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Neural Repair and Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury and Spine Trauma

Neural Repair and Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury and Spine Trauma
  • Author : Michael G. Fehlings,Brian Kwon,Alexander R. Vaccaro,F. Cumhur Oner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-12-01
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 0128198362
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Summary : Neural Repair and Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury and Spine Trauma provides readers with a comprehensive overview on the most up-to-date strategies to repair and regenerate the injured spinal cord following SCI and spine trauma. With contributions by international authors, chapters put regenerative approaches in context, allowing the reader to understand the challenges and future directions of regenerative therapies. Recent clinical trial advancements are thoroughly discussed, with the impact of trial findings addressed. Additionally, major ongoing clinical trials are included with thoughts from experts in the field. Recent clinical practice guidelines for the management of traumatic spinal cord injury are featured throughout. These guidelines are quickly being adopted as the standard of care worldwide, and the comprehensive information found within this book will place these recommendations in context with current knowledge surrounding spinal cord injury and spine trauma. Contains contributions by international authors Covers recent clinical trial advancements and findings and updates on ongoing trials Presents an overview of clinical practice guidelines for the management of traumatic spinal cord injury featured Provides the reader with insights regarding the translation of research from bench to bedside and the skills needed to understand the translational pathway using real-life examples

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Repair Strategies

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Repair Strategies
  • Author : Giuseppe Perale,Filippo Rossi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-30
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 0081028083
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Summary : Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Repair Strategies provides researchers the latest information on potential regenerative approaches to spinal cord injury, specifically focusing on therapeutic approaches that target regeneration, including cell therapies, controlled drug delivery systems, and biomaterials. Dr. Giuseppe Perale and Dr. Filippo Rossi lead a team of authoritative authors in academia and industry in this innovative reference on the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This book presents all the information readers need to understand the current and potential array of techniques, materials, applications and their benefits for spinal cord repair. Covers current and future repair strategies for spinal cord injury repair Focuses on key research trends, clinics, biology and engineering Provides fundamentals on regenerative engineering and tissue engineering

Neurological Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury

Neurological Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury
  • Author : Norbert Weidner,Rüdiger Rupp,Keith E. Tansey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-06
  • Total pages :770
  • ISBN : 3319462938
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Summary : This clinically focused book aims to cover for the first time all of the neurological aspects relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of spinal cord disease. Furthermore, innovative neurorestorative therapeutic strategies - aiming for repair of the damaged spinal cord and/or reorganization of the remaining nervous system - with significant potential for translation into clinical routine are presented. The book covers a comprehensive list of topics, including epidemiology, neuroanatomy, etiology of compressive and non-compressive spinal cord injury, imaging, neurophysiology, neurological sequelae, and complications with emphasis on dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Both clinically established and preclinical therapies are discussed in detail. The book is suited for trainees and practicing clinicians including neurologists, spine surgeons, rehabilitation specialists, neuroradiologists, and occupational/physical therapists; it will also be of value to neuroscientists involved in research into spinal cord disease.

Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal Cord Injury
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health,Committee on Spinal Cord Injury
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-07-27
  • Total pages :360
  • ISBN : 9780309165204
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Summary : An estimated 11,000 spinal cord injuries occur each year in the United States and more than 200,000 Americans suffer from maladies associated with spinal cord injury. This includes paralysis, bowel and bladder dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, respiratory impairment, temperature regulation problems, and chronic pain. During the last two decades, longstanding beliefs about the inability of the adult central nervous system to heal itself have been eroded by the flood of new information from research in the neurosciences and related fields. However, there are still no cures and the challenge of restoring function in the wake of spinal cord injuries remains extremely complex. Spinal Cord Injury examines the future directions for research with the goal to accelerate the development of cures for spinal cord injuries. While many of the recommendations are framed within the context of the specific needs articulated by the New York Spinal Cord Injury Research Board, the Institute of Medicine’s panel of experts looked very broadly at research priorities relating to future directions for the field in general and make recommendations to strengthen and coordinate the existing infrastructure. Funders at federal and state agencies, academic organizations, pharmaceutical and device companies, and non-profit organizations will all find this book to be an essential resource as they examine their opportunities.

Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal Cord Injury
  • Author : Joost Verhaagen,John W. McDonald
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :656
  • ISBN : 0444521372
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Summary : Spinal Cord Injuries, the newest volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, offers a comprehensive and detailed overview of the rapidly evolving science and treatment of spinal cord injury. Advances in neuroimaging, surgical treatment and application of electrical stimulation are dramatically impacting the treatment and outcome of these injuries. It provides a clear introduction to the core science of spinal cord injury, as well as to exciting research investigating new treatment options. Coverage includes brain-machine interfaces, transcranial stimulation, new pharmacological strategies, use of olfactory ensheathing cells, stem cells and precursor cells, gene therapy and molecular target discovery. This volume is a great resource for neuroscience and clinical neurology research specialists and practicing neurologists seeking a clear reference to the science and treatment of spinal cord injury. Comprehensive coverage of the latest scientific understanding of spinal cord injuries Detailed coverage of current treatment best practices and potential future treatments Connects leading edge research programs to future treatment opportunities .

Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology

Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology
  • Author : Naren L. Banik,Swapan K. Ray,Abel Lajtha
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-11-25
  • Total pages :669
  • ISBN : 038730343X
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Summary : Therapeutic approaches in spinal cord injury.- Cell death and tissue degeneration in traumatic brain injury.- neurotransmitters and electrophysiology in brain injury.- neurotransmitters and electrophysiology in brain injury.- Parkinsonism in the MPTP model.- EAE Demyelination.- EAE Neurodegeneration.- Cataract.- Uveitis.- Optic neuritis.- GBS/peripherial neuropathy, paraproteinemia.- Brain Tumor(Tumor Mechanisma).- Brain Tumor and angiogenesis.- SCIDS.- Phenylketone urea and mental retardation.- Neurofibromatosis.- BBB.- Muscular dystrophy.- Stracher.- Diabetic neuropathy/retinopathy/cataract.- Peroxisomes and adrenoleukodystrophy ALD.- Neuroprotection.- NFkB (Inflammation and spinal cord injury).- spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury.- free radicals and neuroprotection.- Traumatic brain injury.- white matter degeneration.- Mitochondrial membrane defects.- Encephalomyopathies.- metal induced neurodegenaration.- neurometals in protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases.- hyperammonemia.- kyneurenines in the brain preclinical and clinical studies, therapeutic condiserations.

Spinal Infections and Trauma

Spinal Infections and Trauma
  • Author : S Rajasekaran, Anil K Jain, Ajoy P Shetty, Rishi M Kanna
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-03-28
  • Total pages :679
  • ISBN : 935025834X
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Summary : This book provide useful information in the area of spinal infections, particularly with regard to those that receive delayed treatment. The book first deals with various spinal infections and their manifestations. It is strong in the areas of tuberculosis and the structural problems that ensue when spinal infections are not diagnosed and treated early. Structural diagrams are helpful. Apart from surgical techniques, adequate emphasis has been laid on clinical features, value of modern diagnostic facilities and appropriate drug therapy. This book will be a useful reference book with more infor.

Essentials of Spinal Cord Injury

Essentials of Spinal Cord Injury
  • Author : Michael G. Fehlings,Alexander R. Vaccaro,Maxwell Boakye
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-10-29
  • Total pages :682
  • ISBN : 1604067276
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Summary : Essentials of Spinal Cord Injury is written for the spinal cord injury (SCI) team and reflects the multidisciplinary nature of treating patients with SCI. It integrates emerging medical and surgical approaches to SCI with neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuroimaging, neuroplasticity, and cellular transplantation. This comprehensive yet concise reference will enable neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons, neurologists, and allied health professionals caring for SCI patients to translate research results into patient care. It is also an excellent resource for those preparing for the board exam in SCI medicine. Key Features: Material is cross-referenced to highlight relationships between the different areas of SCI Chapters are concise, focused, and include key points, pearls, and pitfalls An Overview of the Literature table is provided in most chapters, giving readers a meaningful distillation of each publication referenced Each editor is a world-renowned expert in one of these core disciplines involved in the management of SCI patients: neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, spinal cord science, and rehabilitative medicine This is a must-have guide that all neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons, neurologists, and allied health professionals involved in the care of spinal cord injury patients should have on their bookshelf.

Spine and Spinal Cord Trauma

Spine and Spinal Cord Trauma
  • Author : Alexander R. Vaccaro,Michael G. Fehlings
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-01-01
  • Total pages :592
  • ISBN : 1604062223
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Summary : Representing the collective efforts of a multinational, multidisciplinary panel of spine and spinal cord trauma masters, this beautifully illustrated evidence-based textbook does more than provide multiple treatment options -- it offers unique access to insights from recognized spine experts and a thoughtful yet practical review of the most relevant literature and clinical evidence available in the field today. Each chapter centers on pertinent questions and objective reviews of state-of-the-art procedures that guide readers from an evaluation of the evidence through practical recommendations they can easily apply to their own practices. Features: Succinct outline format -- easy to read and reference 138 detailed evidentiary tables appear throughout the text An innovative new classification system for spine trauma developed by The Spine Trauma Study Group, composed of 50 internationally recognized spine experts High-quality radiographs and full-color drawings and photographs complement the text Practical recommendations for the treatment of many common spinal injuries, including odontoid fractures, central cord injuries, and thoraco-lumbar flexion distraction injuries --in-depth information on everything from intensive care to rehabilitation Accompanying MediaCenter web content contains 15 narrated videos -- over one hour of footage -- of actual procedures by the authors Spine and Spinal Cord Trauma: Evidence-Based Management is an invaluable reference for orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, residents and fellows in those specialties, and allied health professionals who care for spine injury patients.

AOSpine Masters Series, Volume 7: Spinal Cord Injury and Regeneration

AOSpine Masters Series, Volume 7: Spinal Cord Injury and Regeneration
  • Author : Luiz Roberto Gomes Vialle,Michael G. Fehlings,Norbert Weidner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-30
  • Total pages :225
  • ISBN : 1626232288
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Summary : World-renowned experts share the latest updates in translational research as well as surgical and nonsurgical strategies for treating spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating, clinically challenging injury, leading to varying degrees of neurological function impairment and paralysis. Underlying biological mechanisms either inhibit or promote new growth in the spinal cord. Researchers have been making important discoveries about how neurons and their axons grow in the central nervous system and why they fail to regenerate after SCI. Although progress has been steady, there remains an urgent need to address issues in acute management such as early decompression and the use of biologics, as well as potential solutions for regeneration. Written by renowned experts in the ever-evolving field of SCI research and clinical practice, the 7th volume in the AOSpine Masters series is a state-of-the-art compendium on the latest in SCI diagnosis, spine surgery interventions, and long-term management. Each chapter contains pearls from leading spine specialists gleaned from the research laboratory and years of hands-on experience treating SCI patients in the emergency setting and long term. Key Features: Pathobiology, assessment, and diagnostic considerations The use of biomarkers as predictors of functional recovery Surgical and nonsurgical interventions for traumatic SCI The role of neural stem cells and biologics in spinal cord repair Functional and epidural stimulation and brain-computer interfaces The AOSpine Masters series, a copublication of Thieme and the AOSpine Foundation, addresses current clinical issues featuring international masters sharing their expertise in the core areas in the field. The goal of the series is to contribute to an evolving, dynamic model of evidence-based approach to spine care. This essential textbook delivers invaluable insights to spine surgeons, spinal cord injury clinicians and researchers and trainees, from translational researchers to experienced researchers and clinicians experienced in the operative and non-operative management of spinal cord injury.

Neurological Rehabilitation6

Neurological Rehabilitation6
  • Author : Darcy Ann Umphred,Margaret Roller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :1262
  • ISBN : 032307586X
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Summary : Rev. ed. of: Neurological rehabilitation / [edited by] Darcy A. Umphred; with section editors, Gordon U. Burton, Rolando T. Lazaro, Margaret L. Roller. 5th ed. c2007.

Topics in Paraplegia

Topics in Paraplegia
  • Author : Yannis Dionyssiotis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-02
  • Total pages :304
  • ISBN : 9535116215
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Summary : Spinal cord injury related paraplegia changes a person's life in a sudden way. The most important issue for physicians, therapists and caregivers is to manage the complications that arise, and help paraplegic subjects return to a productive integrated life within society. The book Topics in Paraplegia provides modern knowledge in this direction. Addressing hot topics related to paraplegia, ranging from surgical management to research therapies with mesenchymal stem cells, this book could be a valued reference for physiatrists, neurosurgeons, orthopaedic surgeons, neurologists and physical therapists. The book is organized into four sections. The first covers the epidemiology and psychological conditions associated with paraplegia, the second discusses surgical management and common rehabilitation interventions; the third medical complications and special musculoskeletal issues, while the last outlines current research in animals and humans.

Indwelling Neural Implants

Indwelling Neural Implants
  • Author : William M. Reichert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-12-17
  • Total pages :296
  • ISBN : 9781420009309
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Summary : Despite enormous advances made in the development of external effector prosthetics over the last quarter century, significant questions remain, especially those concerning signal degradation that occurs with chronically implanted neuroelectrodes. Offering contributions from pioneering researchers in neuroprosthetics and tissue repair, Indwelling Neural Implants: Strategies for Contending with the In Vivo Environment examines many of these challenges, paying particular attention to how the healing of tissues surrounding an implant can impact the intended use of a device. The contributions are divided into four sections · Part one examines wound healing from the initial insertion trauma through the inflammatory and repair process, explaining how the action of healing varies throughout different areas of the body. · Part two considers various performance issues specific to particular implant components, including those that arise from the chemical, mechanical, thermal, and electrical impact on surrounding tissues. It discusses challenges that result from chronic tissue stimulation and heat effects that occur with on-chip and telemetric processing. · Part three presents both in vitro and in vivo approaches to assessing wound healing response to materials. It includes the contribution of the developer of a chronic hollow fiber membrane implant who explains how an in vivo model is used to assess molecular transport in brain tissue surrounding the implant. · The final section evaluates molecular and materials strategies for intervening in CNS wound repair and enhancing the electrical communication between the electrode surface and the surrounding tissue. It also presents novel approaches to nerve regeneration and repair. This seminal work provides researchers with an up-to-date account of the progress in the field that they can build upon to bring us closer to realizing the full value of neural implants in combating otherwise intractable human health problems.

Handbook of Innovations in Central Nervous System Regenerative Medicine

Handbook of Innovations in Central Nervous System Regenerative Medicine
  • Author : António Salgado
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-10
  • Total pages :710
  • ISBN : 0128180854
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Summary : Handbook of Innovations in CNS Regenerative Medicine provides a comprehensive overview of the CNS regenerative medicine field. The book describes the basic biology and anatomy of the CNS and how injury and disease affect its balance and the limitations of the present therapies used in the clinics. It also introduces recent trends in different fields of CNS regenerative medicine, including cell transplantation, bio and neuro-engineering, molecular/pharmacotherapy therapies and enabling technologies. Finally, the book presents successful cases of translation of basic research to first-in-human trials and the steps needed to follow this path. Areas such as cell transplantation approaches, bio and neuro-engineering, molecular/pharmacotherapy therapies and enabling technologies are key in regenerative medicine are covered in the book, along with regulatory and ethical issues. Describes the basic biology and anatomy of the CNS and how injury and disease affect its balance Discusses the limitations of present therapies used in the clinics Introduces the recent trends in different fields of CNS regenerative medicine, including cell transplantation, bio and neuro-engineering, molecular/pharmacotherapy therapies, and enabling technologies Presents successful cases of translation of basic research to first-in-human trials, along with the steps needed to follow this path

Spinal Cord Medicine, Second Edition

Spinal Cord Medicine, Second Edition
  • Author : Christopher M. Bono, MD,Diana D. Cardenas, MD, MHA,Frederick S. Frost, MD,Margaret C. Hammond, MD,Laurie B. Lindblom, MD,Inder Parkash, MD, MS, FRCS, FACS,Stevens A. Stiens, MD, MS,Robert M. Woolsey, MD
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-03-19
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 1935281771
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Summary : A Doody's Core Title 2012 The thoroughly revised Second Edition of this authoritative reference continues to define the standard of care for the field of spinal cord medicine. Encompassing all of the diseases and disorders that may a!ect the proper functioning of the spinal cord or spinal nerves, this comprehensive volume provides a state of the art review of the principles of care and best practices for restoring function and quality of life to patients with spinal cord injuries. Expert contributors from multiple disciplines cover topics ranging from acute medical and surgical management of specific problems to cutting-edge research, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction, neurologic and musculoskeletal issues, advanced rehabilitation techniques and technologies, functional outcomes, and psychosocial care. While comprehensive in scope, Spinal Cord Medicine offers practical guidance for physicians and other health care professionals involved in the management of individuals with SCI, multiple sclerosis, and other spinal cord disorders. The Second Edition has been completely updated to fully reflect current science and practice. Each section has been re-ordered to better present information and the Second Edition brings in many new authors and topics, more diagrams, illustrations, and tables to solidify concepts, and contains 18 entirely new chapters. Spinal Cord Medicine: Principles and Practice, Second Edition, reflects the breadth and depth of this multi-faceted specialty. Involving over 150 authors from more than 20 fields of medicine, it is a trusted reference for anyone who works with spinal cord patients and strives to deliver superior clinical care and improve outcomes.

Essentials of Spinal Cord Injury Medicine

Essentials of Spinal Cord Injury Medicine
  • Author : Yannis Dionyssiotis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-06-13
  • Total pages :166
  • ISBN : 1789232481
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Summary : Spinal cord injury is a severe condition leading to serious neurological dysfunctions and changes a person's life in a sudden way. Understanding the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury will improve the prognosis and reintegration to the society of spinal cord-injured subjects. The book Essentials in Spinal Cord Injury Medicine includes seven chapters with valuable information addressing hot topics related to spinal cord injury, ranging from pathophysiology, nontraumatic spinal cord injury, complications to exoskeletons, and research therapies with mesenchymal stem cells. The book could be a valued reference for physiatrists, neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons, neurologists and physical therapists.

Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation

Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation
  • Author : Michael Selzer,Stephanie Clarke,Leonardo Cohen,Gert Kwakkel,Robert Miller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-04-24
  • Total pages :688
  • ISBN : 1107011671
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Summary : Volume 1 of the Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation covers the basic sciences relevant to recovery of function following injury to the nervous system.

Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

Peripheral Nerve Regeneration
  • Author : Ana Colette Maurício
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-05-31
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 9535131656
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Summary : Peripheral nerve injuries are a high-incidence clinical problem that greatly affects patients' quality of life. Despite continuous refinement of microsurgery techniques, peripheral nerve repair still stands as one of the most challenging tasks in neurosurgery, as functional neuromuscular recovery is rarely satisfactory in these patients. Therefore, the improvement of surgical techniques and the clinical application of innovative therapies have been intensively studied worldwide. Direct nerve repair with epineural end-to-end sutures is still the gold standard treatment for severe neurotmesis injuries but only in cases where well-vascularized tension-free coaptation can be achieved. When peripheral nerve injury originates a significant gap between the nerve stumps, nerve grafts are required, with several associated disadvantages. Therefore, the development of scaffolds by tissue engineering can provide efficient treatment alternatives to stimulate optimum clinical outcome. Nerve conduit tailoring involves reaching ideal wall pores, using electrospinning techniques in their fabrication, surface coating with extracellular matrix materials, and adding of growth factors or cell-based therapies, among other possibilities. Also, intraluminal cues are employed such as the filling with hydrogels, inner surface modification, topographical design, and the introduction of neurotrophic factors, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and other pharmacological agents. A comprehensive state of the art of surgical techniques, tissue-engineered nerve graft scaffolds, and their application in nerve regeneration, the advances in peripheral nerve repair and future perspectives will be discussed, including surgeons' and researchers' own large experience in this field of knowledge.

Neuroproteomics

Neuroproteomics
  • Author : Oscar Alzate
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-10-26
  • Total pages :354
  • ISBN : 9781420076264
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Summary : In this, the post-genomic age, our knowledge of biological systems continues to expand and progress. As the research becomes more focused, so too does the data. Genomic research progresses to proteomics and brings us to a deeper understanding of the behavior and function of protein clusters. And now proteomics gives way to neuroproteomics as we begin to unravel the complex mysteries of neurological diseases that less than a generation ago seemed opaque to our inquiries, if not altogether intractable. Edited by Dr. Oscar Alzate, Neuroproteomics is the newest volume in the CRC Press Frontiers of Neuroscience Series. With an extensive background in mathematics and physics, Dr. Alzate exemplifies the newest generation of biological systems researchers. He organizes research and data contributed from all across the world to present an overview of neuroproteomics that is practical and progressive. Bolstered by each new discovery, researchers employing multiple methods of inquiry gain a deeper understanding of the key biological problems related to brain function, brain structure, and the complexity of the nervous system. This in turn is leading to new understanding about diseases of neurological deficit such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Approaches discussed in the book include mass spectrometry, electrophoresis, chromatography, surface plasmon resonance, protein arrays, immunoblotting, computational proteomics, and molecular imaging. Writing about their own work, leading researchers detail the principles, approaches, and difficulties of the various techniques, demonstrating the questions that neuroproteomics can answer and those it raises. New challenges wait, not the least of which is the identification of potential methods to regulate the structures and functions of key protein interaction networks. Ultimately, those building on the foundation presented here will advance our understanding of the brain and show us ways to abate the suffering caused by neurological and mental diseases.

Recovery of Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury

Recovery of Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury
  • Author : Heidi Fuller,Monte Gates
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-08-17
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : 9535124978
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Summary : Restoration of motor function following spinal cord injury is a complex and challenging task. By reviewing emerging cellular, pharmacological, rehabilitative, as well as surgical approaches, this book seeks to highlight promising therapeutic strategies for the repair and regeneration of motor circuitry. The multidisciplinary nature of these approaches illustrates various routes to bridging the gap between the bench and the bedside and to identify the challenges that must be overcome in order to bring about a viable therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury patients.

Autonomic Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury

Autonomic Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury
  • Author : Lynne C. Weaver,Canio Polosa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-10-11
  • Total pages :472
  • ISBN : 9780080460109
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Summary : Autonomic dysfunction is a major and poorly understood consequence of spinal cord injury. It is a cause of very serious disability and requires much more research. It should be a focus of treatment strategies. This book will be of interest to anyone involved in research and treatment of spinal cord injury since it helps to explain the tremendously negative impact on the body caused by cord injury that is not as obvious as paralysis and loss of sensation. It contains a compilation of what is known about bladder, cardiovascular, bowel and sexual dysfunction after spinal cord injury, as it relates to the changes within the autonomic nervous system control of these functions. The book begins with a description of the time course of autonomic dysfunctions and their ramifications from the first hours after a spinal cord injury to the more stable chronic states. The next section contains three chapters that address anatomical findings that may provide some of the foundation for autonomic dysfunctions in many of the systems. The system-specific chapters then follow in four sections. Each section begins with a chapter or two defining the clinical problems experienced by people with cord injury. The following chapters present research, basic and clinical, that address the autonomic dysfunctions.