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Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Mark Schulz,Vesselin Shanov,Zhangzhang Yin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9781455778645
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Summary : Nanotube Superfiber Materials refers to different forms of macroscale materials with unique properties constructed from carbon nanotubes. These materials include nanotube arrays, ribbons, scrolls, yarn, braid, and sheets. Nanotube materials are in the early stage of development and this is the first dedicated book on the subject. Transitioning from molecules to materials is a breakthrough that will positively impact almost all industries and areas of society. Key properties of superfiber materials are high flexibility and fatigue resistance, high energy absorption, high strength, good electrical conductivity, high maximum current density, reduced skin and proximity effects, high thermal conductivity, lightweight, good field emission, piezoresistive, magnetoresistive, thermoelectric, and other properties. These properties will open up the door to dozens of applications including replacing copper wire for power conduction, EMI shielding, coax cable, carbon biofiber, bullet-proof vests, impact resistant glass, wearable antennas, biomedical microdevices, biosensors, self-sensing composites, supercapacitors, superinductors, hybrid superconductor, reinforced elastomers, nerve scaffolding, energy storage, and many others. The scope of the book covers three main areas: Part I: Processing; Part II: Properties; and Part III: Applications. Processing involves nanotube synthesis and macro scale material formation methods. Properties covers the mechanical, electrical, chemical and other properties of nanotubes and macroscale materials. Different approaches to growing high quality long nanotubes and spinning the nanotubes into yarn are explained in detail. The best ideas are collected from all around the world including commercial approaches. Applications of nanotube superfiber cover a huge field and provides a broad survey of uses. The book gives a broad overview starting from bioelectronics to carbon industrial machines. First book to explore the production and applications of macro-scale materials made from nano-scale particles. Sets out the processes for producing macro-scale materials from carbon nanotubes, and describes the unique properties of these materials Potential applications for CNT fiber/yarn include replacing copper wire for power conduction, EMI shielding, coax cable, carbon biofiber, bullet-proof vests, impact resistant glass, wearable antennas, biomedical microdevices, biosensors, self-sensing composites, supercapacitors, superinductors, hybrid superconductor, reinforced elastomers, nerve scaffolding, energy storage, and many others.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Mark Schulz,Vesselin Shanov,Zhangzhang Yin,Marc Cahay
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-29
  • Total pages :972
  • ISBN : 9780128126950
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Summary : Nanotube Superfiber Materials: Science, Manufacturing, Commercialization, Second Edition, helps engineers and entrepreneurs understand the science behind the unique properties of nanotube fiber materials, how to efficiency and safely produce them, and how to transition them into commercial products. Each chapter gives an account of the basic science, manufacturing, properties and commercial potential of a specific nanotube material form and its application. New discoveries and technologies are explained, along with experiences in handing-off the improved materials to industry. This book spans nano-science, nano-manufacturing, and the commercialization of nanotube superfiber materials. As such, it opens up the vast commercial potential of nanotube superfiber materials. Applications for nanotube superfiber materials cut across most of the fields of engineering, including spacecraft, automobiles, drones, hyperloop tracks, water and air filters, infrastructure, wind energy, composites, and medicine where nanotube materials enable development of tiny machines that can work inside our bodies to diagnose and treat disease. Provides up to date information on the applications of nanotube fiber materials Explores both the manufacturing and commercialization of nanotube superfibers Sets out the processes for producing macro-scale materials from carbon nanotubes Describes the unique properties of these materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Mark J. Schulz,Brad Ruff,Aaron Johnson,Kumar Vemaganti,Weifeng Li,Murali M. Sundaram,Guangfeng Hou,Arvind Krishnaswamy,Ge Li,Svitlana Fialkova,Sergey Yarmolenko,Anli Wang,Yijun Liu,James Sullivan,Noe Alvarez,Vesselin Shanov,Sarah Pixley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128090947
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Summary : Nanotubes are a unique class of materials because their properties depend not only on their composition but also on their geometry. The diameter, number of walls, length, chirality, van der Waals forces, and quality all affect the properties and performance of nanotubes. This dependence on geometry is what makes scaling-up nanotubes to form bulk material so challenging. Nanotubes are also unusual because they stick together to form bundles or strands. Nanotube superfiber materials are fibrous assemblages of nanotubes and strands. The hope and dream of researchers around the world is that nanotube superfiber materials will have broad applications and change engineering design. This chapter gives a perspective on nanotube superfiber development. This chapter discusses new applications—where we think we can go with the material properties and what applications will be enabled—and new techniques for developing superfiber material.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Michael B. Jakubinek
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091081
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Summary : Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported to have the highest thermal conductivities of any known material. However, significant variability exists both for the reported thermal conductivities of individual CNTs and the thermal conductivities measured for macroscopic CNT assemblies (e.g. CNT films, buckypapers, arrays, and fibers), which range from comparable to metals to aerogel-like. This chapter reviews the current status of the field, summarizing a wide selection of experimental results and drawing conclusions regarding present limitations of the thermal conductivity of CNT assemblies and opportunities for improvement of the performance of nanotube superfiber materials.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Stephen C. Hawkins
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128090930
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Summary : The nature of fiber materials and the differences between conventional fibers and nanoscale fibers are discussed in this chapter. The challenge of carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn fiber fabrication is provided from the perspective of conventional yarn fiber fabrication. Prospects for large-scale manufacturing and the physical properties of yarn are also discussed. This chapter sets the stage for presentation of a compendium of techniques working toward producing superfiber materials.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Weifeng Li,Brad Ruff,John Yin,Rajiv Venkatasubramanian,David Mast,Anshuman Sowani,Arvind Krishnaswamy,Vesselin Shanov,Noe Alvarez,Rachit Malik,Mark Haase,Madhura Patwardhan,Mark Schulz,Sergey Yarmolenko,Svitlana Fialkova,Salil Desai,Ge Li
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091173
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Summary : Medical change is coming. Robots and tiny machines built using nanoscale materials are going to fundamentally change engineering at the microscale and medicine will be the first area to benefit. In tiny machine design, copper and iron are replaced with carbon nanotube superfiber wire and magnetic nanocomposite materials. Because of the small size of tiny machines, high magnetic fields can be generated and high-force, high-speed devices can be built. Tiny machines are still in the early stages of being built and this chapter describes their engineering design and the work underway to build them. The tiny machines will operate inside the body and detect disease at an early stage, then provide precise therapy or surgery. There will also be engineering applications for the tiny machines such as performing high-throughput manufacturing operations at the microscale. The design principles and materials processing techniques described herein will facilitate the development of nanomaterial robots and tiny machines for myriad applications ranging from miniaturized sensors, actuators, energy harvesting devices, high-performance electric motors, and energy storage devices to smart structures with built-in artificial responsive behavior.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Noe T. Alvarez,Vesselin N. Shanov,Tim Ochmann,Brad Ruff
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091029
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Summary : Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been at the frontier of nanotechnology research for the past two decades. The interest in CNTs is due to their unique physical and chemical properties, which surpass those of most other materials. To put CNTs into macroscale applications, the nanotubes can be spun to form continuous fiber materials. Thus far, the properties of the fibers are far below the properties of the individual nanotubes. If the electrical and mechanical properties of the fibers could be improved, the resulting superfiber materials would change the industry and society. For example, CNT materials might replace copper wires providing lighter, stronger cables for aerospace applications. The small size of individual nanotubes, and the mixture of different diameters and chiralities, limits the electrical conductivity of CNT fiber. A simple way to improve the electrical conductivity of CNT fibers is chemically doping the CNTs within the fibers. This chapter attempts to summarize, classify and provide a basic understanding of doping at the atomic and molecular levels. Characterization of doping and current results of our doping efforts are discussed.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Nicola Pugno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091104
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Summary : In this chapter, the mechanics of nanotubes, graphene and related fibers are reviewed, with an eye to the limiting case of the design of a space elevator megacable. The effect on the fracture strength of thermodynamically unavoidable atomistic defects with different sizes and shapes is quantified. Brittle fracture is investigated both numerically (with ad hoc hierarchical simulations) and theoretically (with quantized fracture theories) for nanotubes, graphene and related bundles.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Mark Schulz,Vesselin Shanov,Zhangzhang Yin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-30
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 0128101377
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Summary : Nanotube Superfiber Materials refers to different forms of macroscale materials with unique properties constructed from carbon nanotubes. These materials include nanotube arrays, ribbons, scrolls, yarn, braid, and sheets. Nanotube materials are in the early stage of development and this is the first dedicated book on the subject. Transitioning from molecules to materials is a breakthrough that will positively impact almost all industries and areas of society. Key properties of superfiber materials are high flexibility and fatigue resistance, high energy absorption, high strength, good electrical conductivity, high maximum current density, reduced skin and proximity effects, high thermal conductivity, lightweight, good field emission, piezoresistive, magnetoresistive, thermoelectric, and other properties. These properties will open up the door to dozens of applications including replacing copper wire for power conduction, EMI shielding, coax cable, carbon biofiber, bullet-proof vests, impact resistant glass, wearable antennas, biomedical microdevices, biosensors, self-sensing composites, supercapacitors, superinductors, hybrid superconductor, reinforced elastomers, nerve scaffolding, energy storage, and many others. The scope of the book covers three main areas: Part I: Processing; Part II: Properties; and Part III: Applications. Processing involves nanotube synthesis and macro scale material formation methods. Properties covers the mechanical, electrical, chemical and other properties of nanotubes and macroscale materials. Different approaches to growing high quality long nanotubes and spinning the nanotubes into yarn are explained in detail. The best ideas are collected from all around the world including commercial approaches. Applications of nanotube superfiber cover a huge field and provides a broad survey of uses. The book gives a broad overview starting from bioelectronics to carbon industrial machines. First book to explore the production and applications of macro-scale materials made from nano-scale particles. Sets out the processes for producing macro-scale materials from carbon nanotubes, and describes the unique properties of these materials Potential applications for CNT fiber/yarn include replacing copper wire for power conduction, EMI shielding, coax cable, carbon biofiber, bullet-proof vests, impact resistant glass, wearable antennas, biomedical microdevices, biosensors, self-sensing composites, supercapacitors, superinductors, hybrid superconductor, reinforced elastomers, nerve scaffolding, energy storage, and many others.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : T. Filleter,A.M. Beese,M.R. Roenbeck,X. Wei,H.D. Espinosa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128090954
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Summary : Performance and efficiency demands in industrial applications are pushing a need for carbon fibers that can outperform existing technologies. Fibers that incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance specific mechanical properties are a promising route to addressing this need. Some of the major roadblocks to unlocking the full potential of macroscopic fibers based on CNTs are controlling and optimizing the shear interactions within and between CNTs, geometrical organization of the CNTs, and structural properties of the individual CNTs. Several approaches have been pursued in order to optimize the mechanical behavior of CNT fibers, including irradiation-induced covalent cross-linking, reformable or rehealable bonding, and optimized geometrical and structural fiber designs. These approaches are inspired by nature, which uses hierarchical bonding schemes in optimized orientations to tailor the mechanical properties of its materials to the needs and environment of specific organisms. In this chapter, these approaches for developing high-performance CNT fibers will be reviewed, and an outlook of their potential impact will be discussed.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Xiaogan Liang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091111
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Summary : This chapter provides a systematic comparison of band structures, physical properties as well as associated applications between carbon nanotubes and graphene. Both these two carbon-based nanomaterials are composed of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms based on sp2 hybridization and thus share some relevant characteristics. However, they have significantly different electronic states due to their morphological variation in quantum confinement, which is responsible for their different electrical, mechanical, and optical properties. This chapter provides readers some basic knowledge, hints, and insights for choosing appropriate carbon-based nanomaterials for specific applications in electronics, machines, composites, optics, optoelectronics, and other areas.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Miao Zhu,Hongwei Zhu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091043
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Summary : Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn represents one of the most remarkable macrostructures of CNT with its excellent performance in terms of mechanical and electrical properties. Various synthesis methods have been developed and an increasing number of applications have been reported to date, making yarn production one of the most active fields in current research on nanomaterials. In this chapter, we focus on the direct synthesis of long CNT yarns by chemical vapor deposition, including some discussions of the growth parameters and key characteristics of as-grown yarns. A general introduction to the potential applications of CNT yarns/fibers is given to outline its broad prospects in different fields.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Canh-Dung Tran
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128090992
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Summary : Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn, a macroscopic structure of CNTs with many potential applications, has attracted increased attention around the world and across many research areas and industrial fields, including materials science, electronics, medical biology and ecology. Spinning CNTs into yarn based on traditional textile spinning principles has demonstrated the potential in many important applications by producing weavable multifunctionalized yarns. Between 1991 and 2010, new manufacturing methods have enabled the production of pure CNT yarns and CNT-based composite yarns called superfiber suitable for weaving, knitting and braiding with continuous improvements. Especially various novel technologies are used to recently produce yarns for electrochemical devices and medical bioengineering. Thus, the studies on assembling individual CNTs into macrostructures of controlled and oriented configurations continue to play an important role in exploiting CNT potential applications.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Simon Jestin,Philippe Poulin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128090985
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Summary : Recent developments in the field of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based wet-spun fibers are described in this chapter. Wet spinning essentially enables a wide variety of polymers to be spun into fibers. It has been used to produce composite fibers composed of polymers loaded with CNTs, and even fibers solely composed of CNTs. Fibers obtained by wet-spinning approaches contain highly aligned CNTs making the fibers suitable for use in a variety of textile, cable and composite applications. Exciting results have been achieved at the laboratory scale. Today it is critical to consider scale-up of production of such superfibers so that applications can be fully validated.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Brad Ruff,Weifeng Li,Rajiv Venkatasubramanian,David Mast,Anshuman Sowani,Mark Schulz,Timothy J. Harned
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091135
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Summary : There are two ways to manufacture components and devices, the top-down and bottom-up processes. Each process has its advantages and disadvantages. In our group, the bottom-up process was selected to build up electromagnetic devices using nanoscale materials in a series of steps. The design of a lightweight electric motor is described based on using nanoscale materials. Development of the motor is work in progress and various processes and results are described. There are several potential applications for lightweight sustainable electric motors. One billion electric motors are produced in the world each year.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Rufan Zhang,Yingying Zhang,Fei Wei
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128090961
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Summary : Ultralong carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are ideal building blocks for nanodevices and superstrong fibers. Due to their high-aspect-ratio structure formed from sp2 hybrid C–C bonds, they have extraordinary mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. It is of great importance to synthesize ultralong CNTs with controlled structures as well as optimized properties for their applications. This chapter discusses the synthesis methods, growth mechanisms, structures, electrical and mechanical properties, as well as the applications of ultralong CNTs. We show that the controlled synthesis of ultralong CNTs with certain structures and properties is of fundamental importance for their applications. Finally, we also show that the mechanical properties of ultralong CNTs are near the theoretical value, showing great potential for their applications in superstrong fibers.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Xin Wang,Philip D. Bradford,Qingwen Li,Yuntian Zhu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091159
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Summary : Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess the unique combination of extreme mechanical and physical properties at the level of the individual tube. They are often considered one of the best candidates for the reinforcement of the next generation of multifunctional composite materials. It is essential to assemble the CNTs into macroscopic assemblies resembling traditional fiber-reinforced composites to begin to realize their potential and make them a serious candidate for commercial composite structures. This chapter presents a general introduction to aligned and high-volume fraction CNT composites and then explores two recent promising approaches for fabricating strong, stiff and multifunctional aligned CNT/polymer composite prepregs at satisfactory processing rates. One approach involves incorporating drawable superaligned CNT sheets into high-volume fraction composites through spraying or spray-stretching and winding. The other approach is based on directly shear pressing vertically aligned CNT arrays into horizontally aligned sheets with subsequent polymer infiltration. Both approaches produced CNT composite prepregs with desirable structural features and excellent properties. Aligned CNT/bismaleimide composites produced by stretch winding exhibited a combined tensile strength and elastic modulus exceeding carbon fiber composites. The exceptional mechanical performance coupled with unique electrical and thermal properties makes these materials promising for a wide range of applications, such as multifunctional composite structures, lightweight and flexible conductors, thermal interface materials, and sensors.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Steven D. Keller,Amir I. Zaghloul
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091180
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Summary : The application of carbon nanotube (CNT) materials to produce lightweight, flexible and durable RF antenna designs is explored through simulation, fabrication and measurement of a variety of CNT thread and sheet antenna designs. The conductivity and current distribution for a dipole antenna constructed from CNT thread/rope are simulated using Hallén's integral equation for a thin wire applied to the Method of Moments. An aperture-coupled patch antenna composed of CNT sheet material is fabricated, measured and compared with a standard copper patch antenna. Finally, a meshed patch antenna composed of interwoven CNT threads is developed and simulated as a concept for a multifunctional communications antenna and reactive gas sensor.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Carla L. Lake,Patrick D. Lake
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091036
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Summary : Carbon nanofibers are useful additives for improving the performance of polymer matrix composites, but the performance has sometimes been hindered by limits encountered in composite processing. Historically, incorporating nanofibers and other nanoparticles into structural composites has required lengthy predispersion steps using specialty dispersion techniques. Also, filtration of the nanoparticles by larger reinforcements is a problem in resin transfer molding processes. A way to overcome the problems with nanoparticles is through the use of carbon nanofiber sheets. The sheet material eliminates predispersion and reagglomeration and allows nanoparticle insertion into prepeg materials in the same manner as with traditional reinforcement materials. Composites fabricated with carbon nanofiber sheets demonstrate multifunctional property enhancements without altering traditional composite manufacturing processes. This chapter discusses development of carbon nanofiber continuous sheet goods and their applications.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : N. Govindaraju,R.N. Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091005
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Summary : Nanostructured materials such as nanotubes exhibit properties significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The effect of the length scale on nanostructure material properties, in general, is briefly discussed. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are wide-bandgap (Bandgap: ∼5 eV) semiconductor materials with attractive electrical, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. The structure of BNNTs is delineated followed by a description of their main methods of synthesis. Electrical, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties of BNNTs are discussed and contrasted with those of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It is shown that the properties of BNNTs rival, if not exceed CNTs in several areas. It is envisaged that with further research, BNNTs will find applications in nanoelectromechanical systems, as ultraviolet light sources, in composite materials, and for storing gases.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
  • Author : Y.J. Liu,D. Qian,P. He,N. Nishimura
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-16
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780128091128
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Summary : In this chapter, a hierarchical multiscale approach for modeling carbon nanotube (CNT) composites using molecular dynamics (MD) at the nanoscale and the boundary element method (BEM) at the microscale is presented. First, the current status in modeling and simulations of CNT composites is reviewed. Then, the basics of MD are introduced and the modeling techniques using MD at the nanoscale to extract the CNT properties and a cohesive interface model for CNT/polymer composites are discussed. Next, the boundary integral equations (BIEs) governing the displacement and stress fields in fiber-reinforced composite models at the microscale are presented. The BEM applied to solve the BIEs numerically is discussed and the fast multipole BEM techniques that are suitable for solving large-scale models are presented. In the numerical studies, parameters in the cohesive interface model are obtained by conducting CNT pull-out simulations with MD and these parameters are subsequently used in the BEM models of the CNT/polymer composites. Marked decreases of the estimated effective Young's moduli are observed using the new BEM models with the cohesive interface conditions as compared with earlier models with perfect bonding interface conditions. The developed BEM models combined with the MD can be a very useful tool for studying interface effects in CNT composites and for large-scale characterizations of such nanocomposites. Future efforts and directions in the research on modeling nanocomposites are offered to conclude this chapter.