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Molecular Nutrition

Molecular Nutrition
  • Author : Vinood Patel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-15
  • Total pages :1088
  • ISBN : 0128119071
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Summary : Molecular Nutrition: Vitamins presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of vitamins with a specific focus on vitamins A, B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B# (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6, (pyridoxine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folate), B12 (colbamin), C, D, E, and K. As part of the Molecular Nutrition series, this book discusses introductory aspects and general coverage of vitamins and nutrition, the molecular biology of the cell, including signaling, transporters, oxidative stress, receptors, uptake, immunity, proliferation, endoplasmic reticulum, differentiation, carcinogenesis and apoptosis. Final sections cover genetic machinery and its function, transcriptional processes, homeostasis genes, cancer, gene expression, mutations, and more. Emerging fields of molecular biology and important discoveries related to diet and nutritional health are also covered, rounding out the book. Summarizes molecular nutrition in health as related to vitamins Includes material on signaling, transporters, oxidative stress, receptors, uptake, immunity, proliferation, endoplasmic reticulum, differentiation, carcinogenesis and apoptosis Presents transcriptional processes, homeostasis genes, cancer, gene expression, mutations, the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, p53, p21, microRNAs, one carbon metabolism, nucleic acids, DNA methylation and polymorphisms Addresses emerging fields of molecular biology and presents important discoveries related to diet and nutritional health Covers Vitamins A, B, C, D, E, and K Discusses their impact on health relating to cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and aging Includes key facts, a mini dictionary of terms, and summary points

Molecular Nutrition and Genomics

Molecular Nutrition and Genomics
  • Author : Mark Lucock
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-07-16
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 0470129379
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Summary : This fascinating book draws it subject matter from a range of relevant disciplines that extend from molecular nutrition, nutritional sciences, and nutrition dietetics through to genetics, genomics, and anthropology. It presents a vital portrait of the absolutely fundamental role that nutrition has played and continues to play in shaping who and what human beings are, as well as where they evolved from, and where they may be heading as a species. Molecular Nutrition: Nutrition and the Evolution of Humankind: Blends coverage of the molecular mechanisms that underpin nutrient-gene interactions with evolutionary theory Takes a molecular biological approach to problem solving, and moves nutrition away from its dietetic and anthropological origins to the front lines of genomic research Covers key concepts in molecular biology; the –omics revolution and bioinformatics; recent human evolution; molecular mechanisms of gene-nutrient interactions; the importance of nutrients and genomics in disease; the evolution of micronutrient metabolism, protein structure, and human disease; nutrients and the human lifecycle; contemporary dietary patterns; leading-edge laboratory tools in nutrigenomics and human evolutionary studies Written by an internationally recognised expert in the field, Molecular Nutrition: Nutrition and the Evolution of Humankind is an invaluable text and reference book for a wide range of teachers, students, and researchers.

Molecular Nutrition

Molecular Nutrition
  • Author : Janos Zempleni,Hannelore Daniel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :409
  • ISBN : 9780851996790
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Summary : Molecular nutrition (the study of interactions between nutrients and various intracellular and extracellular molecules) is one of the most rapidly developing fields in nutritional science. Ultimately, molecular nutrition research will reveal how nutrients may affect fundamental processes such as DNA repair, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. This book is the only single complete volume available reviewing the field of molecular nutrition. It contains contributions from leading international experts, and reviews the most important and latest research from various areas of molecular nutrition.

Molecular Nutrition

Molecular Nutrition
  • Author : Manlio Vinciguerra,Paul Cordero Sanchez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-11-04
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128138625
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Summary : Molecular Nutrition: Mother and Infant presents the impact of diet in early life stages, from pre-conception, throughout pregnancy, and to the infant. The book covers the molecular biology of the cell, genetic machinery and its function, general coverage on diet and nutrition, pregnancy, placenta, weight gain, breast milk, feeding practices, gestational disease, glucose metabolism, immunity, vitamins and minerals. Other topics discusses include fetal programming, bioactive compounds, amino acids, intrauterine growth, one carbon metabolism, overnutrition, genetic risk factors, polymorphisms, folic acid genes, DNA methylation, genes involved in lipid metabolism, microRNAs, epigenetics, transcriptomics and micro RNA. This book will be a welcomed reference for research scientists and practitioners, including nutritionists and dieticians. Addresses mother and infant nutrition and its critical impact on the well-being of humankind Contains coverage from pre-conception to young offspring Includes pedagogical features (e.g. a list of key facts, mini-dictionaries of terms and definitions, and summary points) to assist in its use as a reference Contains coverage of emerging fields of molecular biology and important discoveries related to diet and nutritional health

Molecular Nutrition: Carbohydrates

Molecular Nutrition: Carbohydrates
  • Author : Vinood B. Patel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-16
  • Total pages :442
  • ISBN : 9780128498743
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Summary : Molecular Nutrition: Carbohydrates presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of carbohydrates. As part of the Molecular Nutrition includes sections covering carbohydrate metabolism, carbohydrates in the diet, insulin resistance, dietary sugars, cardiometabolic risk, lipoproteins, low-carbohydrate diets, antioxidants, refined dietary sugars, fats, glucose transporters, glucose sensing, the role of phosphorylation, carbohydrate responsive binding protein, cyclic AMP, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, SIRT1, insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GIP receptor (GIPR) genes rRNA and transcription, and more. In addition, the book addresses emerging fields of molecular biology and presents important discoveries relating to diet and nutritional health. Summarizes molecular nutrition in health as related to carbohydrates Addresses emerging fields of molecular biology and presents important discoveries relating to diet and nutritional health Includes key facts, a mini dictionary of terms and summary points

Molecular Nutrition and Diabetes

Molecular Nutrition and Diabetes
  • Author : Didac Mauricio
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-08
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9780128017616
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Summary : Molecular Nutrition and Diabetes: A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series focuses on diabetes as a nutritional problem and its important metabolic consequences. Fuel metabolism and dietary supply all influence the outcome of diabetes, but understanding the pathogenesis of the diabetic process is a prelude to better nutritional control. Part One of the book provides general coverage of nutrition and diabetes in terms of dietary patterns, insulin resistance, and the glucose-insulin axis, while Part Two presents the molecular biology of diabetes and focuses on areas such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, insulin resistance, high-fat diets, nutriceuticals, and lipid accumulation. Final sections explore the genetic machinery behind diabetes and diabetic metabolism, including signaling pathways, gene expression, genome-wide association studies, and specific gene expression. While the main focus of each chapter is the basic and clinical research on diabetes as a nutritional problem, all chapters also end with a translational section on the implications for the nutritional control of diabetes. Offers updated information and a perspective on important future developments to different professionals involved in the basic and clinical research on all major nutritional aspects of diabetes mellitus Explores how nutritional factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both type1 and type2 diabetes and their complications Investigates the molecular and genetic bases of diabetes and diabetic metabolism through the lens of a rapidly evolving field of molecular nutrition

The Molecular Nutrition of Fats

The Molecular Nutrition of Fats
  • Author : Vinood B. Patel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-29
  • Total pages :470
  • ISBN : 9780128112984
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Summary : The Molecular Nutrition of Fats presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of fats by assessing their dietary components, their structural and metabolic effects on the cell, and their role in health and disease. Subject areas include molecular mechanisms, membranes, polymorphisms, SNPs, genomic wide analysis, genotypes, gene expression, genetic modifications and other aspects. The book is divided into three sections, providing information on the general and introductory aspects, the molecular biology of the cell, and the genetic machinery and its function. Topics discussed include lipid-related molecules, dietary lipids and lipid metabolism, high fat diets, choline, cholesterol, membranes, trans-and saturated fatty acids, and lipid rafts. Other sections provide comprehensive discussions on G protein-coupled receptors, micro RNA, transcriptomics, transcriptional factors, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, beta-oxidation, cholesteryl ester transfer, beta-oxidation, lysosomes, lipid droplets, insulin mTOR signaling and ligands, and more. Summarizes molecular nutrition in health as related to fats Discusses the impact of fats on cancer, heart disease, dementia, and respiratory and intestinal disease Includes preclinical, clinical and population studies Covers the genome, the whole body and whole communities Includes key facts, a mini dictionary of terms and summary points

Molecular Nutrition

Molecular Nutrition
  • Author : Manlio Vinciguerra,Paul Cordero Sanchez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-15
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9780128138632
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Summary : Molecular Nutrition: Mother and Infant presents the impact of diet in early life stages, from pre-conception, throughout pregnancy, and to the infant. The book covers the molecular biology of the cell, genetic machinery and its function, general coverage on diet and nutrition, pregnancy, placenta, weight gain, breast milk, feeding practices, gestational disease, glucose metabolism, immunity, vitamins and minerals. Other topics discusses include fetal programming, bioactive compounds, amino acids, intrauterine growth, one carbon metabolism, overnutrition, genetic risk factors, polymorphisms, folic acid genes, DNA methylation, genes involved in lipid metabolism, microRNAs, epigenetics, transcriptomics and micro RNA. This book will be a welcomed reference for research scientists and practitioners, including nutritionists and dieticians. Addresses mother and infant nutrition and its critical impact on the well-being of humankind Contains coverage from pre-conception to young offspring Includes pedagogical features (e.g. a list of key facts, mini-dictionaries of terms and definitions, and summary points) to assist in its use as a reference Contains coverage of emerging fields of molecular biology and important discoveries related to diet and nutritional health

Molecular Nutrition

Molecular Nutrition
  • Author : Janos Zempleni,Hannelore Daniel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :409
  • ISBN : 9780851996790
GET BOOK HERE

Summary : Molecular nutrition (the study of interactions between nutrients and various intracellular and extracellular molecules) is one of the most rapidly developing fields in nutritional science. Ultimately, molecular nutrition research will reveal how nutrients may affect fundamental processes such as DNA repair, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. This book is the only single complete volume available reviewing the field of molecular nutrition. It contains contributions from leading international experts, and reviews the most important and latest research from various areas of molecular nutrition.

The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins

The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins
  • Author : Dominique Dardevet
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-08
  • Total pages :368
  • ISBN : 9780128023754
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Summary : The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins provides an in-depth look at the involvement and role of amino acids and proteins in molecular nutrition. Editor Dominique Dardevet has assembled a collection of chapters written by leading researchers and top professors that provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of amino acids and proteins. The book provides an introduction to the fundamentals of amino acids and proteins as well as the composition of food. It then delves into the molecular biology of the cell and genetic machinery and its function. The Molecular Nutrition of Amino Acids and Proteins also features reference guides for terms and bullet-point summaries, making it readily accessible to novices while still providing the most up-to-date and detailed information that experienced researchers need. Provides a gentle introduction to the subject by first addressing nutritional information and then building in molecular aspects, clearly establishing fundamental information for the reader Facilitates reader comprehension by including succinct summary points in each chapter Contains a glossary of definitions that allows readers to easily reference terms Provides both a deep and broad understanding of the subject by containing overviews as well as detail-focused chapters

Molecular Nutrition: Carbohydrates

Molecular Nutrition: Carbohydrates
  • Author : Vinood B. Patel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-16
  • Total pages :442
  • ISBN : 9780128498743
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Summary : Molecular Nutrition: Carbohydrates presents the nutritional and molecular aspects of carbohydrates. As part of the Molecular Nutrition includes sections covering carbohydrate metabolism, carbohydrates in the diet, insulin resistance, dietary sugars, cardiometabolic risk, lipoproteins, low-carbohydrate diets, antioxidants, refined dietary sugars, fats, glucose transporters, glucose sensing, the role of phosphorylation, carbohydrate responsive binding protein, cyclic AMP, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, SIRT1, insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GIP receptor (GIPR) genes rRNA and transcription, and more. In addition, the book addresses emerging fields of molecular biology and presents important discoveries relating to diet and nutritional health. Summarizes molecular nutrition in health as related to carbohydrates Addresses emerging fields of molecular biology and presents important discoveries relating to diet and nutritional health Includes key facts, a mini dictionary of terms and summary points

Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging

Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging
  • Author : Marco Malavolta,Eugenio Mocchegiani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-15
  • Total pages :784
  • ISBN : 9780128018279
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Summary : Molecular Basis of Nutrition and Aging: A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series focuses on the nutritional issues associated with aging and the important metabolic consequences of diet, nutrition, and health. The book is subdivided into four parts that reflect the impact of nutrition from a biomolecular level to individual health. In Part One, chapters explore the general aspects of aging, aging phenotypes, and relevant aspects of nutrition related to the elderly and healthy aging. Part Two includes molecular and cellular targets of nutrition in aging, with chapters exploring lipid peroxidation, inflammaging, anabolic and catabolic signaling, epigenetics, DNA damage and repair, redox homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity, among others. Part Three looks at system-level and organ targets of nutrition in aging, including a variety of tissues, systems, and diseases, such as immune function, the cardiovascular system, the brain and dementia, muscle, bone, lung, and many others. Finally, Part Four focuses on the health effects of specific dietary compounds and dietary interventions in aging, including vitamin D, retinol, curcumin, folate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, vitamin B, fish oil, vitamin E, resveratrol, polyphenols, vegetables, and fruit, as well as the current nutritional recommendations. Offers updated information and a perspectives on important future developments to different professionals involved in the basic and clinical research on all major nutritional aspects of aging Explores how nutritional factors are involved in the pathogenesis of aging across body systems Investigates the molecular and genetic basis of aging and cellular senescence through the lens of the rapidly evolving field of molecular nutrition

Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition

Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition
  • Author : Vinood B. Patel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-11-06
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9780128010037
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Summary : Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition is a valuable resource for nutrition researchers and nutritionists who study or treat alcohol-related diseases. Experts from across the field of alcohol research explain how alcohol disrupts normal fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolic processes occurring in the liver as well as other parts of the body. The book discusses how this can lead to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as contribute to the onset of Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. It also explores how alcohol affects nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to anemia and reduced amounts of fat soluble vitamins. This book explores both the primary and secondary consequences of alcohol consumption. Chapters in the first section investigate the basic science of alcohol metabolism – focusing on how alcohol and its toxic metabolites disrupt and impair normal nutrient regulation at the molecular level. Further chapters explore how alcohol affects many extra-hepatic organs and tissues as well as the secondary consequences of alcohol consumption such as reduced levels of minerals like magnesium, calcium, and trace elements like zinc. Offers a valuable resource for nutrition researchers and nutritionists who study alcohol-related diseases and attempt to treat them through nutritional strategies Explores how alcohol and its toxic metabolite acetaldehyde disrupt and impair normal macro and micro nutrient regulation at the molecular level Investigates how alcohol affects and interferes with cell signaling, cell death pathways, calcium homeostasis leading to osteoporosis, oxygen balance, as well as the pathophysiology of alcohol consumption and abuse

Molecular Basis Of Human Nutrition

Molecular Basis Of Human Nutrition
  • Author : Tom Sanders,Peter Emery
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-06-12
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : 1420023225
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Summary : Molecular Basis of Human Nutrition focuses on the metabolic basis of human nutrition, detailing recent knowledge and research in this field. It explains the biochemical functions of the essential nutrients and the physiological consequences of deficient and excessive intakes. These are described within the context of normal human diets and requirements for health. Although this book is about human nutrition, in some instances there are comparisons with and examples of other mammalian species to facilitate understanding of the principles. Molecular Basis of Human Nutrition is the only book to cover this particular subject and will prove very popular with both students and lecturers alike.

Molecular, Genetic, and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals

Molecular, Genetic, and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals
  • Author : James F Collins
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-09-14
  • Total pages :576
  • ISBN : 9780128023761
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Summary : Molecular, Genetic, and Nutritional Aspects of Major and Trace Minerals is a unique reference that provides a complete overview of the non-vitamin micronutrients, including calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc. In addition, the book covers the nutritional and toxicological properties of nonessential minerals chromium, fluoride and boron, and silicon and vanadium, as well as ultra-trace minerals and those with no established dietary requirement for humans. Users will find in-depth chapters on each essential mineral and mineral metabolism, along with discussions of dietary recommendations in the United States and around the world. Presents the only scientific reference to cover all of the nutritionally relevant essential major and trace minerals Provides a broad introductory chapter on each mineral to give readers valuable background and context Clarifies the cellular and molecular aspects of each mineral and its genetic and genomic aspects Includes coverage of all nutritionally relevant minerals—essential major trace minerals and ultra-trace minerals Underscores the important interactions between minerals so readers learn how metabolism of one mineral influences another

Sarcopenia

Sarcopenia
  • Author : Dominique Meynial-Denis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-30
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9780429531972
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Summary : Sarcopenia: Molecular, Cellular, and Nutritional Aspects describes the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, defined by Rosenberg in 1997 as a hallmark of aging and referred to as “sarcopenia.” As life expectancy continues to increase worldwide, sarcopenia has become a major public health issue. The condition worsens in the presence of chronic diseases accelerating its progression. Sarcopenia is not considered to be “a process of normative aging” but according to the International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM), as a disease. As sarcopenia is an ineluctable process, prevention and management are the only options to promote healthy aging; these actions should perhaps be taken during youth. Included in this book: · Features essential information on sarcopenia, its current definition, and molecular and cellular aspects of this disease · Discusses the development of physical frailty, a complication of sarcopenia, and predicts its occurrence in the older population · Presents alterations in muscle protein turnover and mitochondrial dysfunction in the aging process · Provides data on the negative involvement of sarcopenia in certain chronic diseases · Describes presbyphagia or age-related changes in the swallowing mechanism in older people · Details possible strategies to combat muscle wasting in healthy older adults and their limits This book features information collected from pioneers or experts on human aging from around the globe, including Europe, Brazil, Canada, Japan and the United States. It is a valuable source of information for nutritional scientists, medical doctors, sports scientists, food scientists, dietitians, students in these fields, and for anyone interested in nutrition. We hope this book provides a better understanding of sarcopenia which inevitably occurs with aging without weight loss. Moreover, this book will supply information outlining strategies to prevent or limit muscle wasting due to normal aging in order to promote successful aging.

Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

Nutrition and Cancer Prevention
  • Author : Thomas Prates Ong,Fernando Salvador Moreno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-12-04
  • Total pages :433
  • ISBN : 9781788019187
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Summary : Cancer is a major global public health problem. Among different environmental and lifestyle factors contributing to cancer risk, diet is a key one. On the one hand, obesity and increased consumption of red and processed meat, ethanol, sugar and saturated fatty acids are associated with increased cancer risk. On the other hand, consumption of micronutrients such as vitamin D, selenium, zinc, folate and bioactive compounds from fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk. Written by an influential, international team of experts, this book presents and discusses current topics on nutrition and cancer prevention. It covers both nutritional influences on different cancers plus specific chapters on the commonly occurring cancers. Nutritional genomics-based studies show that some dietary components modulate carcinogenesis through complex cellular and molecular mechanisms. A better understanding of these different cellular and molecular mechanisms is needed to establish efficient dietary recommendations for cancer prevention. This book will provide such an understanding, serving as an important book for all those working in nutritional health, food science and cancer research.

Sport Supplement Reference Guide

Sport Supplement Reference Guide
  • Author : William Llewellyn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-10
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 9780967930480
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Summary : William Llewellyn, the author of the best selling Anabolics series, brings you the most comprehensive book ever written on sport supplements. The Sport Supplement Reference Guide takes a look at over 40 of today's most popular sport supplement ingredients. What you can expect from Sport Supplement Reference Guide: • An overview of the sport supplement industry • Protein primer and how to choose the right type of protein for your needs. • Types of Carbohydrate Supplementation. • Vitamin and Mineral overview. • Supplement Ingredient Profiles of over 40 different ingredients. Each profile has its own rating based on clinical studies and empirical evidence. • Rules for Effective Supplement Shopping and Consumer Empowerment. This section will help you stop wasting money on worthless supplements. • Goal orientated sample supplement cycles takes the guess work out what supplements needed for your goal. This book is perfect for anyone that consumes dietary supplements for sports related activity, weight lifting, bodybuilding, weight loss, or other fitness goals.

Anabolics

Anabolics
  • Author : William Llewellyn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :633
  • ISBN : 9780982828014
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Summary : William Llewellyn's ANABOLICS is the most comprehensive guide to performance-enhancing drugs ever written. This monster encyclopedia covers it all, from steroids, to growth hormone, insulin, and just about every imaginable agent in-between. With over 800 medical citations, ANABOLICS cuts right to the science. You'll learn everything there is to know about this controversial subject, from one of the most trusted experts in the field

Molecular Breeding and Nutritional Aspects of Buckwheat

Molecular Breeding and Nutritional Aspects of Buckwheat
  • Author : Meiliang Zhou,Ivan Kreft,Sun-Hee Woo,Nikhil Chrungoo,Gunilla Wieslander
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-02
  • Total pages :482
  • ISBN : 9780128037140
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Summary : Molecular Breeding and Nutritional Aspects of Buckwheat describes the general characterization and genetic diversity of buckwheat (family Polygonaceae, genus Fagopyrum) around the globe (especially in Russia, China, India, and Eastern Europe), the arid and cool regions where it is most frequently consumed, and nutritional information on a variety of buckwheat uses, including tea, groats, flour, and noodles. With detailed information on buckwheat regeneration, genetic transformation, gene function analysis, and the metabolic engineering of bioactive compounds, the book guides readers through a variety of buckwheat varietal adaptations, providing foundation information on which additional research should be conducted. It is divided into four parts, including genetic resource and phylogenetic relationship, food nutrition, growth and cultivation, and molecular breeding, with each section providing insights into the most current developments. Addresses all aspects of buckwheat research, including genetic resources, biological nutrition, genetic transformation, and molecular breeding Presents global characterization on the genetic resource of Fagopyrum, giving researchers insights that will help them breed new cultivars Explores the bioactivity of buckwheat Includes detailed information on the environmental factors that affect the growth and production of buckwheat

Food Allergens

Food Allergens
  • Author : Tanja Ćirković Veličković,Marija Gavrović-Jankulović
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-06-24
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 9781493908417
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Summary : A food allergen has the ability to first elicit an IgE response, and then, on subsequent exposures, a clinical response to the same or similar protein. How harmless food protein becomes recognized by the mucosal immune system as an allergen remains an open question and more data are needed to explain how regulatory mechanisms of the mucosal immune system fail and result in allergic sensitization to dietary antigens. Some biochemical characteristics associated with food allergens, such as the presence of multiple, linear IgE-binding epitopes and the resistance of the protein to digestion and processing, seem to predominate among food allergens. Digestion susceptibility of food allergens that sensitize via the gastrointestinal tract and stability to food processing conditions are inherently related to protein structural features. Thereby, physiological changes in the digestion process, pathological conditions affecting digestion, as well as procedures and food processing conditions that affect protein structure may all have a profound effect on the sensitizing potential and allergenicity of food proteins. In addition, signals coming from the diet and micro biome can modulate regulatory mechanisms of the mucosal immune system and influence mucosal immunity and intestinal barrier function. The detection of allergenic ingredients in food products has received increased attention from the food industry and legislative and regulatory agencies over recent years. This has resulted in the improvement of applied safety measures that provide protection for food-allergic consumers and development of sensitive and highly specific analytical methods of food allergens detection. Food allergy is an important and common health issue and therefore there is a need to characterize the sensitizing potential of newly introduced proteins in genetically engineered foods. A combination of in vitro and in silico methods provide information that contributes to safety assessment. Suitable in vivo models may provide a more holistic assessment of allergenic potential of novel food proteins.