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Microwave De-embedding

Microwave De-embedding
  • Author : Giovanni Crupi,Dominique Schreurs
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-09
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780124045927
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Summary : This groundbreaking book is the first to give an introduction to microwave de-embedding, showing how it is the cornerstone for waveform engineering. The authors of each chapter clearly explain the theoretical concepts, providing a foundation that supports linear and non-linear measurements, modelling and circuit design. Recent developments and future trends in the field are covered throughout, including successful strategies for low-noise and power amplifier design. This book is a must-have for those wishing to understand the full potential of the microwave de-embedding concept to achieve successful results in the areas of measurements, modelling, and design at high frequencies. With this book you will learn: The theoretical background of high-frequency de-embedding for measurements, modelling, and design Details on applying the de-embedding concept to the transistor’s linear, non-linear, and noise behaviour The impact of de-embedding on low-noise and power amplifier design The recent advances and future trends in the field of high-frequency de-embedding Presents the theory and practice of microwave de-embedding, from the basic principles to recent advances and future trends Written by experts in the field, all of whom are leading researchers in the area Each chapter describes theoretical background and gives experimental results and practical applications Includes forewords by Giovanni Ghione and Stephen Maas

On-Wafer Microwave Measurements and De-embedding

On-Wafer Microwave Measurements and De-embedding
  • Author : Errikos Lourandakis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-07-31
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9781630813710
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Summary : This new authoritative resource presents the basics of network analyzer measurement equipment and troubleshooting errors involved in the on-wafer microwave measurement process. This book bridges the gap between theoretical and practical information using real-world practices that address all aspects of on-wafer passive device characterization in the microwave frequency range up to 60GHz. Readers find data and measurements from silicon integrated passive devices fabricated and tested in advance CMOS technologies. Basic circuit equations, terms and fundamentals of time and frequency domain analysis are covered. This book also explores the basics of vector network analyzers (VNA), two port S-parameter measurement routines, signal flow graphs, network theory, error models and VNA calibrations with the use of calibration standards.

Microwave De-embedding

Microwave De-embedding
  • Author : Giovanni Crupi,Dominique M.M.-P. Schreurs,Alina Caddemi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-09
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128068557
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Summary : The first chapter is intended primarily for those readers who are new to the de-embedding concept. To serve as a gateway into this fascinating but also challenging field of knowledge, the present chapter will show how to extract the full potential of the microwave de-embedding concept, from the theoretical background to practical applications. As a broad definition, de-embedding can be regarded as the mathematical process by which electrical reference planes can be set to desired locations. Its importance originates from the fact that electrical characteristics are not always directly measurable at the reference planes of interest. Hence, moving the electrical reference planes mathematically enables one to discover precious information. With the aim to provide an introductory and comprehensive overview of the de-embedding concept, this chapter discusses its effectiveness for different purposes: measurements, modeling, and design. Experimental results will be analyzed to act as a valuable support for gaining a clear-cut understanding.

Microwave De-embedding

Microwave De-embedding
  • Author : Antonio Raffo,Valeria Vadalà,Giorgio Vannini
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-09
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128068632
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Summary : The chapter deals with two recently proposed characterization techniques of microwave transistors oriented to high-frequency power amplifier (PA) design. In particular, the nonlinear embedding and de-embedding design techniques are detailed, along with evidence of their advantages with respect to conventional design approaches in terms of power and frequency handling capability. The discussion also details the differences between the two techniques; despite the fact that they share the same theoretical basis, the techniques suffer from different critical facets. Finally, with the aim of guiding the reader towards full comprehension of the topic, different experimental examples are provided for transistor characterization and PA design.

Microwave De-embedding

Microwave De-embedding
  • Author : James C. Rautio
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-09
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128068588
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Summary : Just as physical microwave measurements must be de-embedded from test fixtures by means of calibration, electromagnetic analysis must likewise be calibrated so the results may be de-embedded. This chapter investigates the nature of the electromagnetic analysis port discontinuity, how it is characterized by calibration, and how it is removed (including a possible reference plane shift) by de-embedding. Both double-delay and short-open calibration are described. The theory for single port calibration and de-embedding is presented in a manner that is easily extended to treat multiple coupled ports. Additional theory shows how to extend calibration to groups of internal ports, critical, for example, in analyzing the passive planar portion of an amplifier (both the input and output matching networks in the same analysis) and having internal calibrated ports for connecting the transistor. Evaluation of error (accuracy) is covered in detail. Techniques that take advantage of calibrated ports, including circuit subdivision and port tuning, are described.

Microwave De-embedding

Microwave De-embedding
  • Author : José C. Pedro,Telmo R. Cunha
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-09
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128068618
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Summary : This work presents an overview of the various facets of microwave device behavioral modeling technology, from the mathematical formulation to the required laboratory parameter extraction, focusing its attention on one of the less covered aspects: the embedding and de-embedding procedures associated with the behavioral model extraction process. The discussion starts with the revision of some of the most important behavioral modeling tools, explaining the three most important types of behavioral model formats (polynomial, artificial neural networks, and table-based models) and their instantiation in the context of microwave transistors. Then, it will evolve to the behavioral model parameter extraction procedures, reviewing the required specific microwave instrumentation and correspondent calibration and de-embedding of measurement data. Finally, this chapter will illustrate the use of embedding and de-embedding procedures in the behavioral modeling context, giving a particular emphasis on the needed behavioral model inversion techniques.

Microwave De-embedding

Microwave De-embedding
  • Author : Manuel Yarlequé,Dominique M.M.-P. Schreurs,Bart Nauwelaers,Davide Resca,Giorgio Vannini
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-09
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128068625
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Summary : This chapter aims to describe methodologies and techniques for de-embedding device measurements from extrinsic measurements by characterizing the parasitic network surrounding the intrinsic device, through the use of a three-dimensional (3D) physical model of the network and its electromagnetic (EM) analysis. The electromagnetic behavior is obtained employing 3D EM solvers and internal ports. In the first part, the de-embedding processes for field-effect transistor (FET) devices to be used for monolithic microwave integrated circuit designs are studied by four different approaches; in the second part of this chapter, the de-embedding of FET devices for hybrid circuit design purposes is described.

Microwave De-Embedding

Microwave De-Embedding
  • Author : Giovanni Crupi,Dominique M. M. -P Schreurs,Professor Dominique Schreurs
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-13
  • Total pages :482
  • ISBN : 0081013213
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Summary : This groundbreaking book is the first to give an introduction to microwave de-embedding, showing how it is the cornerstone for waveform engineering. The authors of each chapter clearly explain the theoretical concepts, providing a foundation that supports linear and non-linear measurements, modelling and circuit design. Recent developments and future trends in the field are covered throughout, including successful strategies for low-noise and power amplifier design. This book is a must-have for those wishing to understand the full potential of the microwave de-embedding concept to achieve successful results in the areas of measurements, modelling, and design at high frequencies. With this book you will learn: The theoretical background of high-frequency de-embedding for measurements, modelling, and design Details on applying the de-embedding concept to the transistor s linear, non-linear, and noise behaviour The impact of de-embedding on low-noise and power amplifier design The recent advances and future trends in the field of high-frequency de-embedding Presents the theory and practice of microwave de-embedding, from the basic principles to recent advances and future trendsWritten by experts in the field, all of whom are leading researchers in the areaEach chapter describes theoretical background and gives experimental results and practical applications Includes forewords by Giovanni Ghione and Stephen Maas"

Microwave De-embedding

Microwave De-embedding
  • Author : Gilles Dambrine
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-09
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128068564
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Summary : This chapter aims to describe experimental tools and techniques used for on-wafer millimeter (mm)-wave characterizations of silicon-based devices under the small-signal regime. We discuss the basics of scattering parameters (S parameters), high-frequency (HF) noise concept and measurement facilities, and expert details concerning experimental procedures. In this chapter, we describe first the basic notions of the S-parameters concept and its limitations, as well of as those HF noise. Secondly, the main experimental tools such as mm-wave vectorial network analyzer, noise setup, and on-wafer station are depicted. The third part concerns the description and the methodology of on-wafer calibration and de-embedding techniques applied for mm-wave advanced silicon devices. Finally, the last section focuses on the presentation and description of several examples of device characterizations. The main objective of this chapter is to propose a tradeoff between basic information and details of experience.

On-Wafer Microwave De-Embedding Techniques

On-Wafer Microwave De-Embedding Techniques
  • Author : Xi Sung Loo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1154263298
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Summary : Wireless communication technology has kept evolving into higher frequency regime to take advantage of wider data bandwidth and higher speed performance. Successful RF circuit design requires accurate characterization of on-chip devices. This greatly relies on robust de-embedding technique to completely remove surrounding parasitics of pad and interconnects that connect device to measurement probes. Complex interaction of fixture parasitic at high frequency has imposed extreme challenges to de-embedding particularly for lossy complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device. A generalized network de-embedding technique that avoids any inaccurate lumped and transmission line assumptions on the pad and interconnects of the test structure is presented. The de-embedding strategy has been validated by producing negligible de-embedding error (

Handbook of Microwave Component Measurements

Handbook of Microwave Component Measurements
  • Author : Joel P. Dunsmore
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05-13
  • Total pages :840
  • ISBN : 9781119477129
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Summary : Handbook of Microwave Component Measurements Second Edition is a fully updated, complete reference to this topic, focusing on the modern measurement tools, such as a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), gathering in one place all the concepts, formulas, and best practices of measurement science. It includes basic concepts in each chapter as well as appendices which provide all the detail needed to understand the science behind microwave measurements. The book offers an insight into the best practices for ascertaining the true nature of the device-under-test (DUT), optimizing the time to setup and measure, and to the greatest extent possible, remove the effects of the measuring equipment from that result. Furthermore, the author writes with a simplicity that is easily accessible to the student or new engineer, yet is thorough enough to provide details of measurement science for even the most advanced applications and researchers. This welcome new edition brings forward the most modern techniques used in industry today, and recognizes that more new techniques have developed since the first edition published in 2012. Whilst still focusing on the VNA, these techniques are also compatible with other vendor's advanced equipment, providing a comprehensive industry reference.

Microwave De-embedding

Microwave De-embedding
  • Author : Wendy Van Moer,Lieve Lauwers,Kurt Barbé
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-09
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128068601
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Summary : The world is often considered to behave approximately linearly. However, many real-life phenomena are inherently nonlinear! Hence, in order to accurately model the true behavior of a radio-frequency device or system, its nonlinear characteristics can no longer be ignored and should be taken into account. To do so, one should first be able to measure these nonlinear effects. After some years of hesitation, the high-frequency measurement world finally acknowledged the necessity to accurately measure the in- and out-of-band nonlinear behavior of a radio-frequency (RF) device or system. Since then, different measurement approaches have been developed to achieve this goal. The two major measurement principles being pursued are the sampler-based and the mixer-based methodology. The calibration and de-embedding process of nonlinear measurements is quite involved and requires special calibration standards. From the acquired “nonlinear” measurement data, one can then build a model that accurately describes the in-band and out-of-band nonlinear behavior of an RF system. This chapter will show the reader how to do accurate nonlinear RF measurements and how to obtain a simple and robust characterization of the nonlinear behavior of an RF system.

Microwave De-embedding

Microwave De-embedding
  • Author : Ernesto Limiti,Walter Ciccognani,Sergio Colangeli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-09
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128068571
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Summary : An overview of topics is presented related to noise characterization and modeling of linear, active devices for microwave applications, as well as to advanced methodologies for low-noise design. A complete description of the most common noise measurement techniques, namely the Y-factor method and the cold source method, are provided, with particular attention being paid to practical aspects such as de-embedding the measurement at the device under test reference planes, possible sources of error, and uncertainty estimation. Noise modeling is approached from a well-established standpoint, based on the extraction of a small-signal equivalent circuit model; but also source pull-based techniques—both standard and advanced ones—are broadly illustrated. Finally, a comprehensive discussion on design of single- and multistage low-noise amplifiers is proposed, ranging from the most classical tools and methodologies, such as constant-gain and constant-noise circles, to novel graphical tools and more advanced concepts, such as global mismatch limits and noise measure.

Handbook of Microwave Component Measurements

Handbook of Microwave Component Measurements
  • Author : Joel P. Dunsmore
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-08-15
  • Total pages :640
  • ISBN : 9781118391259
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Summary : This book provides state-of-the-art coverage for makingmeasurements on RF and Microwave Components, both active andpassive. A perfect reference for R&D and Test Engineers, withtopics ranging from the best practices for basic measurements, toan in-depth analysis of errors, correction methods, and uncertaintyanalysis, this book provides everything you need to understandmicrowave measurements. With primary focus on active and passivemeasurements using a Vector Network Analyzer, these techniques andanalysis are equally applicable to measurements made with SpectrumAnalyzers or Noise Figure Analyzers. The early chapters provide a theoretical basis for measurementscomplete with extensive definitions and descriptions of componentcharacteristics and measurement parameters. The latterchapters give detailed examples for cases of cable, connector andfilter measurements; low noise, high-gain and high power amplifiermeasurements, a wide range of mixer and frequency convertermeasurements, and a full examination of fixturing, de-embedding,balanced measurements and calibration techniques. The chapter ontime-domain theory and measurements is the most complete treatmenton the subject yet presented, with details of the underlyingmathematics and new material on time domain gating. As the inventorof many of the methods presented, and with 30 years as adevelopment engineer on the most modern measurement platforms, theauthor presents unique insights into the understanding of modernmeasurement theory. Key Features: Explains the interactions between the device-under-test (DUT)and the measuring equipment by demonstrating the best practices forascertaining the true nature of the DUT, and optimizing the time toset up and measure Offers a detailed explanation of algorithms and mathematicsbehind measurements and error correction Provides numerous illustrations (e.g. block-diagrams forcircuit connections and measurement setups) and practical exampleson real-world devices, which can provide immediate benefit to thereader Written by the principle developer and designer of many of themeasurement methods described This book will be an invaluable guide for RF and microwaveR&D and test engineers, satellite test engineers, radarengineers, power amplifier designers, LNA designers, and mixerdesigners. University researchers and graduate students inmicrowave design and test will also find this book of interest.

Application of De-embedding Methods to Microwave Circuits

Application of De-embedding Methods to Microwave Circuits
  • Author : Adam Swiatko
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :170
  • ISBN : OCLC:962477765
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Summary :

S-Parameters for Signal Integrity

S-Parameters for Signal Integrity
  • Author : Peter J. Pupalaikis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-06
  • Total pages :800
  • ISBN : 9781108489966
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Summary : A practical guide to solving signal integrity problems using s-parameters.

Microwave De-embedding

Microwave De-embedding
  • Author : Iltcho Angelov,Gustavo Avolio,Dominique M.M.-P. Schreurs
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-09
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780128068595
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Summary : Nonlinear models of microwave transistors are essential for the design of high-frequency nonlinear circuits, such as power amplifiers or mixers. Among the existing modeling techniques, measurement-based approaches have gained huge attention from researchers in the last decades. Especially, nonlinear measurements-driven model extraction is preferred for transistors exploited in the design of power amplifiers and mixers. This chapter mainly deals with the generation of empirical transistor models starting from large-signal time-domain waveforms. Specifically, a widely used model available in commercial CAD tools is adopted, and the extraction procedure of the model parameters is outlined in detail. Moreover the advantage of using time-domain waveforms at different frequencies is highlighted. More specifically, by making use of time-domain waveforms at frequencies in the kHz-MHz range, one can separately model the behavior of the transistor output current generator, which is more prone to low-frequency dispersive effects. In fact at low frequencies the effect of the nonlinear transistor capacitance is significantly reduced and, therefore, already “de-embedded” from the measured time-domain waveforms. Once the model of the output current generator is available, one can use high-frequency measurements to determine the nonlinear capacitances (or charges). Several modeling examples of different transistor technologies, such as gallium-arsenide and gallium-nitride, are reported.

The Six-Port Technique with Microwave and Wireless Applications

The Six-Port Technique with Microwave and Wireless Applications
  • Author : Fadhel M. Ghannouchi,Abbas Mohammadi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :236
  • ISBN : 9781608070343
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Summary : One of the main issues in microwave and wireless system design is to ensure high performance with low cost techniques. The six-port technique helps allow for this in critical network design areas. This practical resource offers you a thorough overview the six-port technique, from basic principles of RF measurement based techniques and multiport design, to coverage of key applications, such as vector network analyzers, software defined radio, and radar. The first book dedicated to six-port applications and principles, this volume serves as a current, one-stop guide offering you cost-effective solutions for your challenging projects in the field.

Microwave Measurements, 3rd Edition

Microwave Measurements, 3rd Edition
  • Author : R.J. Collier,A.D. Skinner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-01-01
  • Total pages :484
  • ISBN : 9780863417351
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Summary : The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measurement of power, spectrum, attenuation, circuit parameters, and noise. Various other areas like measurements of antenna characteristics, free fields, modulation and dielectric parameters are also included. The emphasis throughout is on good measurement practice. All the essential theory is given and a previous knowledge of the subject is not assumed.

Microwave Transition Design

Microwave Transition Design
  • Author : Jamal S. Izadian,Shahin M. Izadian
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1988
  • Total pages :150
  • ISBN : UOM:39015013474781
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Summary :

RF Measurements of Die and Packages

RF Measurements of Die and Packages
  • Author : Scott A. Wartenberg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 158053273X
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Summary : The recent explosion of the RF wireless integrated circuits (IC), coupled with higher operating speeds in digital IC's has made accurate RF testing of IC's vital. This ground-breaking resource explains the fundamentals of performing accurate RF measurements of die and packages. It offers you practical advice on how to use coplanar probes and test fixtures in the lab for RF on-wafer die and package characterization. It also details how to build separate RF test systems for noise, high-power, and thermal testing as well as de-embed the test system's parasitic effects to get the die's RF performance. This book is a handy, practical resource for RFIC and MMIC designers as well as high-frequency digital IC designers, IC test engineers, and IC manufacturing test engineers.