Download Microbiology For Surgical Infections Book PDF

Download full Microbiology For Surgical Infections books PDF, EPUB, Tuebl, Textbook, Mobi or read online Microbiology For Surgical Infections anytime and anywhere on any device. Get free access to the library by create an account, fast download and ads free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library.

Microbiology for Surgical Infections

Microbiology for Surgical Infections
  • Author : Kateryna Kon,Mahendra Rai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-03-18
  • Total pages :324
  • ISBN : 9780124116429
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Microbiology for Surgical Infections: Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment explores current trends in etiology and antibiotic resistance of pathogens responsible for devastating and complex surgical infections. Clinicians and researchers report the most recent advances in diagnostic approaches to bacterial and non-bacterial surgical infections, including invasive fungal infections. Current guidelines for prophylaxis of community-acquired and nosocomial infections, complications in surgery, and improvement of diagnosis and treatment of these devastating surgical infections are also discussed. The work gives specific attention to intra-abdominal and wound infections, as well as infections in cardiac surgery and neurosurgery. Taken together, these explorations inform the work of specialists in different surgical arenas, as well as those working in microbiology. Microbiology for Surgical Infections provides a resource to those working to improve outcomes in this complicated arena by discussing prospects for future study and identifying targets for future research. Provides a multi-dimensional view of myriad topics pertinent to surgical infections, including questions of etiology, pathogenesis, host-microbial interactions, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and prophylaxis Delivers cutting-edge commentary from eminent surgeons, microbiologists, and infectious disease specialists, with global contributions from both the developed and developing worlds Presents comprehensive research informed by the most recent technological and scientific advances in the field

Essential Microbiology for Wound Care

Essential Microbiology for Wound Care
  • Author : Valerie Edwards-Jones
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-01-07
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : 9780191025082
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Many healthcare practitioners understand the role microbiology has within the management of their patients, particularly when this involves wound care and the healing process. However, basic medical and nursing training does not always cover the microbiology of wound care in any great depth. Essential Microbiology for Wound Care is an indispensable reference aid that covers the key areas and science of microbiology from a point of view relevant to wound care practitioners wishing to enhance their skills. Written by specialists in the areas of microbiology and wound care, the book explains the basic science of microbiology and how it applies to wound care from simple infections to complex non-healing wounds, covering areas such as the diagnosis of infection, antimicrobial agents, virulence, and the treatment of infection, and infection control. Current thought in the field is also discussed, covering the improved understanding of the role of microorganisms and biofilms, newly-arising management strategies, and the increasing concern about the rapid development of antimicrobial resistance and how this may impact the administration of antibiotics in the future. Prevention and alternative forms of treatment in the field of wound care for the diabetic foot, burns, acute, and chronic wounds are also included. From the basic science to biofilms, Essential Microbiology for Wound Care provides a thorough understanding of the basic principles of microbiology in an accessible style that makes it a key reference in the field of wound care.

The Microbiology of Central Nervous System Infections

The Microbiology of Central Nervous System Infections
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-02-17
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9780128138076
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The Microbiology of Central Nervous System Infections, Volume 3, discusses modern approaches to the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of central nervous system (CNS) infections. This new release is divided into five sections that cover treatment strategies, imaging, molecular diagnosis, management of CNS infections with metal nanoparticles, and prophylaxis of CNS infections, including bacterial, viral and fungal infections. The last section contains a chapter on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and modern trends in its diagnosis and treatment. University teachers, medical practitioners, graduate and postgraduate students, researchers in microbiology, and those in the pharmaceutical and laboratory diagnostic industries will find the book very important. Encompasses a broad range of central nervous system infections, including questions of etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and prophylaxis Written by highly professional and eminent surgeons, microbiologists and infectious disease specialists Includes scientific understanding and practical guidelines, making it interesting for both research scientists and practitioners

WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery 2009

WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery 2009
  • Author : World Health Organization (Genève). World Alliance for Patient Safety
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :124
  • ISBN : 9241598557
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Confronted with worldwide evidence of substantial public health harm due to inadequate patient safety, the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2002 adopted a resolution (WHA55.18) urging countries to strengthen the safety of health care and monitoring systems. The resolution also requested that WHO take a lead in setting global norms and standards and supporting country efforts in preparing patient safety policies and practices. In May 2004, the WHA approved the creation of an international alliance to improve patient safety globally; WHO Patient Safety was launched the following October. For the first time, heads of agencies, policy-makers and patient groups from around the world came together to advance attainment of the goal of "First, do no harm" and to reduce the adverse consequences of unsafe health care. The purpose of WHO Patient Safety is to facilitate patient safety policy and practice. It is concentrating its actions on focused safety campaigns called Global Patient Safety Challenges, coordinating Patients for Patient Safety, developing a standard taxonomy, designing tools for research policy and assessment, identifying solutions for patient safety, and developing reporting and learning initiatives aimed at producing 'best practice' guidelines. Together these efforts could save millions of lives by improving basic health care and halting the diversion of resources from other productive uses. The Global Patient Safety Challenge, brings together the expertise of specialists to improve the safety of care. The area chosen for the first Challenge in 2005-2006, was infection associated with health care. This campaign established simple, clear standards for hand hygiene, an educational campaign and WHO's first Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care. The problem area selected for the second Global Patient Safety Challenge, in 2007-2008, was the safety of surgical care. Preparation of these Guidelines for Safe Surgery followed the steps recommended by WHO. The groundwork for the project began in autumn 2006 and included an international consultation meeting held in January 2007 attended by experts from around the world. Following this meeting, expert working groups were created to systematically review the available scientific evidence, to write the guidelines document and to facilitate discussion among the working group members in order to formulate the recommendations. A steering group consisting of the Programme Lead, project team members and the chairs of the four working groups, signed off on the content and recommendations in the guidelines document. Nearly 100 international experts contributed to the document (see end). The guidelines were pilot tested in each of the six WHO regions--an essential part of the Challenge--to obtain local information on the resources required to comply with the recommendations and information on the feasibility, validity, reliability and cost-effectiveness of the interventions.

The Microbiology of Respiratory System Infections

The Microbiology of Respiratory System Infections
  • Author : Kateryna Kon,Mahendra Rai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-20
  • Total pages :312
  • ISBN : 9780128045763
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The Microbiology of Respiratory System Infections reviews modern approaches in the diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of respiratory system infections. The book is very useful for researchers, scientists, academics, medical practitioners, graduate and postgraduate students, and specialists from pharmaceutical and laboratory diagnostic companies. The book has been divided into three sections according to the types of respiratory pathogens. The first section contains reviews on the most common and epidemiologically important respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus, severe acute respiratory system coronavirus, and recently discovered Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The second section is devoted to bacterial and fungal pathogens, which discusses etiology and pathogenesis including infections in patients with compromised immune system, and infections caused by fungal pathogens, such as Aspergillus and Pneumocystis. The third section incorporates treatment approaches against different types of bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract. This section reviews classical antimicrobial and phytomedical approaches as well as the application of nanotechnology against respiratory pathogens. Offers the most up to date information on the microbiology of lower respiratory system infections Features contributors from across the world, presenting questions of interest to readers of both developed and developing countries Reviews the most common and epidemiologically important respiratory viruses Discusses the etiology and pathogenesis of bacterial and fungal pathogens including infections in patients with compromised immune system, and infections caused by fungal pathogens, such as Aspergillus and Pneumocystis

The Microbiology of Skin, Soft Tissue, Bone and Joint Infections

The Microbiology of Skin, Soft Tissue, Bone and Joint Infections
  • Author : Kateryna Kon,Mahendra Rai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-04-25
  • Total pages :338
  • ISBN : 9780128110935
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The Microbiology of Skin, Soft Tissue, Bone and Joint Infections: Volume 2 discusses modern approaches in diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of skin, soft tissue, bone, and joint infections. The volume has been divided into three sections. The first section includes chapters on diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of skin and soft tissue infections. It discusses antimicrobial and surgical treatment of wounds, diabetic foot, and different soft tissue infections. Ten chapters are devoted to cutaneous and musculoskeletal infections in special groups of patients, which have their own specificity, i.e. in pediatric and HIV-infected patients. Together with chapters on commonly present diseases, there are chapters which discuss interesting but not well studied pathologies (natal cleft pilonidal sinus) and pathogens (Malassezia and Shewanella spp.). The second section reviews etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of bone and joint infections, mainly osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infections. Also, one chapter in this section discusses a newly emerging bacterial pathogen that causes skeletal infections, Kingella kingae. The third section incorporates alternative and new approaches—such as nanotechnology, ultrasound, novel delivery approaches and phyto-derived medicines—to the treatment and prophylaxis of skin, soft tissue, bone, and joint infections. Encompasses a broad range of skin, soft tissue, bone, and joint infections, including questions of etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prophylaxis Written by highly professional and eminent surgeons, microbiologists, and infectious disease specialists Discusses topics using modern insight, providing all necessary scientific information on each aspect Includes scientific understanding and practical guidelines, which make it interesting for both research scientists and practitioners working with skin, soft tissue, bone, and joint infections

Oxford Textbook of Fundamentals of Surgery

Oxford Textbook of Fundamentals of Surgery
  • Author : Michael Wyatt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9780199665549
GET BOOK HERE

Summary :

Microbiology for Surgical Technologists

Microbiology for Surgical Technologists
  • Author : Margaret Rodriguez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-15
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9781111306663
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The microscopic world comes alive with MICROBIOLOGY FOR SURGICAL TECHNOLOGISTS, 2nd Edition! In addition to understanding and preventing disease transmission in perioperative settings, this book explores viruses, bacteria, parasites, and other common infections and their sources, as well as their connections to the human body’s systems. Safety is a must-know topic for discussion, including aseptic and sterile techniques that protect you and your patients from harmful microorganisms in the operating room. Skills-based and career focused, MICROBIOLOGY FOR SURGICAL TECHNOLOGISTS, 2nd Edition organizes content logically according to microbial characteristics, while highlighting the relationships between microbiology departments, pathology departments, and surgical technologist responsibilities in the workplace. Plus, special features such as case studies, amusing anecdotes, and contemporary media discussions make learning fun, adding interest to every chapter while helping you prepare for a rewarding career. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Microbiology for Surgical Technologists

Microbiology for Surgical Technologists
  • Author : Paul Price,Kevin B. Frey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 0766826996
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Microbiology is part of the core curriculum in surgical technology. It may be presented as a separate course in a two-year program or integrated into a variety of courses in a one-year program. Typically microbiology is taught by a member of the surgical technology program. This text is a comprehensive treatment of the disease-causing organisms that may present with a surgical patient or develop post-surgery as an acquired infection. The text addresses the specific needs of the surgical technologist in maintaining aseptic technique and caring for surgical patients before, during, and after surgery.

Microbiology of Wounds

Microbiology of Wounds
  • Author : Steven Percival,Keith Cutting
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-04-26
  • Total pages :407
  • ISBN : 9781420079944
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : It is not the presence of microorganisms, but their interaction with patients that determines their influence on wound healing. Documenting this critical but often ignored aspect of the treatment process, Microbiology of Wounds discusses the microbiology and biology of human wounds in relation to infection and non-healing. Gain the Necessary Scientific and Clinical Knowledge Pertaining to Chronic and Acute Wounds The practice of wound healing is dynamic, infinitely complex, nonlinear, and prodigiously individualized to the patient. When one considers the myriad host variables that contribute to the disease state, understanding the intricacies of chronic wounds becomes even more difficult. This book presents the necessary scientific and clinical data pertaining to chronic and acute wounds, and discusses inflammation, epithelialization, granulation tissue, and tissue remodeling. It details techniques for treating chronic and acute wounds and covers the mode of action and efficacy of anti-infectives used in treating wounds. Microbiology of Wounds answers the call for a definitive reference on chronic and acute wounds.

Microbiology in Clinical Practice

Microbiology in Clinical Practice
  • Author : D. C. Shanson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-06-28
  • Total pages :680
  • ISBN : 9781483183695
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Microbiology in Clinical Practice presents the infections and syndromes caused by micro-organisms. It discusses the management of infective diseases and aetiological agents. It addresses the latex agglutination, immunofluorescent, monoclonal antibody, and nucleic acid probe investigations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the classification and pathogenicity of microbes; classification of bacteria; classification of viruses; classification of fungi; general principles of antimicrobial chemotherapy; antibiotic sensitivity tests; procedures in the laboratory for microbiological diagnosis; and the mode of action of antimicrobial drugs. The resistance to antimicrobial drugs are covered. The microbiological investigations of septicaemia are discussed. The text describes the human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS in infants. A study of the congenital immunodeficiency and impaired resistance to infection is presented. A chapter is devoted to the predisposing factors for anaerobic infections. Another section focuses on the infections of the central nervous system. The book can provide useful information to doctors, pathologists, neurologists, students, and researchers.

Bone and Joint Infections

Bone and Joint Infections
  • Author : W. Zimmerli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-01-27
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 9781118581773
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Infections of the bones (osteomyelitis) and joints (septic arthritis) are serious health problems which require antibiotics and often surgery. Awareness among health professionals of the causes and treatment options for various types of bone and joint infections is essential for effective resolution. Bone and Joint Infections takes a multidisciplinary approach in covering the diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, including different types of implant-associated infections. Correct and rapid diagnosis of bone and joint infection is crucial and requires the input of a variety of specialists. Bone and Joint Infections takes a similarly collaborative and comprehensive approach, including chapters authored by clinicians, laboratory specialists, and surgeons. Covering the basic microbiology and clinical aspects of bone and joint infection, this book will be a valuable resource both for researchers in the lab and for physicians and surgeons seeking a comprehensive reference on osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. • Covers bone and joint infections with and without different types of implants from a multidisciplinary perspective • Each chapter covers the microbiology, clinical features, imaging procedures, diagnostics, and treatment for a given condition • Includes both adult and pediatric bone and joint infection • Discusses implant-associated infections as well as native infections

Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology

Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
  • Author : Estée Török,Fiona J. Cooke,Ed Moran
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :912
  • ISBN : 9780199671328
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Fully reviewed and revised for its second edition, the Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology maintains its position as the must-have guide to all aspects of infectious diseases and microbiology. Reflecting the current approach to joint postgraduate training programmes, the handbook takes an integrated approach to both subjects. It covers the basic principles of bacteriology and virology, along with specific guidance on individual diseases and conditions, all in the accessible Oxford Handbook style. Now including new topics on important subjects such as microbiology specimen collection, commonly used media, molecular diagnostics, and antimicrobials in pregnancy, as well as incorporating new guidelines from WHO, NICE, and BASHH among others, this handbook ensures that the informaiton you need is accessible, clear, and easy-to-understand. Practical and comprehensive, this handbook includes coverage of National Frameworks and current legislation, together with information on topical issues such as bioterrorism and preventative medicine. Fully reviewed by specialist senior readers, and with useful links to up-to-date clinical information and online resources, this is an important addition to the Oxford Handbook Series.

Medical Microbiology E-Book

Medical Microbiology E-Book
  • Author : Patrick R. Murray,Ken S. Rosenthal,Michael A. Pfaller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-03-10
  • Total pages :872
  • ISBN : 9780323674508
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : The foremost text in this complex and fast-changing field, Medical Microbiology, 9th Edition, provides concise, up-to-date, and understandable explanations of key concepts in medical microbiology, immunology, and the microbes that cause human disease. Clear, engaging coverage of basic principles, immunology, laboratory diagnosis, bacteriology, virology, mycology, and parasitology help you master the essentials of microbiology―effectively preparing you for your coursework, exams, and beyond. Features significant new information on the human microbiome and its influence on the immune and other body systems, and new developments in microbial diagnosis, treatment, diseases, and pathogens. Updates every chapter with state-of-the-art information and current literature citations. Summarizes detailed information in tabular format rather than in lengthy text. Provides review questions at the end of each chapter that correlate basic science with clinical practice. Features clinical cases that illustrate the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases. Introduces microbe chapters with summaries and trigger words for easy review. Highlights the text with clear, colorful figures, clinical photographs, and images that help you visualize the clinical presentation of infections. Offers additional study features online, including 200 self-assessment questions, microscopic images of the microbes, videos, and a new integrating chapter that provides hyperlinks between the microbes, the organ systems that they affect, and their diseases. Evolve Instructor site with an image and video collection is available to instructors through their Elsevier sales rep or via request at: https://evolve.elsevier.com.

Microbiology

Microbiology
  • Author : Nina Parker,OpenStax,Mark Schneegurt,AnhHue Thi Tu,Brian M. Forster,Philip Lister
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-30
  • Total pages :1301
  • ISBN : 1938168143
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : "Microbiology covers the scope and sequence requirements for a single-semester microbiology course for non-majors. The book presents the core concepts of microbiology with a focus on applications for careers in allied health. The pedagogical features of the text make the material interesting and accessible while maintaining the career-application focus and scientific rigor inherent in the subject matter. Microbiology's art program enhances students' understanding of concepts through clear and effective illustrations, diagrams, and photographs. Microbiology is produced through a collaborative publishing agreement between OpenStax and the American Society for Microbiology Press. The book aligns with the curriculum guidelines of the American Society for Microbiology."--BC Campus website.

Challenging Concepts in Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology

Challenging Concepts in Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology
  • Author : Amber Arnold,George E. Griffin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014
  • Total pages :361
  • ISBN : 9780199665754
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : This volume details over 30 challenging cases from a wide area of infectious diseases, medical microbiology and virology and includes topics ranging from typhoid fever to secondary syphilis. Each case is supported by the commentary of a renowned expert in the field, allowing readers to improve their own management of these patients.

Surgical Infections

Surgical Infections
  • Author : Donald E. Fry
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995
  • Total pages :787
  • ISBN : UOM:39015031748604
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Surgical infections are a common problem faced by even the most experienced surgeon. This book should help the surgeon to understand clinically how to identify and manage infection in their patients. It should be relevant to all surgical subspecialties (including plastic, urologic, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic) and encompasses surgical infections of all kinds.

Microbiology of Urinary Tract Infections

Microbiology of Urinary Tract Infections
  • Author : Payam Behzadi,Biljana Carevic
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-02-13
  • Total pages :110
  • ISBN : 9781789849554
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Generally, in accordance with anatomical characteristics, urinary tract infections (UTIs) and in particular recurrent UTIs occur in women; in contrast, UTIs normally occur in men with different predisposing factors. There are several types of UTIs, including asymptomatic and symptomatic, complicated and uncomplicated, acute and chronic with a diversity of microbial pathogens. In pathogens, virulence factors and genes determine the type and severity of the UTIs. Obviously, UTIs are a huge problem in global public healthcare systems with a wide range of predisposing factors, including gender, microbial agent, the host's immune deficiencies, genetic diseases, catheterization, etc. The recent items determine the microbiology of UTIs. Accurate diagnosis and definitive treatment are the key to UTI reduction.

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host
  • Author : Randall T. Hayden,Karen C. Carroll,Yi-Wei Tang,Donna M. Wolk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-16
  • Total pages :794
  • ISBN : 9781555819040
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Strategies for providing optimal care to this high-risk patient group The immunocompromised patient population is increasing throughout the world. Major advances in transplantation techniques have expanded access to lifesaving therapies and improved outcomes in these high-risk populations. An understanding of the biology of these infections, host conditions, and the limitations of technologies used to detect and quantify such pathogens is critical to optimal care. This new edition of Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host covers all aspects of state-of-the-art diagnostics for infectious complications in the immunocompromised patient. Editors Randall Hayden, Karen Carroll, Yi-Wei Tang and Donna Wolk, assembled the contributions of a team of preeminent authors to discuss a broad range of topics, including relevant aspects of host biology, antineoplastic, and transplantation techniques and the basis of immunosuppressive conditions ranging from diabetes to age-related immunosuppression approaches, interpretations, and limitations of laboratory diagnosis of infections by a wide range of specific etiologic agents laboratory diagnosis of infections of specific organ systems, such as respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal tract infections, and central nervous system infections special topics such as prosthetic devices and catheters, healthcare acquired infections, and morphologic considerations (anatomic pathology) future diagnostic technologies and their potential impact on the field Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host is a resource for laboratory medicine specialists, pathologists, technologists, students, and clinical care professionals who are involved or interested in the care of the immunocompromised host.

Infection

Infection
  • Author : Barbara Bannister,Stephen Gillespie,Jane Jones
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-12-21
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 9781444323931
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Infection: Microbiology and Management provides a core resource for the understanding of medical microbiology and infectious diseases. Content covers microbiological and clinical diagnosis, through to clinical management, epidemiology and the control of infectious conditions as they occur both in the hospital and community setting. With a concise, systems-based approach, the third edition has been revised and restructured and now covers wider epidemiological and public concerns. Key feature boxes, self assessment and case studies assist learning in each chapter. Designed to be used either as a basic learning text, or as a practical textbook in the clinical setting, Infection: Microbiology and Management, previously titled Infectious Disease, will continue to appeal to students at all stages of their career, candidates for higher examinations, the general physician and surgeon, epidemiologists and experts in public health.

Gastrointestinal Surgery

Gastrointestinal Surgery
  • Author : Vincenzo Neri
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-05
  • Total pages :100
  • ISBN : 9781789236040
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : In the recent years changes in gastrointestinal surgery have experienced great acceleration, based on a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the diseases, evolving technologies, and new therapies. In many areas of gastrointestinal surgery, new therapeutic and technical results have been accessible because of better connections with well-known pathological evolutions of diseases, more detailed diagnostic perspectives, and wide employment of mini-invasive and laparoscopic procedures.