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Nanoconfined Water and Water-mediated Ion Transport in Model Lyotropic Liquid Crystals

Nanoconfined Water and Water-mediated Ion Transport in Model Lyotropic Liquid Crystals
  • Author : Grayson Lee Jackson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018
  • Total pages :284
  • ISBN : OCLC:1113869067
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Summary : The ill-defined pore morphologies and connectivities of conventional membrane materials has hampered a clear understanding of the relationship between pore geometry, pore interfacial chemistry, and ultimate membrane performance. A host of empirical studies have suggested that membranes with sub-5 nm pores are ideal for applications in water purification or ion transport. Formed by the aqueous self-assembly of ionic amphiphiles, lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) network (N) phases are candidate membrane materials by virtue of their percolating, sub-3 nm pores. The well-defined pore structures and interfacial chemical functionalities of LLCs also make them an attractive platform for fundamental studies of water-mediated H+ transport and water dynamics in nanoporous materials. Recent studies have demonstrated that dicarboxylate gemini amphiphiles stabilize N-phase LLCs, yet their utility in practical applications remains untested. In this thesis, we explore amphiphile design criteria for the stabilization of N-phase LLCs and investigate how water dynamics depend on nanopore geometry and interfacial chemistry. We specifically investigate the ability of gemini amphiphiles to serve as "value-added" components that direct the self-assembly of conventional single-tail amphiphiles into N-phase LLCs as a function of gemini loading, molecular structure, and surfactant counterion identity. These studies reveal that the unique molecular conformations adopted by the dicarboxylate gemini amphiphiles enable them to function as highly anisotropic inclusions that drive LLC N-phase formation. We further utilize LLC self-assemblies as a platform to explore the relationship between H+ conductivity and nanopore geometry. Through the rational design and synthesis of a gemini bis(sulfonic acid) amphiphile and a highly branched sulfonic acid amphiphile, we investigate H+ conductivity in LLCs with either convex or concave nanopores, respectively. We observe that proton conductivity is maximized through intermediate-diameter nanopores and is further increased in convex nanopores. In order to understand this surprising result, we investigate confined water dynamics in the convex nanopores of gemini dicarboxylate LLCs using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). We find that water diffusion depends most sensitively on pore size or water content, but is also affected by the identity of the surfactant counterion. Subsequent studies of water dynamics in alkylsulfonate LLCs establish that water diffusion is systematically faster in sulfonated nanopores, and that, independent of pore interfacial chemistry, water diffusion is slower in convex nanopores. From these studies emerge new design criteria suggesting that membranes with convex nanopores may function as highly efficient ion transporting and water purification membranes.

Ionic Liquid Crystals

Ionic Liquid Crystals
  • Author : Giacomo Saielli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-24
  • Total pages :108
  • ISBN : 9783039210862
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Summary : In this book we have collected a series of state-of-the art papers written by specialists in the field of ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) to address key questions concerning the synthesis, properties, and applications of ILCs. New compounds exhibiting ionic liquid crystalline phases are presented, both of calamitic as well as discotic type. Their dynamic and structural properties have been investigated with a series of experimental techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical spectroscopy, X-ray scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance, impedance spectroscopy to mention but a few. Moreover, computer simulations using both fully atomistic and highly coarse-grained force fields have been presented, offering an invaluable microscopic view of the structure and dynamics of these fascinating materials.

Ionic Liquids II

Ionic Liquids II
  • Author : Barbara Kirchner,Eva Perlt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-03
  • Total pages :289
  • ISBN : 9783319897943
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Summary : ​The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field. The chapters “Ionic Liquid–Liquid Chromatography: A New General Purpose Separation Methodology”, “Proteins in Ionic Liquids: Current Status of Experiments and Simulations”, “Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids” and "Quantum Chemical Modeling of Hydrogen Bonding in Ionic Liquids" are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.

Multinuclear NMR

Multinuclear NMR
  • Author : J. Mason
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :660
  • ISBN : 9781461317838
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Summary : With the power and range of modern pulse spectrometers the compass of NMR spec troscopy is now very large for a single book-but we have undertaken this. Our book covers the Periodic Table as multinuclear spectrometers do, and introductory chapters are devoted to the essentials of the NMR experiment and its products. Primary products are chemical shifts (including anisotropies), spin-spin coupling constants, and relaxation times; the ultimate product is a knowledge of content and constitution, dynamic as well as static. Our province is chemical and biochemical rather than physical or technical; only passing reference is made to metallic solids or unstable species, or to practical NMR spectroscopy. Our aim is depth as well as breadth, to explain the fundamental processes, whether of nuclear magnetic shielding, spin-spin coupling, relaxation, or the multiple pulse sequences that have allowed the development of high-resolution studies of solids, multidimensional NMR spectroscopy, techniques for sensitivity enhancement, and so on. This book therefore combines the functions of advanced textbook and reference book. For reasonably comprehensive coverage in a single volume we have sum marized the information in tables and charts, and included all leading references.

Handbook of Liquid Crystals, High Molecular Weight Liquid Crystals

Handbook of Liquid Crystals, High Molecular Weight Liquid Crystals
  • Author : Dietrich Demus,John W. Goodby,George W. Gray,G. W. Gray,Hans W. Spiess,Volkmar Vill
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-04-15
  • Total pages :650
  • ISBN : UOM:39015041798284
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Summary : The Handbook of Liquid Crystals is a unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of liquid crystals. In over 2000 pages the Handbook provides detailed information on the basic principles of both low- and high-molecular weight materials, as well as the synthesis, characterization, modification, and applications (such as in computer displays or as structural materials) of all types of liquid crystals. The five editors of the Handbook are internationally renowned experts from both industry and academia and have drawn together over 70 leading figures in the field as authors. The three volumes of the Handbook are designed both to be used together or as stand-alone reference sources. Some users will require the whole set, others will be best served with one or two of the volumes. Volume 1 deals with the basic physical and chemical principles of liquid crystals, including structure-property relationships, nomenclature, phase behavior, characterization methods, and general synthesis and application strategies. As such this volume provides an excellent introduction to the field and a powerful learning and teaching tool for graduate students and above. Volume 2 concentrates on low-molecular weight materials, for example those typically used in display technology. A high quality survey of the literature is provided along with full details of molecular design strategies, phase characterization and control, and applications development. This volume is therefore by far the most detailed reference source on these industrially very important materials, ideally suited for professionals in the field. Volume 3 concentrates on high-molecular weight, or polymeric, liquid crystals, some of which are found in structural applications and others occur as natural products of living systems. A high-quality literature survey is complemented by full detail of the synthesis, processing, analysis, and applications of all important materials classes. This volume is the most comprehensive reference source on these materials, and is therefore ideally suited for professionals in the field.

Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy

Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781107116573
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Summary :

Supramolecular Polymer Networks and Gels

Supramolecular Polymer Networks and Gels
  • Author : Sebastian Seiffert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-06
  • Total pages :288
  • ISBN : 9783319154046
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Summary : The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. It covers all areas of research in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, material science. The thematic volumes are addressed to scientists, whether at universities or in industry, who wish to keep abreast of the important advances in the covered topics. Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Single contributions can be specially commissioned. Readership: Polymer scientists, or scientists in related fields interested in polymer and biopolymer science, at universities or in industry, graduate students.

Nanoscience with Liquid Crystals

Nanoscience with Liquid Crystals
  • Author : Quan Li
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-17
  • Total pages :420
  • ISBN : 9783319048673
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Summary : This book focuses on the exciting topic of nanoscience with liquid crystals: from self-organized nanostructures to applications. The elegant self-organized liquid crystalline nanostructures, the synergetic characteristics of liquid crystals and nanoparticles, liquid crystalline nanomaterials, synthesis of nanomaterials using liquid crystals as templates, nanoconfinement and nanoparticles of liquid crystals are covered and discussed, and the prospect of fabricating functional materials is highlighted. Contributions, collecting the scattered literature of the field from leading and active players, are compiled to make the book a reference book. Readers will find the book useful and of benefit both as summaries for works in this field and as tutorials and explanations of concepts for those just entering the field. Additionally, the book helps to stimulate future developments.

Electrostatics of Soft and Disordered Matter

Electrostatics of Soft and Disordered Matter
  • Author : David S. Dean,Jure Dobnikar,Ali Naji,Rudolf Podgornik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-05-02
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9789814411851
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Summary : Recently, there has been a surge of activity to elucidate the behavior of highly charged soft matter and Coulomb fluids in general. Such systems are ubiquitous, especially in biological matter where the length scale and the strength of the interaction between highly charged biomolecules are governed by strong electrostatic effects. Several interesting limits have been discovered in the parameter space of highly charged many-particle Coulomb matter where analytical progress is possible and completely novel and unexpected results have been obtained. One of the challenges in highly charged matter is to correctly describe systems with finite coupling strength in the transition regime between weak and strong couplings. After studying the fluctuations of both, several theories have been developed that describe this experimentally highly relevant regime. At the same time, computer simulation algorithms and computing power have advanced to the level where all-ion simulations, including many-body and polarization effects, are possible; the new theories thus can be subjected to numerical confirmation. Another important question is the effect of the structural disorder on electrostatic interactions. It has recently been demonstrated, both theoretically and experimentally, that charge disorder can impose long-range interaction between charged or even uncharged surfaces. These interactions might become very significant in biological processes. Filling a void in the literature, this volume cross-pollinates different theoretical and simulation approaches with new experiments and ties together the low temperature, high coupling constant, and disorder parameters in a unified description of the electrostatic interactions, which largely determine the stability and conformations of most important biological macromolecules. With striking graphical illustrations, the book presents a unified view of the current advances in the field of Coulomb (bio)colloidal systems, building on previous literature that summarized the field over 20 years ago. Leading scientists in the field offer a detailed introduction to different modern methods in statistical physics of Coulomb systems. They detail various approaches to elucidate the behavior of strongly charged soft matter. They also provide experimental and theoretical descriptions of disorder effects in Coulomb systems, which have not been discussed in any other book.

Specific Ion Effects

Specific Ion Effects
  • Author : Werner Kunz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :325
  • ISBN : 9789814271585
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Summary : Specific ion effects are important in numerous fields of science and technology. They have been discussed for over 100 years, ever since the pioneering work done by Franz Hofmeister and his group in Prague. Over the last decades, hundreds of examples have been published and periodically explanations have been proposed. However, it is only recently that a profound understanding of the basic effects and their reasons could be achieved. Today, we are not far from a general explanation of specific ion effects. This book summarizes the main new ideas that have come up in the last ten years. In this book, the efforts of theoreticians are substantially supported by the experimental results stemming from new and exciting techniques. Both the new theoretical concepts and the experimental landmarks are collected and critically discussed by eminent scientists and well-known specialists in this field. Beyond the rigorous explanations, guidelines are given to non-specialists in order to help them understand the general rules governing specific ion effects in chemistry, biology, physics and engineering. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (36 KB). Chapter 1: An Attempt of a General Overview (1,279 KB). Contents: Examples, Ion Properties and Concepts: An Attempt of a General Overview (W Kunz & R Neueder); Phospholipid Aggregates as Model Systems to Understand Ion-Specific Effects: Experiments and Models (E Leontidis); Modelling Specific Ion Effects in Engineering Science (C Held & G Sadowski); Promising Experimental Techniques: Linear and Non-linear Optical Techniques to Probe Ion Profiles at the AirOCoWater Interface (H Motschmann & P Koelsch); X-Ray Studies of Ion Specific Effects (P Viswanath et al.); The Determination of Specific Ion Structure by Neutron Scattering and Computer Simulation (G W Neilson et al.); Specific Ion Effects at the AirOCoWater Interface: Experimental Studies (V S J Craig & C L Henry); Newest Results from Theory and Simulation: Ion Binding to Biomolecules (M Lund et al.); Ion-Specificity: From Solvation Thermodynamics to Molecular Simulations and Back (J Dzubiella et al.); HNC Calculations of Specific Ion Effects (L Belloni & I Chikina); Modifying the PoissonOCoBoltzmann Approach to Model Specific Ion Effects (M BostrAm et al.); Summary and Conclusions: An Attempt of a Summary (W Kunz & G J T Tiddy). Readership: Graduate students and researchers in physical chemistry, biological chemistry and chemical engineering; colloidal scientists."

Catalysis in Ionic Liquids

Catalysis in Ionic Liquids
  • Author : Chris Hardacre,Vasile Parvulescu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-03-20
  • Total pages :620
  • ISBN : 9781782621324
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Summary : Although ionic liquids have only been studied in depth during the last decades, the field is now maturing to such a degree that the focus is on larger scale applications for use in real processes such as catalysis. Current information is scattered across the literature and Catalysis in Ionic Liquids provides a critical analysis of the research published to date on ionic solvents in all areas of the catalytic science. The book covers both catalyst synthesis using ionic liquids as solvents and green syntheses using both ionic liquids as well as mixtures of ionic liquids and carbon dioxide (as a subcritical and supercritical liquid), including enzymatic, homogeneous, and heterogeneous catalysis, electrocatalysis and organocatalysis. As well as the catalysis community, the book will also be of interest to postgraduates, postdoctoral workers and researchers in academia and industry working in organic synthesis, new materials synthesis, renewable sources of energy and electrochemistry. Written by leading experts in the field, this is the reference source to find about catalysis in ionic liquids.

Issues in Chemistry and General Chemical Research: 2011 Edition

Issues in Chemistry and General Chemical Research: 2011 Edition
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-09
  • Total pages :6580
  • ISBN : 9781464963292
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Summary : Issues in Chemistry and General Chemical Research: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Chemistry and General Chemical Research. The editors have built Issues in Chemistry and General Chemical Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Chemistry and General Chemical Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Chemistry and General Chemical Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Phase Transitions in Liquid Crystals

Phase Transitions in Liquid Crystals
  • Author : Arthur N. Chester,S. Martellucci
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-29
  • Total pages :505
  • ISBN : 9781468491517
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Summary : The Nato Advanced Study Institute "Phase Transitions in Liquid Crystals" was held May 2-12, 1991, in Erice, Sicily. This was the 16th conference organized by the International School of Quantum Electronics, under the auspices of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The subject of "Liquid Crystals" has made amazing progress since the last ISQE Course on this subject in 1985. The present Proceedings give a tutorial introduction to today's most important areas, as well as a review of current results by leading researchers. We have brought together some of the world's acknowledged experts in the field to summarize both the present state of their research and its background. Most of the lecturers attended all the lectures and devoted their spare hours to stimulating discussions. We would like to thank them all for their admirable contributions. The Institute also took advantage of a very active audience; most of the students were active researchers in the field and contributed with discussions and seminars. Some of these student seminars are also included in these Proceedings. We did not modify the original manuscripts in editing this book, but we did group them according to the following topics: 1) "Theoretical Foundations"; 2) "Thermotropic Liquid Crystals"; 3) "Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals"; 4) "Polymeric Liquid Crystals"; and 5) "Lyotropic Liquid Crystals".

Applications of Ionic Liquids in Polymer Science and Technology

Applications of Ionic Liquids in Polymer Science and Technology
  • Author : David Mecerreyes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-08
  • Total pages :387
  • ISBN : 9783662449035
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Summary : This book summarizes the latest knowledge in the science and technology of ionic liquids and polymers in different areas. Ionic liquids (IL) are actively being investigated in polymer science and technology for a number of different applications. In the first part of the book the authors present the particular properties of ionic liquids as speciality solvents. The state-of-the art in the use of ionic liquids in polymer synthesis and modification reactions including polymer recycling is outlined. The second part focuses on the use of ionic liquids as speciality additives such as plasticizers or antistatic agents. The third part examines the use of ionic liquids in the design of functional polymers (usually called polymeric ionic liquids (PIL) or poly(ionic liquids)). Many important applications in diverse scientific and industrial areas rely on these polymers, like polymer electrolytes in electrochemical devices, building blocks in materials science, nanocomposites, gas membranes, innovative anion sensitive materials, smart surfaces, and a countless set range of emerging applications in different fields such as energy, optoelectronics, analytical chemistry, biotechnology, nanomedicine or catalysis.

Concepts and Methods of 2D Infrared Spectroscopy

Concepts and Methods of 2D Infrared Spectroscopy
  • Author : Peter Hamm,Martin Zanni
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-02-24
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781139497077
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Summary : 2D infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a cutting-edge technique, with applications in subjects as diverse as the energy sciences, biophysics and physical chemistry. This book introduces the essential concepts of 2D IR spectroscopy step-by-step to build an intuitive and in-depth understanding of the method. This unique book introduces the mathematical formalism in a simple manner, examines the design considerations for implementing the methods in the laboratory, and contains working computer code to simulate 2D IR spectra and exercises to illustrate involved concepts. Readers will learn how to accurately interpret 2D IR spectra, design their own spectrometer and invent their own pulse sequences. It is an excellent starting point for graduate students and researchers new to this exciting field. Computer codes and answers to the exercises can be downloaded from the authors' website, available at www.cambridge.org/9781107000056.

Water and Life

Water and Life
  • Author : Ruth M. Lynden-Bell,Simon Conway Morris,John D. Barrow,John L. Finney,Charles Harper
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-05-21
  • Total pages :396
  • ISBN : 9781439803578
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Summary : Reflecting a rich technical and interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, Water and Life: The Unique Properties of H20 focuses on the properties of water and its interaction with life. The book develops a variety of approaches that help to illuminate ways in which to address deeper questions with respect to the nature of the universe and our place within it. Grouped in five broad parts, this collection examines the arguments of Lawrence J. Henderson and other scholars on the "fitness" of water for life as part of the physical and chemical properties of nature considered as a foundational environment within which life has emerged and evolved. Leading authorities delve into a range of themes and questions that span key areas of ongoing debate and uncertainty. They draw from the fields of chemistry, biology, biochemistry, planetary and earth sciences, physics, astronomy, and their subspecialties. Several chapters also deal with humanistic disciplines, such as the history of science and theology, to provide additional perspectives. Bringing together highly esteemed researchers from multidisciplinary fields, this volume addresses fundamental questions relating to the possible role of water in the origin of life in the cosmos. It supports readers in their own explorations of the origin and meaning of life and the role of water in maintaining life.

DNA Interactions with Polymers and Surfactants

DNA Interactions with Polymers and Surfactants
  • Author : Rita Dias,Bjorn Lindman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-07-14
  • Total pages :550
  • ISBN : 9780470286357
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Summary : A broad overview of the interaction of DNA with surfactants and polymers Due to the potential benefits of biotechnology, interest in the interaction between DNA and surfactants and polymers has become increasingly significant. Now, DNA Interactions with Polymers and Surfactants provides an extensive, up-to-date overview of the subject, giving readers a basis for understanding the factors leading to complexation between DNA and different cosolutes, including metal ions, polyelectrolytes, spermine, spermidine, surfactants and lipids, and proteins. Topical coverage includes: Polyelectrolytes, physico-chemical aspects and biological significance Solution behavior of nucleic acids Single DNA molecules: compaction and decompaction Interaction of DNA with surfactants and cationic polymers Interactions of histones with DNA DNA-DNA interactions The hydration of DNA-amphiphile complexes DNA-surfactant/lipid complexes at liquid interfaces DNA and DNA-surfactant complexes at solid surfaces The role of correlation forces for DNA-cosolute interactions Simulations of polyions Cross-linked DNA gels and gel particles DNA as an amphiphilic polymer Lipid-DNA interactions Covering both theoretical and practical aspects of the subject, DNA Interactions with Polymers and Surfactants is an ideal resource for chemists and biochemists working in gene and DNA delivery research in industry and academia, as well as for cell biologists, chemical engineers, molecular biologists, and development biologists in the pharmaceutical industry.

Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications

Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications
  • Author : Gerard L. Hasenhuettl,Richard W. Hartel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-09
  • Total pages :522
  • ISBN : 9783030291877
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Summary : Emulsifiers, also known as surfactants, are often added to processed foods to improve stability, texture, or shelf life. These additives are regulated by national agencies, such as the FDA, or multi-national authorities, such as the EEC or WHO. The amphiphilic molecules function by assisting the dispersion of mutually insoluble phases and stabilizing the resulting colloids, emulsions, and foams. Emulsifiers can interact with other food components such as carbohydrates, proteins, water, and ions to produce complexes and mesophases. These interactions may enhance or disrupt structures and affect functional properties of finished foods. In dairy processing, small molecule emulsifiers may displace dairy proteins from oil/water and air/water interfaces, which affects stability and properties of the foams and emulsions. In baked products, emulsifiers contribute to secondary functionalities, such as dough strengthening and anti-staling. Synthetic food emulsifiers suffer from the stigma of chemical names on a product’s ingredient statement. Modern consumers are seeking products that are “all natural.” Fortunately, there are a number of natural ingredients that are surface-active, such as lecithin, milk proteins, and some protein-containing hydrocolloids. Mayonnaise, for example, is stabilized by egg yolk. This book can serve as both a guide for professionals in the food industry to provide an understanding of emulsifier functionality, and a stimulus for further innovation. Students of food science will find this to be a valuable resource.

Dynamics of Soft Matter

Dynamics of Soft Matter
  • Author : VICTORIA GARCIA SAKAI,Christiane Alba-Simionesco,Sow Hsin Chen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-12-18
  • Total pages :450
  • ISBN : 9781461407270
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Summary : Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or microfluidics. Emphasizing the complementarities of scattering techniques with other spectroscopic ones, this volume also highlights the potential gain in combining techniques such as rheology, NMR, light scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, as well as synchrotron radiation experiments. Key areas covered include polymer science, biological materials, complex fluids and surface science.

Porous Polymers

Porous Polymers
  • Author : Michael S. Silverstein,Neil R. Cameron,Marc A. Hillmyer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-19
  • Total pages :472
  • ISBN : 9780470390849
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Summary : This book gathers the various aspects of the porous polymer field into one volume. It not only presents a fundamental description of the field, but also describes the state of the art for such materials and provides a glimpse into the future. Emphasizing a different aspect of the ongoing research and development in porous polymers, the book is divided into three sections: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications. The first part of each chapter presents the basic scientific and engineering principles underlying the topic, while the second part presents the state of the art results based on those principles. In this fashion, the book connects and integrates topics from seemingly disparate fields, each of which embodies different aspects inherent in the diverse field of porous polymeric materials.

Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems

Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems
  • Author : Dirk Broer,Gregory P Crawford,Slobodan Zumer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-01-24
  • Total pages :629
  • ISBN : 1420046306
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Summary : Liquid crystal displays were discovered in the 1960s, and today we continue to enjoy the benefits of that fundamental discovery and its translation into a wide variety of products. Like liquid crystals, polymers are unusual materials, and have similarly enjoyed a great deal of research attention because of their vast applications and uses and complex fundamental properties. The combination of liquid crystal and polymer properties produces a broad array of new effects—spanning from densely crosslinked, rigid polymer networks to weakly crosslinked elastomers—that are not simply manifestations of either native liquid crystals or polymers alone. Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems brings together liquid crystal and polymer systems and their variations. The field, much like traditional liquid crystals, is one of an interdisciplinary nature with a broad spectrum, from the very fundamental questions of nature to a myriad of practical uses. There seems to be no shortage of unusual properties and far-reaching applications in densely crossed-linked liquid crystal systems and liquid crystal elastomers. These systems provide a rich new avenue for both fundamental and applied research and continue to fascinate scientists and engineers. Specifically, this book covers: Cross-linked networks created from reactive mesogen materials Manipulation of liquid crystalline by external constraints Advances in liquid crystal display screen technology Physical and electromagnetic properties of elastomers and magnetic gels Computer simulations and theory of liquid crystal polymeric networks and elastomers Side-on nematic liquid-crystalline elastomers for artificial muscle applications Liquid crystal display technology has driven much of the fundamental research in crosslinked liquid crystalline systems. The systems’ ability to enforce three-dimensional structure in the molecular order and capture it created a number of compelling application possibilities because it provided necessary control of the molecular order. This book advances the understanding of basic science behind these systems, accelerates some of the proposed applications to the marketplace, and hopes to inspire generations of scientists to think broadly about these exciting and useful materials.