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Model Ecosystems in Extreme Environments

Model Ecosystems in Extreme Environments
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-29
  • Total pages :228
  • ISBN : 9780128127438
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Summary : Model Ecosystems in Extreme Environments, Second Edition examines ecosystems at the most extreme habitats and their interaction with the environment, providing a key element in our understanding of the role and function of microorganisms in nature. The book highlights current topics in the field, such as biodiversity and the structure of microbial communities in extreme environments, the effects of extreme environmental conditions on microbial ecosystems, and ecological and evolutionary interactions in extreme environments, among other topics. It will be a valuable text for faculty and students working with extremophiles and/or microbial ecology and researchers, including astrobiologists, biologists, evolutionary scientists, astronomers, geochemists and oceanographers. Explores, in detail, how microbial ecosystems thrive in extreme environments Highlights the relevance of extremophiles as model ecosystems to the study of microbial ecology Examines how extreme ecosystems can help our search for life on other planets

Serpentine

Serpentine
  • Author : Susan Harrison,Nishanta Rajakaruna
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-02-02
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9780520948457
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Summary : Serpentine soils have long fascinated biologists for the specialized floras they support and the challenges they pose to plant survival and growth. This volume focuses on what scientists have learned about major questions in earth history, evolution, ecology, conservation, and restoration from the study of serpentine areas, especially in California. Results from molecular studies offer insight into evolutionary patterns, while new ecological research examines both species and communities. Serpentine highlights research whose breadth provides context and fresh insights into the evolution and ecology of stressful environments.

Large-Scale Ecology: Model Systems to Global Perspectives

Large-Scale Ecology: Model Systems to Global Perspectives
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-05
  • Total pages :688
  • ISBN : 9780128110959
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Summary : Advances in Ecological Research is one of the most successful series in the highly competitive field of ecology. This thematic volume focuses on large scale ecology, publishing important reviews that contribute to our understanding of the field. Presents the most updated information on the field of large scale ecology, publishing topical and important reviews Provides all information that relates to a thorough understanding of the field Includes data on physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals

Fungi in Extreme Environments: Ecological Role and Biotechnological Significance

Fungi in Extreme Environments: Ecological Role and Biotechnological Significance
  • Author : Sonia M. Tiquia-Arashiro,Martin Grube
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-22
  • Total pages :626
  • ISBN : 9783030190309
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Summary : Over the last decades, scientists have been intrigued by the fascinating organisms that inhabit extreme environments. These organisms, known as extremophiles, thrive in habitats which for other terrestrial life-forms are intolerably hostile or even lethal. Based on such technological advances, the study of extremophiles has provided, over the last few years, ground-breaking discoveries that challenge the paradigms of modern biology. In the new bioeconomy, fungi in general, play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations. The book is organized in five parts: (I) Biodiversity, Ecology, Genetics and Physiology of Extremophilic Fungi, (II) Biosynthesis of Novel Biomolecules and Extremozymes (III) Bioenergy and Biofuel synthesis, and (IV) Wastewater and biosolids treatment, and (V) Bioremediation.

Fungi in Extreme Environments: Ecological Role and Biotechnological Significance

Fungi in Extreme Environments: Ecological Role and Biotechnological Significance
  • Author : Sonia M. Tiquia-Arashiro,Martin Grube
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-07-22
  • Total pages :626
  • ISBN : 9783030190309
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Summary : Over the last decades, scientists have been intrigued by the fascinating organisms that inhabit extreme environments. These organisms, known as extremophiles, thrive in habitats which for other terrestrial life-forms are intolerably hostile or even lethal. Based on such technological advances, the study of extremophiles has provided, over the last few years, ground-breaking discoveries that challenge the paradigms of modern biology. In the new bioeconomy, fungi in general, play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations. The book is organized in five parts: (I) Biodiversity, Ecology, Genetics and Physiology of Extremophilic Fungi, (II) Biosynthesis of Novel Biomolecules and Extremozymes (III) Bioenergy and Biofuel synthesis, and (IV) Wastewater and biosolids treatment, and (V) Bioremediation.

Extremophile as Astrobiological Models

Extremophile as Astrobiological Models
  • Author : Joseph Seckbach,Helga Stan-Lotter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-01-13
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9781119591689
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Summary : The data in this book are new or updated, and will serve also as Origin of Life and evolutionary studies. Endospores of bacteria have a long history of use as model organisms in astrobiology, including survival in extreme environments and interplanetary transfer of life. Numerous other bacteria as well as archaea, lichens, fungi, algae and tiny animals (tardigrades, or water bears) are now being investigated for their tolerance to extreme conditions in simulated or real space environments. Experimental results from exposure studies on the International Space Station and space probes for up to 1.5 years are presented and discussed. Suggestions for extaterrestrial energy sources are also indicated. Audience Researchers and graduate students in microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology and astrobiology, as well as anyone interested in the search for extraterrestrial life and its technical preparations.

Towards a Thermodynamic Theory for Ecological Systems

Towards a Thermodynamic Theory for Ecological Systems
  • Author : S.E. Jorgensen,Y.M. Svirezhev,I︠U︡. M. Svirezhev,Yuri M. Svirezhev
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-07-20
  • Total pages :366
  • ISBN : 008044167X
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Summary : The book presents a consistent and complete ecosystem theory based on thermodynamic concepts. The first chapters are devoted to an interpretation of the first and second law of thermodynamics in ecosystem context. Then Prigogine's use of far from equilibrium thermodynamic is used on ecosystems to explain their reactions to perturbations. The introduction of the concept exergy makes it possible to give a more profound and comprehensive explanation of the ecosystem's reactions and growth-patterns. A tentative fourth law of thermodynamic is formulated and applied to facilitate these explanations. The trophic chain, the global energy and radiation balance and pattern and the reactions of ecological networks are all explained by the use of exergy. Finally, it is discussed how the presented theory can be applied more widely to explain ecological observations and rules, to assess ecosystem health and to develop ecological models.

Life in Extreme Environments

Life in Extreme Environments
  • Author : Guido di Prisco,Howell G. M. Edwards,Josef Elster,Ad H. L. Huiskes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-15
  • Total pages :394
  • ISBN : 9781108498562
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Summary : A diverse account of how life exists in extreme environments and these systems' susceptibility and resilience to climate change.

The Ecological Role of Micro-organisms in the Antarctic Environment

The Ecological Role of Micro-organisms in the Antarctic Environment
  • Author : Susana Castro-Sowinski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-11
  • Total pages :298
  • ISBN : 9783030027865
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Summary : This book provides up-to-date multidisciplinary information regarding microbial physiological groups in terms of their role in the Antarctic ecology. How do microorganisms shape the Antarctic environment? The book presents a thorough overview of the most important physiological microbial groups or microbial systems that shape the Antarctic environment. Each microbial model is described in terms of their physiology and metabolism, and their role in the Antarctic environmental sustainability. The individual chapters prepare readers for understanding the relevance of the microbial models from both an historical perspective, and considering the latest developments. This book will appeal to researchers and teachers interested in the Antarctic science, but also to students who want to understand the role of microbes in the ecology of extreme environments.

Environmental Microbiology

Environmental Microbiology
  • Author : Ian L. Pepper,Charles P. Gerba,Terry J. Gentry,Raina M. Maier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-10-13
  • Total pages :624
  • ISBN : 0080919405
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Summary : For microbiology and environmental microbiology courses, this leading textbook builds on the academic success of the previous edition by including a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of environmental microbiology as a discipline that has grown in scope and interest in recent years. From environmental science and microbial ecology to topics in molecular genetics, this edition relates environmental microbiology to the work of a variety of life science, ecology, and environmental science investigators. The authors and editors have taken the care to highlight links between environmental microbiology and topics important to our changing world such as bioterrorism and national security with sections on practical issues such as bioremediation, waterborne pathogens, microbial risk assessment, and environmental biotechnology. WHY ADOPT THIS EDITION? New chapters on: Urban Environmental Microbiology Bacterial Communities in Natural Ecosystems Global Change and Microbial Infectious Disease Microorganisms and Bioterrorism Extreme Environments (emphasizing the ecology of these environments) Aquatic Environments (now devoted to its own chapter- was combined with Extreme Environments) Updates to Methodologies: Nucleic Acid -Based Methods: microarrays, phyloarrays, real-time PCR, metagomics, and comparative genomics Physiological Methods: stable isotope fingerprinting and functional genomics and proteomics-based approaches Microscopic Techniques: FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and atomic force microscopy Cultural Methods: new approaches to enhanced cultivation of environmental bacteria Environmental Sample Collection and Processing: added section on air sampling

Microbial Life in the Cryosphere and Its Feedback on Global Change

Microbial Life in the Cryosphere and Its Feedback on Global Change
  • Author : Susanne Liebner,Lars Ganzert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-01-18
  • Total pages :285
  • ISBN : 9783110497083
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Summary : The cryosphere stands for environments where water appears in a frozen form. It includes permafrost, glaciers, ice sheets, and sea ice and is currently more affected by Global Change than most other regions of the Earth. In the cryosphere, limited water availability and subzero temperatures cause extreme conditions for all kind of life which microorganisms can cope with extremely well. The cryosphere’s microbiota displays an unexpectedly large genetic potential, and taxonomic as well as functional diversity which, however, we still only begin to map. Also, microbial communities influence reaction patterns of the cryosphere towards Global Change. Altered patterns of seasonal temperature fluctuations and precipitation are expected in the Arctic and will affect the microbial turnover of soil organic matter (SOM). Activation of nutrients by thawing and increased active layer thickness as well as erosion renders nutrient stocks accessible to microbial activities. Also, glacier melt and retreat stimulate microbial life in turn influencing albedo and surface temperatures. In this context, the functional resilience of microbial communities in the cryosphere is of major interest. Particularly important is the ability of microorganisms and microbial communities to respond to changes in their surroundings by intracellular regulation and population shifts within functional niches, respectively. Research on microbial life exposed to permanent freeze or seasonal freeze-thaw cycles has led to astonishing findings about microbial versatility, adaptation, and diversity. Microorganisms thrive in cold habitats and new sequencing techniques have produced large amounts of genomic, metagenomic, and metatranscriptomic data that allow insights into the fascinating microbial ecology and physiology at low and subzero temperatures. Moreover, some of the frozen ecosystems such as permafrost constitute major global carbon and nitrogen storages, but can also act as sources of the greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. In this book we summarize state of the art knowledge on whether environmental changes are met by a flexible microbial community retaining its function, or if the altered conditions also render the community in a state of altered properties that affect the Earth’s element cycles and climate. This book brings together research on the cryosphere’s microbiota including permafrost, glaciers, and sea ice in Arctic and Antarctic regions. Different spatial scales and levels of complexity are considered, spanning from ecosystem level to pure culture studies of model microbes in the laboratory. It aims to attract a wide range of parties with interest in the effect of climate change and/or low temperatures on microbial nutrient cycling and physiology.

Polyextremophiles

Polyextremophiles
  • Author : Joseph Seckbach,Aharon Oren,Helga Stan-Lotter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-13
  • Total pages :634
  • ISBN : 9789400764880
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Summary : Many Microorganisms and some macro-organisms can live under extreme conditions. For example, high and low temperature, acidic and alkaline conditions, high salt areas, high pressure, toxic compounds, high level of ionizing radiation, anoxia and absence of light, etc. Many organisms inhabit environments characterized by more than one form of stress (Polyextremophiles). Among them are those who live in hypersaline and alkaline, hot and acidic, cold/hot and high hydrostatic pressure, etc. Polyextremophiles found in desert regions have to copy with intense UV irradiation and desiccation, high as well as low temperatures, and low availability of water and nutrients. This book provides novel results of application to polyextremophiles research ranging from nanotechnology to synthetic biology to the origin of life and beyond.

Thermophilic and Halophilic Extremophiles in Eurasian Environments

Thermophilic and Halophilic Extremophiles in Eurasian Environments
  • Author : Hongchen Jiang,Wen-Jun Li,Nils-Kaare Birkeland,Dilfuza Egamberdieva
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-17
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889458356
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Summary : The eBook is the product of a partnership between the Norwegian Eurasia Program and the China Silk Road Program. At the present, our knowledge on microbiology and biogeochemistry from Eurasian (hyper)saline and thermal ecosystems is limited. Such information is essential to the field and contributes to a comprehensive understanding of microbial metabolic pathways and functions involved in biogeochemical processes in extreme ecosystems. This eBook includes a series of recent progress in microbial diversity, ecological functions, and biogeochemistry in Eurasian (hyper)saline and thermal ecosystems with the use of next generation sequencing, omics technologies and interdisciplinary collaboration. We hope that this eBook would serve as a model for international cooperation and as a source of inspiration for more achievements in Eurasian (hyper)saline and thermal ecosystems in the future. The complete list of authors and co-authors includes 68 highly-qualified specialists from 9 countries. All chapters in the eBook were edited by authoritative experts. We would like to emphasize the great goodwill, esteem and cooperation extended to each other among the authors, reviewers and editors who contributed to the successful completion of this eBook.

Oxford Bibliographies

Oxford Bibliographies
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:949776769
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Summary :

Biodiversity in Ecosystems

Biodiversity in Ecosystems
  • Author : Juan A. Blanco,Yueh-Hsin Lo,Shovonlal Roy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-17
  • Total pages :642
  • ISBN : 9789535120285
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Summary : The term biodiversity has become a mainstream concept that can be found in any newspaper at any given time. Concerns on biodiversity protection are usually linked to species protection and extinction risks for iconic species, such as whales, pandas and so on. However, conserving biodiversity has much deeper implications than preserving a few (although important) species. Biodiversity in ecosystems is tightly linked to ecosystem functions such as biomass production, organic matter decomposition, ecosystem resilience, and others. Many of these ecological processes are also directly implied in services that the humankind obtains from ecosystems. The first part of this book will introduce different concepts and theories important to understand the links between ecosystem function and ecosystem biodiversity. The second part of the book provides a wide range of different studies showcasing the evidence and practical implications of such relationships.

Ecological Society of America ... Annual Meeting Abstracts

Ecological Society of America ... Annual Meeting Abstracts
  • Author : Ecological Society of America. Meeting
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105122120590
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Summary :

Concepts of Biology

Concepts of Biology
  • Author : Samantha Fowler,Rebecca Roush,James Wise
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-07
  • Total pages :618
  • ISBN : 9888407457
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Summary : Concepts of Biology is designed for the single-semester introduction to biology course for non-science majors, which for many students is their only college-level science course. As such, this course represents an important opportunity for students to develop the necessary knowledge, tools, and skills to make informed decisions as they continue with their lives. Rather than being mired down with facts and vocabulary, the typical non-science major student needs information presented in a way that is easy to read and understand. Even more importantly, the content should be meaningful. Students do much better when they understand why biology is relevant to their everyday lives. For these reasons, Concepts of Biology is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand.We also strive to show the interconnectedness of topics within this extremely broad discipline. In order to meet the needs of today's instructors and students, we maintain the overall organization and coverage found in most syllabi for this course. A strength of Concepts of Biology is that instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. Concepts of Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand--and apply--key concepts.

Species and Communities in Extreme Environments

Species and Communities in Extreme Environments
  • Author : Serguei Ilich Golovatch
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009
  • Total pages :530
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105124166443
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Summary : Papers on yeast, myxomicetes, soil microfungi, mosses, higher plants, nematodes, oribatid mites, millipedes, spiders, collembolans, ants, beetles, butterflies, and birds of the polar and adjacent regions.

Economic Models of Tropical Deforestation: A Review

Economic Models of Tropical Deforestation: A Review
  • Author : David Kaimowitz,Arild Angelsen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-01-01
  • Total pages :139
  • ISBN : 9789798764172
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Summary : Types of economic deforestation models. Household and firm-level models. Regional-level models. National and macro-level models. Priority areas for future research.

Ecological Models and Data in R

Ecological Models and Data in R
  • Author : Benjamin M. Bolker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-07-01
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 9781400840908
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Summary : Ecological Models and Data in R is the first truly practical introduction to modern statistical methods for ecology. In step-by-step detail, the book teaches ecology graduate students and researchers everything they need to know in order to use maximum likelihood, information-theoretic, and Bayesian techniques to analyze their own data using the programming language R. Drawing on extensive experience teaching these techniques to graduate students in ecology, Benjamin Bolker shows how to choose among and construct statistical models for data, estimate their parameters and confidence limits, and interpret the results. The book also covers statistical frameworks, the philosophy of statistical modeling, and critical mathematical functions and probability distributions. It requires no programming background--only basic calculus and statistics. Practical, beginner-friendly introduction to modern statistical techniques for ecology using the programming language R Step-by-step instructions for fitting models to messy, real-world data Balanced view of different statistical approaches Wide coverage of techniques--from simple (distribution fitting) to complex (state-space modeling) Techniques for data manipulation and graphical display Companion Web site with data and R code for all examples

Halophilic Microorganisms and their Environments

Halophilic Microorganisms and their Environments
  • Author : Aharon Oren
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-08-31
  • Total pages :575
  • ISBN : 9781402008290
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Summary : The halophilic microorganisms form a highly diverse group of organisms. They present the biochemist/physiologist with interesting questions on the strategies used to cope with high osmotic pressures exerted by hypersaline brines. They often have a strong impact on the ecosystems in which they thrive. The first section of the book presents in-depth discussions of the taxonomy, cellular properties, metabolic diversity, pigments, ion metabolism and organic osmotic solutes, properties of halophilic proteins, genetics, and biotechnological uses of halophilic microorganisms. The second section describes the occurrence and functioning of these organisms in the Great Salt Lake, the Dead Sea, solar saltern ponds, alkaline soda lakes, and other hypersaline environments worldwide. Each chapter contains an extensive list of references. No other book provides in-depth up-to-date coverage of all subjects described. The volume is intended for researchers and students interested in microbial physiology, microbial ecology, environmental sciences, and extremophilic biotechnology.