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Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments

Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments
  • Author : Salom Gnana Thanga Vincent,Tim C. Jennerjahn,Kumarasamy Ramasamy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-06-10
  • Total pages :206
  • ISBN : 9780128151662
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Summary : A concise reference on the structural composition and function of microbial communities in coastal environments, especially in relation to natural and anthropogenic impacts. Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments presents twenty years of coastal microbiology research, grounding it as a vital development in the field of microbial ecology. It is the first book to focus exclusively on the complex microbial ecology and its function in rest of the marine environment. The book outlines the structure, function, and assessment of microbial communities in marine sediments while exploring practical methods of assessment. It is an invaluable resource to aquatic microbiologists, marine ecologists, marine microbiologists, aquatic researchers, and graduate students in this field. Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments begins with an examination of nutrient sources in the coastal context with a focus on organic matter inputs. The quantity and quality of organic matter in coastal sediments and their impacts on the composition and formation of microbial communities is discussed. The book explores the consequences of anthropogenic changes and human activity on microbial ecology and nutrient cycling. Sections on nutrient availability, green house gas production and biodegradation of persistent organic pollutants provide essential details. Molecular research techniques and methods for assessing microbial community structure and function in coastal sediments are also covered. Explores the interplay of physicochemical and biological features of coastal ecosystems on microbial community composition to provide a template of comparison for field research Includes unique figures, schematic diagrams and photographs related to microbial processes of coastal ecosystem to clearly represent different aspects of microbial structure and functions Provides analytical methods and detailed molecular techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microbial community structure

Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments

Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments
  • Author : Salom Gnana Thanga Vincent,Tim C. Jennerjahn,Kumarasamy Ramasamy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-06-23
  • Total pages :206
  • ISBN : 9780128151655
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Summary : Microbial Communities in Coastal Sediments: Structure and Functions presents research gained on coastal microbiology over the past two decades. The book covers the source of organic matter, which is found to design sediment microbial communities, and goes on to consider the quality of this matter with regard to degradation in coastal sediment. The book explores human induced changes in coastal ecosystems, then later focuses on the availability of nutrients, source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the sediment, and the sequencing of microbial structures and functions when using molecular tools. Despite the years of research, this is the first book to focus purely on coastal microbes in coastal ecosystems. As such, it is for gaining a better understanding of the diversity and functions of different types of microbes in coastal ecosystems across the globe. The book outlines the microbial community structure in marine sediments while also elaborating on the methods of assessment of the microbial community, making it of great relevance to aquatic microbiologists, marine ecologists, marine microbiologists, aquatic researchers, and scientists alike. Presents data on physico-chemical and biological features of coastal ecosystems and microbial community composition, allowing researchers to compare their data with pre-existing data Includes unique figures, schematic diagrams and photographs related to microbial processes of coastal ecosystems, providing a clear representation on the different aspects of microbial structure and functions Provides analytical methods and detailed molecular techniques for qualitative and quantitative analyses of microbial community structure, enabling scientists and students to follow the protocols provided in the book for assessment in their own research

Performance Assessment and Enrichment of Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Microbial Communities from Marine Sediments in Bioreactors

Performance Assessment and Enrichment of Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Microbial Communities from Marine Sediments in Bioreactors
  • Author : Susma Bhattarai Gautam
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-20
  • Total pages :22
  • ISBN : 9780429826450
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Summary : Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (AOM-SR) is a biological process mediated by anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria. It has scientifi c and societal relevance in regulating the global carbon cycle and biotechnological application for treating sulfate-rich wastewater. This research aimed to enhance the recent knowledge on ANME distribution and its enrichment in different bioreactor confi gurations, i.e. membrane bioreactor (MBR), biotrickling fi lter (BTF) and high pressure bioreactor (HPB). Marine sediment from Ginsburg mud volcano, Gulf of Cadiz was used as inoculum in the BTF and MBR. The BTF operation showed the enrichment of ANME in the biofi lm, especially ANME-1 (40%) and ANME-2 (10%). Whereas, the dominancy of ANME-2 and Desulfosarcina aggregates was observed in the MBR. Moreover, HPB study was performed by using highly enriched ANME-2 community from Captain Arutyunov mud volcano. During the study of HPB at different temperature and pressure conditions, the incubation at 10 MPa pressure and 15 ̊C was observed to be the most suitable condition for the studied AOM-SR community. Furthermore, AOM-SR activity in the coastal sediments from marine Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands) was explored and the microbial community was characterised which was dominated by ANME-3 among known ANME types.

Ecosystem Dynamics in a Polar Desert

Ecosystem Dynamics in a Polar Desert
  • Author : John C. Priscu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-02-04
  • Total pages :369
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822025580937
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Summary : Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Antarctic Research Series, Volume 72. The McMurdo Dry Valleys of southern Victoria Land comprise the largest ice?]free expanse (about 4000 km2) on the Antarctic continent. Research in this region began during British expeditions of the early 1900's and has yielded much information on specific physical, chemical and biological features of the area. Only recently have scientists begun to view the region as an integrated system which includes dynamic interactions among biotic and abiotic components of the environment. The McMurdo Dry Valleys represents the coldest and driest desert on this planet. Photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms that are intimately linked with the presence of liquid water and nutrients dominate the biological assemblages. Owing to the low average temperature (−20° C) in the region, liquid water is a rare commodity that often exists for a short period only and occurs in many inconspicuous places. It is now clear that the presence of liquid water produces a cascade of tightly coupled events that ultimately leads to the biological production and cycling of organic carbon and related elements. It also is clear that an integrated knowledge of biological, chemical, and physical factors is required to understand biogeochemical dynamics within the cold desert ecosystem of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. While various aspects of this ecosystem have formed the basis of several excellent publications, the compendium of manuscripts published within this volume represents a first attempt to compile complementary information on the abiotic and biotic components of the McMurdo Dry Valleys and link them in a final synthesis chapter.

Linking Molecular Microbiology and Geochemistry to Better Understand Microbial Ecology in Coastal Marine Sediments

Linking Molecular Microbiology and Geochemistry to Better Understand Microbial Ecology in Coastal Marine Sediments
  • Author : Brandi Kiel Reese
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:812537872
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Summary : The overall objective of the research presented here was to combine multiple geochemical parameters and molecular characterizations to provide a novel view of active microbial community ecology of sediments in a large-river deltaic estuary. In coastal and estuarine environments, a large portion of benthic respiration has been attributed to sulfate reduction and implicated as an important mechanism in hypoxia formation. The use of high-resolution sampling of individual sediment cores and high throughput nucleic acid extraction techniques combined with 454 FLX sequencing provided a robust understanding of the metabolically active benthic microbial community within coastal sediments. This was used to provide further understanding and show the importance of simultaneously analyzing the connectivity of sulfur and iron cycling to the structure and function of the microbial population. Although aqueous sulfide did not accumulate in the sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico, active sulfate reduction was observed in all locations sampled. Microbial recycling and sequestration as iron sulfides prevented the release of sulfide from the sediment. Prominent differences were observed between the sample locations and with depth into the sediment column. This study emphasized the importance of combining novel molecular techniques with simultaneous traditional geochemical measurements to show the interdependence of microbiology and geochemistry. In addition, this study highlights the need to consider microbial community biogeography along with small-scale variations in geochemistry and biology that impact the overall cycling of redox elements when constructing biogeochemical models in marine sediments.

The Responses of Marine Microorganisms, Communities and Ecofunctions to Environmental Gradients

The Responses of Marine Microorganisms, Communities and Ecofunctions to Environmental Gradients
  • Author : Stefan M. Sievert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-05
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889458073
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Summary : Marine environments are fluid. Microorganisms living in the ocean experience diverse environmental changes over wide spatiotemporal scales. For microorganisms and their communities to survive and function in the ocean, they need to have the capacity to sense, respond to, adapt to and/or withstand periodic and sporadic environmental changes. This eBook collates a variety of recent research reports and theoretical discussions on the ecoenergetic strategies, community structure, biogeochemical and ecosystem functions as well as regulatory processes and mechanisms that marine microorganisms employ in response to environmental gradients and variations.

Studies of the Biogeochemistry of Typical Estuaries and Bays in China

Studies of the Biogeochemistry of Typical Estuaries and Bays in China
  • Author : Zhiliang Shen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-09
  • Total pages :286
  • ISBN : 9783662581698
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Summary : This book presents study findings involving the Changjiang River estuary and Jiaozhou Bay, China, etc. It takes a large catchment as a combined ecosystem to study nutrients biogeochemistry and environmental aspects of the Changjiang River. Some of the findings have sparked new research directions, including systematic studies of nutrients in the Changjiang River; sources and control mechanisms of nitrogen and phosphorus in the Changjiang River and its estuary; removal and transport of nutrients in the turbidity maximum zone and upwelling area of the Changjiang estuary; long-term changes in nutrients and ecological responses in the Changjiang River estuary and Jiaozhou Bay; and a study on nutrient structure and nutrient composition of phytoplankton, which are topics at the forefront ofinternational marine The studies address different fields, such as biogeochemistry, marine chemistry, ecology, environmental science, oceanography and biology.

The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems

The metabolic pathways and environmental controls of hydrocarbon biodegradation in marine ecosystems
  • Author : Joel E. Kostka,Andreas P. Teske,Samantha B. Joye,Ian Head
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-15
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889193462
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Summary : Biodegradation mediated by indigenous microbial communities is the ultimate fate of the majority of oil hydrocarbon that enters the marine environment. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight recent advances in our knowledge of the pathways and controls of microbially-catalyzed hydrocarbon degradation in marine ecosystems, with emphasis on the response of microbial communities to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In this Research Topic, we encouraged original research and reviews on the ecology of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, the rates and mechanisms of biodegradation, and the bioremediation of discharged oil under situ as well as near in situ conditions.

The Microbiome of The Egyptian Red Sea Proper and Gulf of Aqaba

The Microbiome of The Egyptian Red Sea Proper and Gulf of Aqaba
  • Author : Ghada Alaa El-Din Mustafa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : OCLC:947933400
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Summary : Abstract: The Red Sea is one of the most unique environments worldwide. It possesses a unique geography, physical, chemical and biological characteristics. It encounters several ecosystems articulating with each other, these include, corals, mangroves, algae, fisheries, invertebrates and microbiota of each one of these along with microbiota of the Red Sea waters and sediments. Studying the collective microbial communities of the Egyptian Red Sea coastal sediments have not been reported before. In regards to the severe pollution impacting the different Red Sea ecosystems, sediments samples have been collected from different impacted sites. The selected sites included 1- four ports for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate, 2-a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills, 3-a reported tourism impacted site 4- two mangrove sites and 5-two lakes. Bacterial communities for each site have been studied through two different approaches, Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent approaches. Pyrosequencing of V6-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA, isolated through the two approaches, has been used to assess the microbial community of each site. Physical parameters, Chemical analysis for 29 elements, selected semi-volatile oil contents, along with Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Sulfur (CHNS) contents have been measured for each site. 131,402 and 136,314 significant reads have been generated through the Culture-Dependent and Independent approaches, respectively. Generally, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobateria, Fusobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Bacteriodetes are the major bacterial groups detected through the two approaches. The Culture-Dependent datasets distinctive analysis revealed three main patterns (1) marine Vibrio spp.-suggesting a "marine Vibrio phenomenon"; (2) potential human pathogens; and (3) oil-degrading bacteria. While the Culture-Independent datasets analysis reported (1) an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome, taxa detected in all the sites and (2) Hydrocarbon biodegrading bacteria predominance to the majority of the sites; particularly in two ports. On the other hand, the two lakes, through the two approaches, showed unique bacterial patterns, which generally grouped into anaerobic, halophilic and sulfur metabolizing bacteria. Individually, sites showed unique evolution of their microbial communities based on minor intrinsic and imposed variation per sites. Our results draw attention to the effects of different sources of pollution on the Red Sea and suggest the need for further analysis to overcome the hazardous effects observed at the impacted sites.

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments

Geochemistry of Marine Sediments
  • Author : David J. Burdige
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-08-04
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9780691216096
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Summary : The processes occurring in surface marine sediments have a profound effect on the local and global cycling of many elements. This graduate text presents the fundamentals of marine sediment geochemistry by examining the complex chemical, biological, and physical processes that contribute to the conversion of these sediments to rock, a process known as early diagenesis. Research over the past three decades has uncovered the fact that the oxidation of organic matter deposited in sediment acts as a causative agent for many early diagenetic changes. Summarizing and discussing these findings and providing a much-needed update to Robert Berner's Early Diagenesis: A Theoretical Approach, David J. Burdige describes the ways to quantify geochemical processes in marine sediment. By doing so, he offers a deeper understanding of the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, along with important metals such as iron and manganese. No other book presents such an in-depth look at marine sediment geochemistry. Including the most up-to-date research, a complete survey of the subject, explanatory text, and the most recent mathematical formulations that have contributed to our greater understanding of early diagenesis, Geochemistry of Marine Sediments will interest graduate students of geology, geochemistry, and oceanography, as well as the broader community of earth scientists. It is poised to become the standard text on the subject for years to come.

Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments

Interactions Between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments
  • Author : Erik Kristensen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-01-14
  • Total pages :390
  • ISBN : 9780875902746
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Summary : Marine sediments support complex interactions between macro-and microorganisms that have global implications for carbon and nutrient cycles. What is the state of the science on such interactions from coastal and estuarine environments to the deep sea? How does such knowledge effect environmental management? And what does future research hold in store for scientists, engineers, resource managers, and educators?Interactions between Macro- and Microorganisms in Marine Sediments responds to these questions, and more, by focusing on:? Interactions between plants, microorganisms, and marine sediment? Interactions between animals, microorganisms, and marine sediment? Interactions between macro- and microorganisms and the structuring of benthic communities? Impact of macrobenthic activity on microbially-mediated geochemical cycles in sediments? Conceptual and numeric models of diagenesis that incorporate interactions between macro- and microorganismsHere is an authoritative overview of the research, experimentation and modeling approaches now in use in our rapidly evolving understanding of life in marine sediments.

Extracellular Enzymes, Microbes and Decomposition of Organic Matter in Coastal Mangrove Sediments

Extracellular Enzymes, Microbes and Decomposition of Organic Matter in Coastal Mangrove Sediments
  • Author : Ling Luo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-26
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1361039922
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Summary : This dissertation, "Extracellular Enzymes, Microbes and Decomposition of Organic Matter in Coastal Mangrove Sediments" by Ling, Luo, 罗玲, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Extracellular enzymes, primarily produced by microorganisms, affect ecosystem processes because of their essential role in degradation, transformation and mineralization of organic matter. However, such data on sediments in mangrove ecosystems are especially scanty. Therefore, there is a need to investigate extracellular enzymes in mangrove ecosystems in order to estimate the C cycling dynamics on a global scale. The objectives of this research were to investigate the activities of enzymes involved in C and nutrient cycling, to assess microbial nutrient acquisition by applying enzymatic stoichiometry, to delineate the relationships among enzyme activities, microbial parameters as well as decomposition of sediment organic matter (SOM) in a coastal mangrove of Hong Kong. Strong variations in activities of hydrolases (β-glucosidase (GLU), β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), and acid phosphatase (ACP) involved in C, N and P cycling, respectively), but not activity of phenol oxidase (PHO, degrading recalcitrant organic matter) have been observed. However, evident variations of PHO activity were found in rhizosphere and crab-affected sediments. Hydrolase activities are positively correlated to sediment C, N and P as well as bacterial abundance, suggesting a feedback and succession of microorganisms to limitation of natural resources. On the other hand, a significant correlation between ACP and PHO activity indicates SOM degradation is controlled by P availability. Coincidentally, the enzymatic stoichiometry also suggests that this ecosystem is extremely microbial P-limited. Moreover, at molecular level, the remarkable correlations between bacterial laccase-like communities (relating to SOM degradation) and sediment C: P as well as N: P have repeatedly suggested a P-limited condition for SOM-degrading microbial communities. Therefore, it can be known that the increase of P limitation will slow down SOM decomposition and thus protect C storage in this coastal mangrove ecosystem. Furthermore, the effects of N and biochar additions on SOM decomposition have been investigated. Relative to the controls, N addition has dual role in C storage since both loss and accumulation of organic C was observed in mangrove forest and intertidal zone sediments, respectively. Sediment organic C was slightly increased after biochar addition, although the increase of PHO and GLU activity indicates a trend of C loss. This contradictory phenomenon is probably due to the entrapped or adsorbed enzymes catalyzing the oxidation or hydrolysis of SOM. Although the information is still limited on this subject, the results of this study may help to better understand the potential strategies on preventing C loss in mangrove ecosystems. Overall, the thesis indicates that SOM in this coastal mangrove is microbial P-limitation, and SOM decomposition may be slowed down so as to sequester C into sediments if microbial P limitation is exacerbated. Therefore, in further study, the importance of P in SOM degradation and microbial communities should be considered for C cycling and climate change mitigation. DOI: 10.5353/th_b5610935 Subjects: Mangrove ecology

Microbial Community Structure and Dynamics in the Colne Estuary, in Situ and in Response to Nutrient Amendment

Microbial Community Structure and Dynamics in the Colne Estuary, in Situ and in Response to Nutrient Amendment
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:926920792
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Summary :

The Marine Microbiome

The Marine Microbiome
  • Author : Lucas J. Stal,Mariana Silvia Cretoiu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-03
  • Total pages :498
  • ISBN : 9783319330006
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Summary : This book describes the state-of-the-art concerning the ‘marine microbiome’ and its uses in biotechnology. The first part discusses the diversity and ecology of marine microorganisms and viruses, including all three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. It discusses whether marine microorganisms exist and, if so, why they might be unique. The second part presents selected marine habitats, their inhabitants and how they influence biogeochemical cycles, while the third discusses the utilization of marine microbial resources, including legal aspects, dissemination, and public awareness. The marine microbiome is the total of microorganisms and viruses in the ocean and seas and in any connected environment, including the seafloor and marine animals and plants. The diversity of microbial life remains unquantified and largely unknown, and could represent a hidden treasure for human society. Accordingly, this book is also intended to connect academics and industry, providing essential information for microbiologists from both fields.

Marine Metagenomics

Marine Metagenomics
  • Author : Takashi Gojobori,Tokio Wada,Takanori Kobayashi,Katsuhiko Mineta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-24
  • Total pages :271
  • ISBN : 9789811381348
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Summary : This book presents the state-of-art marine metagenome research and explains the method of marine metagenomic analysis in an easy-to-understand manner. Changes in the marine environment due to global warming and pollution have become a major global problem. Maintaining a healthy marine ecosystem requires advanced environmental monitoring and assessment systems. As such, the book presents a novel metagenomic monitoring method, which has been developed for comprehensive analyses of the DNA of microorganisms living in seawater to further our understanding of the dynamics of the marine environment. The book can be used as a primer for new researchers and as a manual on experimental methods.

Deep Subsurface Microbiology

Deep Subsurface Microbiology
  • Author : Andreas Teske,Jennifer F. Biddle,Virginia P. Edgcomb, Axel Schippers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-07-01
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889195367
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Summary : Deep subsurface microbiology is a highly active and rapidly advancing research field at the interface of microbiology and the geosciences; it focuses on the detection, identification, quantification, cultivation and activity measurements of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes that permeate the subsurface biosphere of deep marine sediments and the basaltic ocean and continental crust. The deep subsurface biosphere abounds with uncultured, only recently discovered and – at best - incompletely understood microbial populations. In spatial extent and volume, Earth's subsurface biosphere is only rivaled by the deep sea water column. So far, no deep subsurface sediment has been found that is entirely devoid of microbial life; microbial cells and DNA remain detectable at sediment depths of more than 1 km; microbial life permeates deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs, and is also found several kilometers down in continental crust aquifers. Severe energy limitation, either as electron acceptor or donor shortage, and scarcity of microbially degradable organic carbon sources are among the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the genomic and physiological repertoire of the deep subsurface biosphere. Its biogeochemical role as long-term organic carbon repository, inorganic electron and energy source, and subduction recycling engine continues to be explored by current research at the interface of microbiology, geochemistry and biosphere/geosphere evolution. This Research Topic addresses some of the central research questions about deep subsurface microbiology and biogeochemistry: phylogenetic and physiological microbial diversity in the deep subsurface; microbial activity and survival strategies in severely energy-limited subsurface habitats; microbial activity as reflected in process rates and gene expression patterns; biogeographic isolation and connectivity in deep subsurface microbial communities; the ecological standing of subsurface biospheres in comparison to the surface biosphere – an independently flourishing biosphere, or mere survivors that tolerate burial (along with organic carbon compounds), or a combination of both? Advancing these questions on Earth’s deep subsurface biosphere redefines the habitat range, environmental tolerance, activity and diversity of microbial life.

Seagrasses of Australia

Seagrasses of Australia
  • Author : Anthony W. D. Larkum,Gary A. Kendrick,Peter J. Ralph
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-27
  • Total pages :797
  • ISBN : 9783319713540
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Summary : This book takes the place of “Biology of Seagrasses: A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region”, co-edited by A.W.D. Larkum, A.J. MaCComb and S.A. Shepherd and published by Elsevier in 1989. The first book has been influential, but it is now 25 years since it was published and seagrass studies have progressed and developed considerably since then. The design of the current book follows in the steps of the first book. There are chapters on taxonomy, floral biology, biogeography and regional studies. The regional studies emphasize the importance of Australia having over half of the world’s 62 species, including some ten species published for Australia since the previous book. There are a number of chapters on ecology and biogeography; fish biology and fisheries and dugong biology are prominent chapters. Physiological aspects again play an important part, including new knowledge on the role of hydrogen sulphide in sediments and on photosynthetic processes. Climate change, pollution and environmental degradation this time gain an even more important part of the book. Decline of seagrasses around Australia are also discussed in detail in several chapters. Since the first book was published two new areas have received special attention: blue carbon and genomic studies. Seagrasses are now known to be a very important player in the formation of blue carbon, i.e. carbon that has a long turnover time in soils and sediments. Alongside salt marshes and mangroves, seagrasses are now recognized as playing a very important role in the formation of blue carbon. And because Australia has such an abundance and variety of seagrasses, their role in blue carbon production and turnover is of great importance. The first whole genomes of seagrasses are now available and Australia has played an important role here. It appears that seagrasses have several different suites of genes as compared with other (land) plants and even in comparison with freshwater hydrophytes. This difference is leading to important molecular biological studies where the new knowledge will be important to the understanding and conservation of seagrass ecosystems in Australia. Thus by reason of its natural abundance of diverse seagrasses and a sophisticated seagrass research community in Australia it is possible to produce a book which will be attractive to marine biologists, coastal scientists and conservationists from many countries around the world.

CDC Health Information for International Travel 2016

CDC Health Information for International Travel 2016
  • Author : Gary W. Brunette
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-01
  • Total pages :659
  • ISBN : 9780199379156
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Summary : Amid recent changes in global health, the public interest in travelers' safety has never been greater. For both international travelers and the health professionals who care for them, CDC Health Information for International Travel (more commonly known as The Yellow Book) is the definitive resource for preventing illness and injury in a globalized world. This 2016 edition offers the US government's most current health recommendations for travelers to international destinations, including disease risk maps, country-specific guidelines, and vaccine requirements and recommendations. The book also offers updated guidance for specific types of travel and travelers, including: Precautions for immunocompromised travelers and disabled travelers Guidance for the pregnant, last-minute, or resource-limited traveler Health considerations for newly arrived adoptees, immigrants, and refugees Advice for air crews, humanitarian aid workers, and health care workers traveling to provide care overseas Written by a team of experts at CDC on the forefront of travel medicine, The Yellow Book provides a user-friendly, vital resource for those in the business of keeping travelers healthy abroad.

The South China Sea

The South China Sea
  • Author : Pinxian Wang,Qianyu Li
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-05-27
  • Total pages :506
  • ISBN : 9781402097454
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Summary : Pinxian Wang and Qianyu Li The South China Sea (SCS) (Fig. 1. 1) offers a special attraction for Earth scientists world-wide because of its location and its well-preserved hemipelagic sediments. As the largest one of the marginal seas separating Asia from the Paci?c, the largest continent from the largest ocean, the SCS functions as a focal point in land-sea int- actions of the Earth system. Climatically, the SCS is located between the Western Paci?c Warm Pool, the centre of global heating at the sea level, and the Tibetan Plateau, the centre of heating at an altitude of 5,000m. Geomorphologically, the SCS lies to the east of the highest peak on earth, Zhumulangma or Everest in the Himalayas (8,848m elevation) and to the west of the deepest trench in the ocean, Philippine Trench (10,497m water depth) (Wang P. 2004). Biogeographically, the SCS belongs to the so-called “East Indies Triangle” where modern marine and terrestrial biodiversity reaches a global maximum (Briggs 1999). Among the major marginal sea basins from the west Paci?c, the SCS presents some of the best conditions for accumulating complete paleoclimatic records in its hemipelagic deposits. These records are favorable for high-resolution pa- oceanographic studies because of high sedimentation rates and good carbonate preservation. It may not be merely a coincidence that two cores from the southern 14 SCS were among the ?rst several cores in the world ocean used by AMS C dating for high-resolution stratigraphy (Andree et al. 1986; Broecker et al. 1988).

The Role of Bioturbation by Ghost Shrimp Lepidophthalmus Louisianensis in Oil Degradation and Structuring of the Microbial Community in Coastal Sediments

The Role of Bioturbation by Ghost Shrimp Lepidophthalmus Louisianensis in Oil Degradation and Structuring of the Microbial Community in Coastal Sediments
  • Author : Nihar Ranjan Deb Adhikary
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : OCLC:1143849621
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Summary :

Microbial Life of the Deep Biosphere

Microbial Life of the Deep Biosphere
  • Author : Jens Kallmeyer,Dirk Wagner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-01
  • Total pages :342
  • ISBN : 9783110300130
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Summary : Over the last two decades, exploration of the deep subsurface biosphere has developed into a major research area. New findings constantly challenge our concepts of global biogeochemical cycles and the ultimate limits to life. In order to explain our observations from deep subsurface ecosystems it is necessary to develop truly interdisciplinary approaches, ranging from microbiology and geochemistry to physics and modeling. This book aims to bring together a wide variety of topics, covering the broad range of issues that are associated with deep biosphere exploration. Not only does the book present case studies of selected projects, but also treats questions arising from our current knowledge. Despite nearly two decades of research, there are still many boundaries to exploration caused by technical limitations and one section of the book is devoted to these technical challenges and the latest developments in this field. This volume will be of high interest to biologists, chemists and earth scientists all working on the deep biosphere.