biosphere – an independently flourishing biosphere, or mere survivors that tolerate burial (along with organic carbon compounds), or a combination of both? Advancing these questions on Earth’s deep subsurface biosphere redefines the habitat range, environmental tolerance, activity and diversity of microbial life.

Marine Metagenomics

Marine Metagenomics
  • Author : Takashi Gojobori,Tokio Wada,Takanori Kobayashi,Katsuhiko Mineta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-24
  • Total pages :271
  • ISBN : 9789811381348
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Summary : This book presents the state-of-art marine metagenome research and explains the method of marine metagenomic analysis in an easy-to-understand manner. Changes in the marine environment due to global warming and pollution have become a major global problem. Maintaining a healthy marine ecosystem requires advanced environmental monitoring and assessment systems. As such, the book presents a novel metagenomic monitoring method, which has been developed for comprehensive analyses of the DNA of microorganisms living in seawater to further our understanding of the dynamics of the marine environment. The book can be used as a primer for new researchers and as a manual on experimental methods.

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments
  • Author : David J. Burdige
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-04
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9780691216096
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Summary : The processes occurring in surface marine sediments have a profound effect on the local and global cycling of many elements. This graduate text presents the fundamentals of marine sediment geochemistry by examining the complex chemical, biological, and physical processes that contribute to the conversion of these sediments to rock, a process known as early diagenesis. Research over the past three decades has uncovered the fact that the oxidation of organic matter deposited in sediment acts as a causative agent for many early diagenetic changes. Summarizing and discussing these findings and providing a much-needed update to Robert Berner's Early Diagenesis: A Theoretical Approach, David J. Burdige describes the ways to quantify geochemical processes in marine sediment. By doing so, he offers a deeper understanding of the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, along with important metals such as iron and manganese. No other book presents such an in-depth look at marine sediment geochemistry. Including the most up-to-date research, a complete survey of the subject, explanatory text, and the most recent mathematical formulations that have contributed to our greater understanding of early diagenesis, Geochemistry of Marine Sediments will interest graduate students of geology, geochemistry, and oceanography, as well as the broader community of earth scientists. It is poised to become the standard text on the subject for years to come.

Earth and Life Processes Discovered from Subseafloor Environments

Earth and Life Processes Discovered from Subseafloor Environments
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-03
  • Total pages :822
  • ISBN : 9780444626110
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Summary : The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP: 2000-2013) has provided crucial records of past and present processes and interactions within and between the biosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. Research in IODP encompasses a wide range of fundamental and applied issues that affect society, such as global climate change, biodiversity, the origin of life, natural hazards involving the study of earthquakes processes, and the internal structure and dynamics of our planet. This compilation of major findings from the 2003-2013/14 phase of IODP, focusing on scientific results rather than description of data acquisition and early inferences, provides invaluable information. Anyone wondering what scientific drilling can achieve will gain quick understanding of the range of questions that are uniquely addressed with this methodology and the ways these data dovetail with other regional information. The excitement of breakthrough findings that occasionally accompanies a drilling project will be evident. IODP obtained unique records from the global ocean basins during the 2003-2013 program phase. This book highlights findings in three theme areas: Subseafloor life and the marine biosphere; Earth's changing environments; and Dynamics of the solid Earth. Each core or borehole log provides a window revealing insights that no other data achieve. Presents syntheses of key results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Encompasses a wide range of issues that affect society Describes the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program and its expeditions

Seagrasses of Australia

Seagrasses of Australia
  • Author : Anthony W. D. Larkum,Gary A. Kendrick,Peter J. Ralph
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-27
  • Total pages :797
  • ISBN : 9783319713540
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Summary : This book takes the place of “Biology of Seagrasses: A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region”, co-edited by A.W.D. Larkum, A.J. MaCComb and S.A. Shepherd and published by Elsevier in 1989. The first book has been influential, but it is now 25 years since it was published and seagrass studies have progressed and developed considerably since then. The design of the current book follows in the steps of the first book. There are chapters on taxonomy, floral biology, biogeography and regional studies. The regional studies emphasize the importance of Australia having over half of the world’s 62 species, including some ten species published for Australia since the previous book. There are a number of chapters on ecology and biogeography; fish biology and fisheries and dugong biology are prominent chapters. Physiological aspects again play an important part, including new knowledge on the role of hydrogen sulphide in sediments and on photosynthetic processes. Climate change, pollution and environmental degradation this time gain an even more important part of the book. Decline of seagrasses around Australia are also discussed in detail in several chapters. Since the first book was published two new areas have received special attention: blue carbon and genomic studies. Seagrasses are now known to be a very important player in the formation of blue carbon, i.e. carbon that has a long turnover time in soils and sediments. Alongside salt marshes and mangroves, seagrasses are now recognized as playing a very important role in the formation of blue carbon. And because Australia has such an abundance and variety of seagrasses, their role in blue carbon production and turnover is of great importance. The first whole genomes of seagrasses are now available and Australia has played an important role here. It appears that seagrasses have several different suites of genes as compared with other (land) plants and even in comparison with freshwater hydrophytes. This difference is leading to important molecular biological studies where the new knowledge will be important to the understanding and conservation of seagrass ecosystems in Australia. Thus by reason of its natural abundance of diverse seagrasses and a sophisticated seagrass research community in Australia it is possible to produce a book which will be attractive to marine biologists, coastal scientists and conservationists from many countries around the world.

Baltic Coastal Ecosystems

Baltic Coastal Ecosystems
  • Author : Gerald Schernewski,Ulrich Schiewer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-03-14
  • Total pages :398
  • ISBN : 9783662047699
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Summary : Between November 20 and 23, 2000, the workshop "Baltic Coastal Ecosystems - Structure, Function and Coastal Zone Management" took place in Rostock, Ger many. The workshop was organised by the Institute of Aquatic Ecology of the University of Rostock and the Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemiinde on be half of the Wissenschafts-Verbund Umwelt (WVU) at the University of Rostock. It was the third trans-disciplinary event that tried to link ecological and socio economical aspects with respect to the Baltic Sea. The first symposium was held in 1992, entitled "The Future of the Baltic Sea - Ecology, Economics, Administra tion and Teaching", and the second event took place in 1996, entitled "Sustainable Development in Coastal Regions - a Comparison Between North Atlantic Coast and Baltic Sea". The workshop "Baltic Coastal Ecosystems - Structure, Function and Coastal Zone Management" tried to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussions, the exchange of ideas and the presentation of scientific results with respect to the Bal tic coast.

Microbiology of the Rapidly Changing Polar Environments

Microbiology of the Rapidly Changing Polar Environments
  • Author : Julie Dinasquet,Eva Ortega-Retuerta,Connie Lovejoy,Ingrid Obernosterer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-05
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889455133
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Summary : Marine and freshwater polar environments are characterized by intense physical forces and strong seasonal variations. The persistent cold and sometimes inhospitable conditions create unique ecosystems and habitats for microbial life. Polar microbial communities are diverse productive assemblages, which drive biogeochemical cycles and support higher food-webs across the Arctic and over much of the Antarctic. Recent studies on the biogeography of microbial species have revealed phylogenetically diverse polar ecotypes, suggesting adaptation to seasonal darkness, sea-ice coverage and high summer irradiance. Because of the diversity of habitats related to atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and the formation and melting of ice, high latitude oceans and lakes are ideal environments to investigate composition and functionality of microbial communities. In addition, polar regions are responding more dramatically to climate change compared to temperate environments and there is an urgent need to identify sensitive indicators of ecosystem history, that may be sentinels for change or adaptation. For instance, Antarctic lakes provide useful model systems to study microbial evolution and climate history. Hence, it becomes essential and timely to better understand factors controlling the microbes, and how, in turn, they may affect the functioning of these fragile ecosystems. Polar microbiology is an expanding field of research with exciting possibilities to provide new insights into microbial ecology and evolution. With this Research Topic we seek to bring together polar microbiologists studying different aquatic systems and components of the microbial food web, to stimulate discussion and reflect on these sensitive environments in a changing world perspective.

Vulnerability of Coastal Ecosystems and Adaptation

Vulnerability of Coastal Ecosystems and Adaptation
  • Author : André Monaco,Patrick Prouzet
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-12-01
  • Total pages :336
  • ISBN : 9781119007753
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Summary : The vulnerability of socio-ecosystem combines the probability of exposure to natural or anthropogenic pressure, sensitivity and resilience. This book presents a systemic view of the diversity of pressures and impacts produced by climate change and human actions. Erosion of biodiversity by changing ocean chemistry, the intensification of global change raises the problem of the adaptation of living resources.

Applied Microbiology

Applied Microbiology
  • Author : Sanjai Saxena
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-03-19
  • Total pages :190
  • ISBN : 9788132222590
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Summary : The book is oriented towards undergraduates science and engineering students; postgraduates and researchers pursuing the field of microbiology, biotechnology, chemical - biochemical engineering and pharmacy. Various applications of microorganisms have been covered broadly and have been appropriately reflected in depth in 12 different chapters. The book begins with an insight to the diverse niche of microorganisms which have been explored and exploited in development of various biotechnological products and green processes. Further, how these microorganisms have been genetically modified to improve the desired traits for achieving optimal production of microbially derived products is discussed in the second chapter. Major route of production of microbially derived products and processes is through fermentation technology and therefore due emphasis on different aspects of fermentation technology has been given in the subsequent chapter. The development and deployment of biopesticides and biofertilizers which find tremendous application have been separately discussed under agricultural applications. Application of microbes for the removal of pollutants, recovery of metals and oils has also been discussed under environmental applications. The role of microbial systems in development of fermented foods and beverages have also been discussed in Chapter 6. The application of microbes in production of commodity chemicals and fine chemicals has also been discussed in separate chapters. A chapter has been dedicated to the tremendous applications of microbially produced enzymes in different industrial sectors. Another unique facet of this book is explaining the different methods by which desired traits of microorganisms have been improved for their efficacious and economical exploitation in the industry. A chapter is dedicated to exploitation of microorganisms in development of vaccines for human and veterinary use. Finally, the last chapter discusses the role of immobilization in optimization of industrial processes and development of microbial biosensors for industrial applications. Thus, this book is a holistic approach providing information on the present applications of microorganisms.