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Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging

Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging
  • Author : Marco Malavolta,Eugenio Mocchegiani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-15
  • Total pages :784
  • ISBN : 9780128018279
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Summary : Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging: A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series focuses on the nutritional issues associated with aging and the important metabolic consequences of diet, nutrition, and health. The book is subdivided into four parts that reflect the impact of nutrition from a biomolecular level to individual health. In Part One, chapters explore the general aspects of aging, aging phenotypes, and relevant aspects of nutrition related to the elderly and healthy aging. Part Two includes molecular and cellular targets of nutrition in aging, with chapters exploring lipid peroxidation, inflammaging, anabolic and catabolic signaling, epigenetics, DNA damage and repair, redox homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity, among others. Part Three looks at system-level and organ targets of nutrition in aging, including a variety of tissues, systems, and diseases, such as immune function, the cardiovascular system, the brain and dementia, muscle, bone, lung, and many others. Finally, Part Four focuses on the health effects of specific dietary compounds and dietary interventions in aging, including vitamin D, retinol, curcumin, folate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, vitamin B, fish oil, vitamin E, resveratrol, polyphenols, vegetables, and fruit, as well as the current nutritional recommendations. Offers updated information and a perspectives on important future developments to different professionals involved in the basic and clinical research on all major nutritional aspects of aging Explores how nutritional factors are involved in the pathogenesis of aging across body systems Investigates the molecular and genetic basis of aging and cellular senescence through the lens of the rapidly evolving field of molecular nutrition

Sarcopenia

Sarcopenia
  • Author : Dominique Meynial-Denis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-30
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9780429531972
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Summary : Sarcopenia: Molecular, Cellular, and Nutritional Aspects describes the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, defined by Rosenberg in 1997 as a hallmark of aging and referred to as “sarcopenia.” As life expectancy continues to increase worldwide, sarcopenia has become a major public health issue. The condition worsens in the presence of chronic diseases accelerating its progression. Sarcopenia is not considered to be “a process of normative aging” but according to the International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), as a disease. As sarcopenia is an ineluctable process, prevention and management are the only options to promote healthy aging; these actions should perhaps be taken during youth. Included in this book: · Features essential information on sarcopenia, its current definition, and molecular and cellular aspects of this disease · Discusses the development of physical frailty, a complication of sarcopenia, and predicts its occurrence in the older population · Presents alterations in muscle protein turnover and mitochondrial dysfunction in the aging process · Provides data on the negative involvement of sarcopenia in certain chronic diseases · Describes presbyphagia or age-related changes in the swallowing mechanism in older people · Details possible strategies to combat muscle wasting in healthy older adults and their limits This book features information collected from pioneers or experts on human aging from around the globe, including Europe, Brazil, Canada, Japan and the United States. It is a valuable source of information for nutritional scientists, medical doctors, sports scientists, food scientists, dietitians, students in these fields, and for anyone interested in nutrition. We hope this book provides a better understanding of sarcopenia which inevitably occurs with aging without weight loss. Moreover, this book will supply information outlining strategies to prevent or limit muscle wasting due to normal aging in order to promote successful aging.

Molecular Basis of Aging

Molecular Basis of Aging
  • Author : A Roy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-02
  • Total pages :410
  • ISBN : 9780323151559
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Summary : Molecular Basis of Aging is a collection of papers that discuss the molecular aspects of aging in the light of molecular biology, biochemical gerontology, and genetics. Each chapter of the book contains a different study about the topic, which includes the effects of aging on DNA synthesis; the amplification of extrachromosomal circular copies and mitochondrial DNA during aging; and the altered actions of hormones and neurotransmitters during aging. The book also encompasses the loss of responsiveness to growth factors in cell senescence; the integration of cellular-molecular and neuroendocrine concepts of aging; changes and inactivation of enzymes during aging; and the relationship of aging with free radicals. The text is recommended for molecular biologists, biochemists, and gerontologists who wish to study further the effects of aging on the body on a molecular level.

Molecular Nutrition

Molecular Nutrition
  • Author : Vinood B. Patel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-24
  • Total pages :792
  • ISBN : 9780128119365
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Summary : Molecular Nutrition: Vitamins presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of vitamins with a specific focus on vitamins A, B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B# (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6, (pyridoxine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folate), B12 (colbamin), C, D, E, and K. As part of the Molecular Nutrition series, this book discusses introductory aspects and general coverage of vitamins and nutrition, the molecular biology of the cell, including signaling, transporters, oxidative stress, receptors, uptake, immunity, proliferation, endoplasmic reticulum, differentiation, carcinogenesis and apoptosis. Final sections cover genetic machinery and its function, transcriptional processes, homeostasis genes, cancer, gene expression, mutations, and more. Emerging fields of molecular biology and important discoveries related to diet and nutritional health are also covered, rounding out the book. Summarizes molecular nutrition in health as related to vitamins Includes material on signaling, transporters, oxidative stress, receptors, uptake, immunity, proliferation, endoplasmic reticulum, differentiation, carcinogenesis and apoptosis Presents transcriptional processes, homeostasis genes, cancer, gene expression, mutations, the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, p53, p21, microRNAs, one carbon metabolism, nucleic acids, DNA methylation and polymorphisms Addresses emerging fields of molecular biology and presents important discoveries related to diet and nutritional health Covers Vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and K Discusses their impact on health relating to cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and aging Includes key facts, a mini dictionary of terms, and summary points

Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging

Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging
  • Author : Ronald Ross Watson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-02-01
  • Total pages :386
  • ISBN : 9780128092996
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Summary : Nutrition and Functional Foods for Healthy Aging aims to equip anyone studying geriatric nutrition or working with aging adults with the latest scientific reviews of critical topics. The major objective of this book is to review, in detail, the health problems of the aged and how normal food, lifestyle, or nutritional and dietary supplements can help treat them. Nutrient requirements for optimum health and function of aging physiological systems are often quite distinct from those required for young people. The special nutrition problems of the aged are intensively researched and tested, especially as the elderly become a larger percentage of the population. Many chronic diseases and cancers are found with higher frequency in the aged, and it is also widely known that many elderly people use foods and nutrients well above the recommended daily allowance, which can be detrimental to optimal health. Explains the evidence supporting nutritional interventions relevant to age-related diseases Reviews the macro- and micro-nutrient requirements of aging adults and their variables Describes how alcohol, drugs, and caffeine can impact deficiencies, also exploring functional food and dietary supplements that can be used for prevention and treatment

Handbook of Models for Human Aging

Handbook of Models for Human Aging
  • Author : P. Michael Conn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-28
  • Total pages :1075
  • ISBN : 0080460062
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Summary : The Handbook of Models for Human Aging is designed as the only comprehensive work available that covers the diversity of aging models currently available. For each animal model, it presents key aspects of biology, nutrition, factors affecting life span, methods of age determination, use in research, and disadvantages/advantes of use. Chapters on comparative models take a broad sweep of age-related diseases, from Alzheimer's to joint disease, cataracts, cancer, and obesity. In addition, there is an historical overview and discussion of model availability, key methods, and ethical issues. Utilizes a multidisciplinary approach Shows tricks and approaches not available in primary publications First volume of its kind to combine both methods of study for human aging and animal models Over 200 illustrations

Molecular Basis and Emerging Strategies for Anti-aging Interventions

Molecular Basis and Emerging Strategies for Anti-aging Interventions
  • Author : Syed Ibrahim Rizvi,Ufuk Çakatay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-02
  • Total pages :386
  • ISBN : 9789811316999
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Summary : This book describes the nature of aging, age-related disorders, and the molecular principles of emerging strategies for anti-aging interventions, while also discussing the discovery of targets for geroprotective drugs. Although significant medical advances in the treatment and eradication of life-threatening conditions such as cardiovascular and infectious disease have been made over the past five decades, the prevalence of age-related disorders still remains high in older populations. Intervening into aging is the next frontier in contemporary medicine, and will be of increasing importance over time, as other sources of poor health are combated more and more successfully. Given the universal interest in anti-aging strategies, the book will appeal to a very broad audience. It addresses a diverse range of anti-aging interventions – including stem cells, autophagy, senolytics, anti-inflammatory methods, and telomerase induction – that will be of interest to scientists and researchers from various disciplines in the life sciences.

The Telomere Effect

The Telomere Effect
  • Author : Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn,Dr. Elissa Epel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-03
  • Total pages :302
  • ISBN : 9781455587964
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Summary : NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER The revolutionary book coauthored by the Nobel Prize winner who discovered telomerase and telomeres' role in the aging process and the health psychologist who has done original research into how specific lifestyle and psychological habits can protect telomeres, slowing disease and improving life. Have you wondered why some sixty-year-olds look and feel like forty-year-olds and why some forty-year-olds look and feel like sixty-year-olds? While many factors contribute to aging and illness, Dr. Elizabeth Blackburn discovered a biological indicator called telomerase, the enzyme that replenishes telomeres, which protect our genetic heritage. Dr. Blackburn and Dr. Elissa Epel's research shows that the length and health of one's telomeres are a biological underpinning of the long-hypothesized mind-body connection. They and other scientists have found that changes we can make to our daily habits can protect our telomeres and increase our health spans (the number of years we remain healthy, active, and disease-free). THE TELOMERE EFFECT reveals how Blackburn and Epel's findings, together with research from colleagues around the world, cumulatively show that sleep quality, exercise, aspects of diet, and even certain chemicals profoundly affect our telomeres, and that chronic stress, negative thoughts, strained relationships, and even the wrong neighborhoods can eat away at them. Drawing from this scientific body of knowledge, they share lists of foods and suggest amounts and types of exercise that are healthy for our telomeres, mind tricks you can use to protect yourself from stress, and information about how to protect your children against developing shorter telomeres, from pregnancy through adolescence. And they describe how we can improve our health spans at the community level, with neighborhoods characterized by trust, green spaces, and safe streets. THE TELOMERE EFFECT will make you reassess how you live your life on a day-to-day basis. It is the first book to explain how we age at a cellular level and how we can make simple changes to keep our chromosomes and cells healthy, allowing us to stay disease-free longer and live more vital and meaningful lives.

Nutrition and Aging

Nutrition and Aging
  • Author : Ryerson Polytechnical Institute. Library. Nutrition Information Service
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1982
  • Total pages :128
  • ISBN : CORNELL:31924002109167
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Summary : Over 750 entries to journal articles, books, pamphlets, bibliographies, journals and organizations. Most published materials appeared between 1977-1981. Titles were derived from various sources, i.e. MEDLINE, printed indexes, letters, interviews, card catalogs of certain libraries, and a hand search of geriatric and gerontology journals during 1977-1981. Classified arrangement. Each entry gives bibliography or identifying information. No index.

Handbook of the Biology of Aging

Handbook of the Biology of Aging
  • Author : Matt Kaeberlein,George Martin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-20
  • Total pages :576
  • ISBN : 9780124116207
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Summary : Handbook of the Biology of Aging, Eighth Edition, provides readers with an update on the rapid progress in the research of aging. It is a comprehensive synthesis and review of the latest and most important advances and themes in modern biogerontology, and focuses on the trend of ‘big data’ approaches in the biological sciences, presenting new strategies to analyze, interpret, and understand the enormous amounts of information being generated through DNA sequencing, transcriptomic, proteomic, and the metabolomics methodologies applied to aging related problems. The book includes discussions on longevity pathways and interventions that modulate aging, innovative new tools that facilitate systems-level approaches to aging research, the mTOR pathway and its importance in age-related phenotypes, new strategies to pharmacologically modulate the mTOR pathway to delay aging, the importance of sirtuins and the hypoxic response in aging, and how various pathways interact within the context of aging as a complex genetic trait, amongst others. Covers the key areas in biological gerontology research in one volume, with an 80% update from the previous edition Edited by Matt Kaeberlein and George Martin, highly respected voices and researchers within the biology of aging discipline Assists basic researchers in keeping abreast of research and clinical findings outside their subdiscipline Presents information that will help medical, behavioral, and social gerontologists in understanding what basic scientists and clinicians are discovering New chapters on genetics, evolutionary biology, bone aging, and epigenetic control Provides a close examination of the diverse research being conducted today in the study of the biology of aging, detailing recent breakthroughs and potential new directions

Nutrition and Aging

Nutrition and Aging
  • Author : Derek M. Prinsley,Harold H. Standstead
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1990
  • Total pages :396
  • ISBN : UOM:39015015460168
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Summary : This insightful volume is a response to the growing evidence of malnutrition in the elderly arising from such factors as difficulty in ambulation, limited financial resources, gastrointestinal disorders, medications that interfere with nutrient utilization, and limited psychological support. Nutrition and Aging offers a full appraisal of these and other impediments to good nutrition and defines the role of nutrition in both the aging process and the degenerative diseases that afflict the elderly. In-depth analysis shows how the aging process is affected by such dietary factors as vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, protein, trace elements, and alcohol. Related topics include the effect of nutrition on immunity, hepatitic drug metabolism, the heart, cancer, and anemia.

Nutrition, Epigenetics and Health

Nutrition, Epigenetics and Health
  • Author : Burdge Graham,Lillycrop Karen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-07
  • Total pages :236
  • ISBN : 9789813143326
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Summary : Epigenetics is emerging as an important factor in risk of diseases of global importance including obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Unlike gene polymorphisms which have been the focus of understanding the role of inherited disease susceptibility for some time, epigenetic can be modified by environmental factors, in particular nutrition. Thus research into the role of epigenetics in disease has substantial potential for explaining the impact of the environmental factors such as diet on disease risk. Since epigenetic processes can be modified by nutrition, it may be possible to modify inappropriate epigenetic marks by nutritional interventions to reduce disease risk. This book will explore current understanding of the interaction between nutrition, epigenetics and disease risk, will place this knowledge in the context of global health and discuss the ethical implications of this research.

Principles of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics

Principles of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
  • Author : Raffaele De Caterina,J. Alfredo Martinez,Martin Kohlmeier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-22
  • Total pages :586
  • ISBN : 9780128045879
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Summary : Principles of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics: Fundamentals for Individualized Nutrition is the most comprehensive foundational text on the complex topics of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. Edited by three leaders in the field with contributions from the most well-cited researchers conducting groundbreaking research in the field, the book covers how the genetic makeup influences the response to foods and nutrients and how nutrients affect gene expression. Principles of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics: Fundamentals for Individualized Nutrition is broken into four parts providing a valuable overview of genetics, nutrigenetics, and nutrigenomics, and a conclusion that helps to translate research into practice. With an overview of the background, evidence, challenges, and opportunities in the field, readers will come away with a strong understanding of how this new science is the frontier of medical nutrition. Principles of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics: Fundamentals for Individualized Nutrition is a valuable reference for students and researchers studying nutrition, genetics, medicine, and related fields. Uniquely foundational, comprehensive, and systematic approach with full evidence-based coverage of established and emerging topics in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics Includes a valuable guide to ethics for genetic testing for nutritional advice Chapters include definitions, methods, summaries, figures, and tables to help students, researchers, and faculty grasp key concepts Companion website includes slide decks, images, questions, and other teaching and learning aids designed to facilitate communication and comprehension of the content presented in the book

The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins

The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins
  • Author : Dominique Dardevet
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-08
  • Total pages :368
  • ISBN : 9780128023754
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Summary : The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins provides an in-depth look at the involvement and role of amino acids and proteins in molecular nutrition. Editor Dominique Dardevet has assembled a collection of chapters written by leading researchers and top professors that provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of amino acids and proteins. The book provides an introduction to the fundamentals of amino acids and proteins as well as the composition of food. It then delves into the molecular biology of the cell and genetic machinery and its function. The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins also features reference guides for terms and bullet-point summaries, making it readily accessible to novices while still providing the most up-to-date and detailed information that experienced researchers need. Provides a gentle introduction to the subject by first addressing nutritional information and then building in molecular aspects, clearly establishing fundamental information for the reader Facilitates reader comprehension by including succinct summary points in each chapter Contains a glossary of definitions that allows readers to easily reference terms Provides both a deep and broad understanding of the subject by containing overviews as well as detail-focused chapters

Molecular Basis of Health and Disease

Molecular Basis of Health and Disease
  • Author : Undurti N. Das
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-02
  • Total pages :583
  • ISBN : 940070495X
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Summary : The book describes how the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules is related to health and disease. It is suggested that many diseases are initiated and their progress is influenced by inflammatory molecules and a decrease in the production and/or action of anti-inflammatory molecules and this imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules seems to have been initiated in the perinatal period. This implies that strategies to prevent and manage various adult diseases should start in the perinatal period. An alteration in the metaolism of essential fatty acids and their anti-inflammatory molecules such as lipoxins, resolvins, protecitns, maresins and nitrolipids seems to play a major role in the pathobiology of several adult diseases. Based on these concepts, novel therapeutic approaches in the management of insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cancer, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and other auto-immune diseases are presented. Based on all these evidences, a unified concept that several adult diseases are due to an alteration in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules is discussed and novel methods of their management are presented.

Molecular Gerontology

Molecular Gerontology
  • Author : S.I. Rattan,Olivier Toussaint
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :216
  • ISBN : 9781461558897
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Summary : Esteemed researchers from different European laboratories provide state-of-the-art studies on biology and ageing, along with guidelines for future investigations. They cover such issues in molecular gerontological research as regulation of gene expression from DNA to RNA to functional proteins, origin of various age-associated diseases, genetic regulation of ageing and longevity, and different mechanisms of defense and repair. Other contributions evaluate new technologies, including transgenic organisms, and the use of nutritional and chemical modulators of ageing and lifespan.

The Molecular Basis for the Link Between Maternal Health and the Origin of Fetal Congenital Abnormalities

The Molecular Basis for the Link Between Maternal Health and the Origin of Fetal Congenital Abnormalities
  • Author : Bashir M. Matata,Maqsood M. Elahi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :128
  • ISBN : 9781608052868
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Summary : This e-book discusses the molecular relationship between biological systems and risk factors for in-utero oxidative insults, maternal health and the impact on fetus at different critical developmental time windows (prenatal or even postnatal). Plausibly, prenatal and early postnatal periods are the most critical "windows" to oxidative stress programming insults. Pro-oxidative stress is a common feature of many conditions associated with adverse fetal growth and/or preterm birth, such as pre-eclampsia, diabetes, smoking, malnutrition or excessive nutrition, infection or inflammation. Oxidative.

The Molecular Basis for the Aging of Human Skin

The Molecular Basis for the Aging of Human Skin
  • Author : Taihao Quan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 1536124699
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Summary : Skin is the most voluminous connective tissue of the body. Skin, like all other human organs, undergoes progressive alterations as a consequence of the passage of time (natural aging). However, human skin, unlike other organs, continuously experiences harmful exposure from environmental sources such as solar ultraviolet irradiation (photoaging). As the bulk of the skin is largely comprised of connective tissue collagen, the primary molecular features of aged human skin are reduced production of collagen and accumulation of damaged collagen. Age-related alterations of dermal connective collagen cause an aberrant tissue microenvironment, which deleteriously influence the risk of developing age-related skin diseases. This book comprehensively describes the molecular mechanisms of human skin connective tissue aging by emphasizing age-related dermal microenvironment as a strategy for improving our quality of life as well as for preventive and therapeutic intervention of age-related skin diseases. This book is an essential resource for the development of mechanisms-based anti-skin aging products.

Physical Activity and the Aging Brain

Physical Activity and the Aging Brain
  • Author : Ronald Ross Watson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-12-15
  • Total pages :238
  • ISBN : 9780128052624
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Summary : Physical Activity and the Aging Brain: Effects of Exercise on Neurological Function is a complete guide to the manifold effects of exercise and physical activity on the aging brain. Cognitive decline and motor impairment, onset of diseases and disorders, and even changes in family structure and social settings that occur as we age can all impact activity levels, yet continued physical activity is crucial for successful neurological functioning. This book examines the role that exercise and physical activity play in halting or modulating the deleterious effects of these numerous aging concerns by first examining the current state of research into how exercise manifests physical changes in the brain. It then discuss how physical activity combines with other lifestyle factors to benefit the aging brain, including nutrition, computerized brain training, and social engagement. Most significantly, it also covers how physical activity can serve as therapy to help alleviate the symptoms of various neurological diseases impacting aging populations, with particular emphasis on Alzheimer’s disease and age-related cognitive decline. The book provides broad coverage of the effects of exercise and physical activity on the aging brain, its therapeutic effects, and the many factors that influence the aging process. Presents research scientists with a complete understanding of the role of exercise in healthy brain aging Considers the roles of nutrition, the mind-body connection, and other lifestyle factors Presents a major resource for exercise and physical activity in the neurological health of older adults Provides a synopsis of key ideas associated with the many aspects of physical activity, along with lifestyle factors that can modify neurological diseases and age-related neurological decline

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  • Author : Rodrigo Valenzuela Baez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-21
  • Total pages :190
  • ISBN : 9789535139232
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Summary : Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with a prevalence of 20-30% worldwide is characterized by the buildup of fat in the liver (liver steatosis) with no or little alcohol consumption. Its principal causes are modern diet and occidental lifestyle. It is characterized by metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress, considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. There is no effective drug therapy for this disease; therefore, lifestyle interventions remain as the first-line treatment. Nevertheless, the adherence rates to this type of treatment are very low, so great efforts are focused at finding novel therapeutic agents for the prevention of hepatic steatosis and its progression. This book presents a systematic and comprehensive revision about NAFLD, highlighting its epidemiological and molecular aspects, as well as its prevention and treatment.

Centenarians

Centenarians
  • Author : Calogero Caruso
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-03
  • Total pages :179
  • ISBN : 9783030207625
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Summary : This state-of-the-art review on longevity focuses on centenarians, studied as a model of positive biology. The extraordinary rise in the elderly population in developed countries underscores the importance of studies on ageing and longevity in order to decrease the medical, economic and social problems associated with the increased number of non-autonomous individuals affected by invalidating pathologies. Centenarians have reached the extreme limits of human life span. Those in relatively good health, who are able to perform their routine daily tasks, are the best examples of extreme longevity, representing selected individuals in which the appearance of major age-related diseases – including cancer and cardiovascular diseases – has been consistently delayed or avoided. The relationship between causality and chance is an open discussion topic in many disciplines. In particular, ageing, the related diseases, and longevity are difficult to define as a consequence of causality, chance or both. Discussing the relevance of these different factors in the attainment of longevity, the book gathers contributions on genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic aspects of centenarians. The “positive biology” approach is applied to clarify the causes of positive phenotypes, as well as to explain the biological mechanisms of health and well-being with the aim of preventing and/or reducing frailty and disability in the elderly.