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NETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology

NETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology
  • Author : Mariana J. Kaplan,Marko Radic
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-08
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889191581
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Summary : NETosis is a unique form of cell death that is characterized by the release of decondensed chromatin and granular contents to the extracellular space. The initial observation of NETosis placed the process within the context of the innate immune response to infections. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes that arrive quickly at the site of an infection, were the first cell type shown to undergo extracellular trap formation. However, subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes are also capable of releasing nuclear chromatin following stimulation. The extracellular chromatin acts to immobilize microbes and prevent their dispersal in the host. Bacterial breakdown products and inflammatory stimuli induce NETosis and the release of NETs requires enzyme activities. Histones in NET chromatin become modified by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and cleaved at specific sites by proteases. NETs serve for attachment of bactericidal enzymes including myeloperoxidase, leukocyte proteases, and the cathelicidin LL-37. While the benefit of NETs in an infection appears clear, NETs also figure prominently at the center of various pathologic states. Therefore, it is important for NETs to be efficiently cleared; else digestive enzymes may gain access to tissues where inflammation takes place. Persistent NET exposure at sites of inflammation may lead to a further complication: NET antigens may provoke acquired immune responses and, over time, could initiate autoimmune reactions. Recent studies identified aberrant NET synthesis and/or clearance in inflammatory/autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, ANCA-positive vasculitis, gout and Felty’s syndrome. In the case of SLE, for example, it appears that LL-37 exposed in the NETs may be a significant trigger of type I Interferon responses in this disease. Recent evidence also implicates aberrant NET formation in the development of endothelial damage, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. NETosis is thus of interest to researchers who investigate innate immune responses, host-pathogen interactions, chronic inflammatory disorders, cell and vascular biology, biochemistry, and autoimmunity. As we approach the 10-year-anniversary of the initial discovery of NETosis, it is useful and timely to review the so far identified mechanisms and pathways of NET formation, their role in bacterial and fungal defense and their putative importance as inducers of autoimmune responses. We look forward to a rich and rigorous discussion of these and related issues that benefit from interdisciplinary approaches, collaborations and exciting discoveries.

NETosis

NETosis
  • Author : Geeta Rai
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-01
  • Total pages :200
  • ISBN : 9780128163795
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Summary : NETosis: Immunity, Pathogenesis and Therapeutics takes a focused approach to the clinical aspects of NETosis and drug development, bringing critical findings. Chapters introduce NETosis, consider mechanisms and antimicrobial strategies regulating NETosis, examine NETosis in neonates, explore the role of NETosis in autoimmunity, delve into NETosis and other diseases, and present therapeutic approaches for dysregulated NETosis. Since Brinkamm, et al, discovered an unrecognized neutrophil anti-microbial mechanism responsible for the extracellular killing of invading pathogens in 2004, the novel process in which nuclear chromatin de-condenses and DNA is ejected into the extra cellular environment, trapping and inactivating tissue pathogens has rapidly evolved. Presents an up-to-date and detailed analysis of NETosis Brings together critical findings on NETosis as a comparatively novel immune mechanism Focuses on the clinical aspects of NETosis that lead to drug development Covers the topic with a cogency and passion that is based on years of scientific research

NETosis 2: The Excitement Continues

NETosis 2: The Excitement Continues
  • Author : Mariana J. Kaplan,Marko Radic,Martin Herrmann
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-28
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889453795
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Summary : NETosis, a form of cell death that manifests by the release of decondensed chromatin to the extracellular space, provides valuable insights into mechanisms and consequences of cellular demise. Because extracellular chromatin can immobilize microbes, the extended nucleohistone network was called a neutrophil extracellular trap (NET), and the process of chromatin release was proposed to serve an innate immune defense function. Extracellular chromatin NETs were initially observed in studies of neutrophils and are most prominent in these types of granulocytes. Subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes and, in a limited way, other cells of the innate immune response may also release nuclear chromatin following certain kinds of stimulation. Variations of NETosis were noted with cells that remain temporarily motile after the release of chromatin. Numerous stimuli for NETosis were discovered, including bacterial breakdown products, inflammatory stimuli, particulate matter, certain crystals, immune complexes and activated thrombocytes. Fundamental explorations into the mechanisms of NETosis observed that neutrophil enzyme activity (PAD4, neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase) and signal transduction pathways contribute to the regulation of NETosis. Histones in NET chromatin become modified by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and cleaved at specific sites by proteases, leading to extensive chromatin externalization. In addition, NETs serve for attachment of bactericidal enzymes including myeloperoxidase, leukocyte proteases, and the cathelicidin LL-37. NETs are decorated with proteases and may thus contribute to tissue destruction. However, the attachment of these enzymes to NET-associated supramolecular structures restricts systemic spread of the proteolytic activity. While the benefit of NETs in an infection appears obvious, NETs also participate as key protagonists in various pathologic states. Therefore, it is essential for NETs to be efficiently cleared; otherwise digestive enzymes may gain access to tissues where inflammation takes place. Persistent NET exposure at sites of inflammation may lead to a further complication: NET antigens may provoke acquired immune responses and, over time, could initiate autoimmune reactions, serve as antigen for nuclear autoantibodies and foster DNA immune complex-related inflammation. Neutrophil products and deiminated proteins comprise an important group of autoantigens in musculoskeletal disorders. Aberrant NET synthesis and/or clearance are often associated with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Recent evidence also implicates aberrant NET formation in the development of endothelial damage, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Intravital microscopy provides evidence for conditions that induce NETosis in vivo. Furthermore, NETs can easily be detected in synovial fluid and tissue sections of patients with arthritis and gout. NETosis is thus of interest to researchers who investigate innate immune responses, host-pathogen interactions, chronic inflammatory disorders, cell and vascular biology, biochemistry, and autoimmunity. As we enter the second decade of research on NETosis, it is useful and timely to review the mechanisms and pathways of NET formation, their role in bacterial and fungal defense and their importance as inducers of autoimmune responses.

Role of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis

Role of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis
  • Author : Maitham Khajah
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-07
  • Total pages :180
  • ISBN : 9789535131953
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Summary : This book highlights the important role of neutrophils in health as well as in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Section 1 provides a general background information regarding the mechanisms and various triggers of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation and their role in various infectious and noninfectious diseases (such as postinjury inflammation). Section 2 provides recent evidence regarding the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis as well as a therapeutic target for selected disease conditions such as periodontal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and cystic fibrosis. Section 3 describes the anti-inflammatory properties of neutrophils with focus regarding their role in graft versus host disease. This book provides a wider picture with regard to the importance of this immune cell type in various diseases with focus on one of its recently discovered properties, NETs. Therapeutic targets aimed to modulate neutrophil functions might provide novel approaches in the treatment of various diseases of infectious and noninfectious origin.

Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases

Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases
  • Author : Walter Gottlieb Land
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-09
  • Total pages :870
  • ISBN : 9783319786551
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Summary : This book presents current understanding of the importance of modern immunology in the etiopathogenesis of human diseases and explores how this understanding is impacting on diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prophylaxis. As the core of modern immunology, the “danger/injury model” is introduced and addressed throughout the book. Volume I of the book describes the network of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) and examines the central role of DAMPs in cellular stress responses and associated regulated cell death, the promotion and resolution of inflammation, the activation of innate lymphoid cells and unconventional T cells, the stimulation of adaptive immunity, and tissue repair. The significance of DAMPs in a wide range of human diseases will then be explored in Volume II of the book, with discussion of the implications of injury-induced innate immunity for present and future treatments. This book is written for professionals from all medical and paramedical disciplines who are interested in the introduction of innovative data from immunity and inflammation research into clinical practice. The readership will include practitioners and clinicians such as hematologists, rheumatologists, traumatologists, oncologists, intensive care anesthetists, endocrinologists such as diabetologists, psychiatrists, neurologists, pharmacists, and transplantologists.

Physical Phenotyping of Neutrophil NETosis Using Fluorescence-Imaging Deformability Cytometry

Physical Phenotyping of Neutrophil NETosis Using Fluorescence-Imaging Deformability Cytometry
  • Author : Hector Enrique Munoz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : OCLC:1163649372
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Summary : The cell mechanical phenotype is a useful measure to understand cell identity and state. Cell mechanical properties such as deformability can provide an understanding of cellular processes or intracellular composition without direct labeling. The cell nucleus is a significant component of the cell and it is useful to understand how it impacts cell deformability. However, high throughput methods to measure cell deformability largely cannot directly integrate nuclear information. Here we present fluorescent imaging deformability cytometry (FI-DC), a high throughput platform capable of measuring cells in flow at 0.5 m/s, while providing simultaneous brightfield and fluorescent images. This technology enables us to identify cell subpopulations by their nuclear structure, as well as identify neutrophils undergoing neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) generation.

Apoptosis and Beyond, 2 Volume Set

Apoptosis and Beyond, 2 Volume Set
  • Author : James A. Radosevich
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-18
  • Total pages :784
  • ISBN : 9781119432425
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Summary : These volumes teach readers to think beyond apoptosis and describes all of the known processes that cells can undergo which result in cell death This two-volume source on how cells dies is the first, comprehensive collection to cover all of the known processes that cells undergo when they die. It is also the only one of its kind to compare these processes. It seeks to enlighten those in the field about these many processes and to stimulate their thinking at looking at these pathways when their research system does not show signs of activation of the classic apoptotic pathway. In addition, it links activities like the molecular biology of one process (eg. Necrosis) to another process (eg. apoptosis) and contrasts those that are close to each. Volume 1 of Apoptosis and Beyond: The Many Ways Cells Die begins with a general view of the cytoplasmic and nuclear features of apoptosis. It then goes on to offer chapters on targeting the cell death mechanism; microbial programmed cell death; autophagy; cell injury, adaptation, and necrosis; necroptosis; ferroptosis; anoikis; pyronecrosis; and more. Volume 2 covers such subjects as phenoptosis; pyroptosis; hematopoiesis and eryptosis; cyclophilin d-dependent necrosis; and the role of phospholipase in cell death. Covers all known processes that dying cells undergo Provides extensive coverage of a topic not fully covered before Offers chapters written by top researchers in the field Provides activities that link and contrast processes to each other Apoptosis and Beyond: The Many Ways Cells Die will appeal to students and researchers/clinicians in cell biology, molecular biology, oncology, and tumor biology.

The Role of Galectin-3-mediated NETosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

The Role of Galectin-3-mediated NETosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Author : 陳璟儀
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :39
  • ISBN : OCLC:1021105597
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Summary :

On the Role of Neutrophils and NETosis in Acute Pancreatitis

On the Role of Neutrophils and NETosis in Acute Pancreatitis
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9176199819
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Summary :

Role of Neutrophils in Inflammatory Diseases

Role of Neutrophils in Inflammatory Diseases
  • Author : Laurent Reber,Thomas Marichal,Onur Boyman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-01-20
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889664092
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Summary :

Healthy and Beauty. Finding of current life science experiment for human sustainability

Healthy and Beauty. Finding of current life science experiment for human sustainability
  • Author : Mohd Hilmi Abu Bakar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-08
  • Total pages :27
  • ISBN : 9783668995666
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Summary : Abstract from the year 2019 in the subject Medicine - Public Health, grade: 10.0, , language: English, abstract: This work is a collection of studies concerning human sustainability. We were proud for having Postgrad Colloquium 2019, Faculty of Health Sciences Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). It was held on 30th April 2019 at Academic Building UniSZA Main Campus Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia. Total of 24 students including 15 students from Laboratory Based Research category and 9 students from Community Based Research category of Faculty Health Sciences and Faculty of Medicine were participated. We congratulated to the winners Omar Mahmoud Said Alshajrawi from Faculty of Medicine, Masters student for the Laboratory Based Research category and Mohd Ibrahim Abdullah from Faculty of Health Sciences, Doctorate student for the Community Based Research category. Both of you were pretty amazing. See again next year on 2020 to all researchers.

Fibrinolysis and Thrombolysis

Fibrinolysis and Thrombolysis
  • Author : Krasimir Kolev
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-05-07
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 9789535112655
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Summary : This book familiarizes the reader with some recent trends in the theory and practice of thrombolysis. It covers the field of fibrinolysis from the standpoint of basic scientists and clinicians and delivers the state-of-the-art information on the biochemistry and pharmacology of fibrinolysis, as well as related novel methodological and diagnostic tools in the field. An introductory chapter summarizes the basic molecular mechanisms in fibrinolysis (plasminogen, its endogenous activators and their inhibitors, plasmin and its inhibitors). Recent developments in our understanding of fibrin formation are described in the context of its impact on fibrinolysis. The discussion of neutrophil extracellular traps in the modulation of fibrin assembly and the consequences regarding plasminogen activation and plasmin action addresses a novel aspect of fibrinolysis.

Cell Biology by the Numbers

Cell Biology by the Numbers
  • Author : Ron Milo,Rob Phillips
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-07
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9781317230694
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Summary : A Top 25 CHOICE 2016 Title, and recipient of the CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title (OAT) Award. How much energy is released in ATP hydrolysis? How many mRNAs are in a cell? How genetically similar are two random people? What is faster, transcription or translation?Cell Biology by the Numbers explores these questions and dozens of others provid

Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease

Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Author : Monte Willis,Jonathon W. Homeister,James R. Stone
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-23
  • Total pages :338
  • ISBN : 9780124055254
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Summary : Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease focuses on the pathophysiology of common cardiovascular disease in the context of its underlying mechanisms and molecular biology. This book has been developed from the editors' experiences teaching an advanced cardiovascular pathology course for PhD trainees in the biomedical sciences, and trainees in cardiology, pathology, public health, and veterinary medicine. No other single text-reference combines clinical cardiology and cardiovascular pathology with enough molecular content for graduate students in both biomedical research and clinical departments. The text is complemented and supported by a rich variety of photomicrographs, diagrams of molecular relationships, and tables. It is uniquely useful to a wide audience of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows in areas from pathology to physiology, genetics, pharmacology, and more, as well as medical residents in pathology, laboratory medicine, internal medicine, cardiovascular surgery, and cardiology. Explains how to identify cardiovascular pathologies and compare with normal physiology to aid research Gives concise explanations of key issues and background reading suggestions Covers molecular bases of diseases for better understanding of molecular events that precede or accompany the development of pathology

Cell Death

Cell Death
  • Author : Tobias Ntuli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-16
  • Total pages :446
  • ISBN : 9789535122364
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Summary : This book is a collection of selected and relevant research, concerning the developments within the Cell Death field of study. Each contribution comes as a separate chapter complete in itself but directly related to the books topics and objectives. The target audience comprises scholars and specialists in the field.

Vitamin C in Health and Disease

Vitamin C in Health and Disease
  • Author : Anitra C. Carr,Jens Lykkesfeldt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-09
  • Total pages :298
  • ISBN : 9783038970293
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Summary : This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Vitamin C in Health and Disease" that was published in Nutrients

Antibody Fc:

Antibody Fc:
  • Author : Margaret Ackerman,Falk Nimmerjahn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-06
  • Total pages :358
  • ISBN : 9780123948182
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Summary : Antibody Fc is the first single text to synthesize the literature on the mechanisms underlying the dramatic variability of antibodies to influence the immune response. The book demonstrates the importance of the Fc domain, including protective mechanisms, effector cell types, genetic data, and variability in Fc domain function. This volume is a critical single-source reference for researchers in vaccine discovery, immunologists, microbiologists, oncologists and protein engineers as well as graduate students in immunology and vaccinology. Antibodies represent the correlate of protection for numerous vaccines and are the most rapidly growing class of drugs, with applications ranging from cancer and infectious disease to autoimmunity. Researchers have long understood the variable domain of antibodies, which are responsible for antigen recognition, and can provide protection by blocking the function of their target antigen. However, recent developments in our understanding of the protection mediated by antibodies have highlighted the critical nature of the antibody constant, or Fc domain, in the biological activity of antibodies. The Fc domain allows antibodies to link the adaptive and innate immune systems, providing specificity to a wide range of innate effector cells. In addition, they provide a feedback loop to regulate the character of the immune response via interactions with B cells and antigen-presenting cells. Clarifies the different mechanisms of IgG activity at the level of the different model systems used, including human genetic, mouse, and in vitro Covers the role of antibodies in cancer, infectious disease, and autoimmunity and in the setting of monoclonal antibody therapy as well as naturally raised antibodies Color illustrations enhance explanations of the immune system

Cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton
  • Author : Jose C. Jimenez-Lopez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-05-17
  • Total pages :342
  • ISBN : 9789535131694
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Summary : The cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic intracellular platform constituted by a three-dimensional network of proteins responsible for key cellular roles as structure and shape, cell growth and development, and offering to the cell with "motility" that being the ability of the entire cell to move and for material to be moved within the cell in a regulated fashion (vesicle trafficking). The present edition of Cytoskeleton provides new insights into the structure-functional features, dynamics, and cytoskeleton's relationship to diseases. The authors' contribution in this book will be of substantial importance to a wide audience such as clinicians, researches, educators, and students interested in getting updated knowledge about molecular basis of cytoskeleton, such as regulation of cell vital processes by actin-binding proteins as cell morphogenesis, motility, their implications in cell signaling, as well as strategies for clinical trial and alternative therapies based in multitargeting molecules to tackle diseases, that is, cancer.

Vitamin C and Human Health

Vitamin C and Human Health
  • Author : Anitra C. Carr,Margreet C. M. Vissers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-09
  • Total pages :242
  • ISBN : 9783906980614
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Summary : Printed Edition of the Special Issue Published in Nutrients

Chronic inflammation in conditions associated with a deficient clearance of dying and dead cells, their remnants, and intracellular constituents

Chronic inflammation in conditions associated with a deficient clearance of dying and dead cells, their remnants, and intracellular constituents
  • Author : Luis Enrique Muñoz,Christian Berens,Kirsten Lauber
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-17
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889196012
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Summary : In multicellular organisms, states with a high degree of tissue turnover like embryogenesis, development, and adult tissue homeostasis need an instantaneous, tightly regulated and immunologically silent clearance of these dying cells to ensure appropriate development of the embryo and adult tissue remodelling. The proper and swift clearance of apoptotic cells is essential to prevent cellular leakage of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which would lead to the stimulation of inflammatory cytokine responses. In addition to the clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis), backup mechanisms are required to cope with DAMPs (HMGB-1, DNA, RNA, S100 molecules, ATP and adenosine) and other intracellular material (uric acid, intracellular proteins and their aggregates) released from cells, that were not properly cleared and have entered the stage of secondary necrosis. Furthermore, under certain pathologic conditions (e.g. gout, cancer, diabetes) non-apoptotic cell death may transiently occur (NETosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis) which generates material that also has to be cleared to avoid overloading tissues with non-functional cellular waste. Efficient efferocytosis is therefore indispensable for normal tissue turnover and homeostasis. The characterization of various signalling pathways that regulate this complex and evolutionary conserved process has shed light on new pathogenetic mechanisms of many diseases. Impaired clearance promotes initiation of autoimmunity as well as the perpetuation of chronic inflammation, but may also foster anti-tumor immunity under certain microenvironmental conditions. Immunological tolerance is continuously being challenged by the presence of post-apoptotic remnants in peripheral lymphoid tissues. Besides the autoimmune phenotype of chronic inflammatory rheumatoid disorders a plethora of pathologies have been associated with defects in genes involved in clearance, e.g. atherosclerosis, cancer, gout, diabetes, some forms of blindness, neuropathy, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. The main goal of this research topic is to collect contributions from various disciplines committed to studying pathogenetic mechanisms of the aforementioned disorders and dealing with alterations in the clearance of dying and dead cells, their remnants, and their constituents that leak out after membrane rupture. Integrating the combined collection of knowledge on efferocytosis and clearance of dead cells and their derived waste from different fields of research in physiology and pathophysiology could improve the molecular understanding of these increasingly prevalent diseases and may ultimately result in new therapeutic strategies.

Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome

Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome
  • Author : Ricard Cervera
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-05-18
  • Total pages :136
  • ISBN : 9783038429470
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Summary : This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome" that was published in Antibodies