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Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Hector H. Garcia,Herbert B. Tanowitz,Oscar H. Del Brutto
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-03
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 0444534997
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Summary : Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology, a new volume in The Handbook of Clinical Neurology, provides a comprehensive and contemporary reference on parasitic infections of the human nervous system. Parasitic infections are varied and some are resolved by the host’s immune system, other infections may become established even though unnoticed, and some cause severe disease and death. In our modern world, neuroparasitoses are no longer geographically isolated and these infections now appear worldwide. Outside of a very few well understood pathologies, most parasitic infections have been neglected in the neurological literature and most neurologists have never diagnosed such an infection. This volume details how, with the advent of modern neuroimaging techniques, improved diagnostic applications of molecular biology, more accurate immunodiagnosis, and minimally invasive neurosurgery, human nervous system parasitoses are now diagnosed and treated, with increasing frequency. The book is divided into six sections, and begins with an introduction to the mechanisms of infection, diagnosis, and pathology of parasitic diseases. Subsequent chapters detail protozoan diseases and a section covering each of the major classes of human-infecting helminths: nematodes (roundworms), trematodes (flukes), and cestodes (tapeworms). The final section contains chapters on other important areas of tropical clinical medicine including the neurological complications of venomous bites and tropical nutritional deficiencies. Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology will be of interest to neurologists, neurosurgeons and other health professionals encountering patients with parasitic infections. A comprehensive reference resource on the diagnosis and treatment of parasitic infections of the human nervous system Focuses on the impact of modern neuroimaging techniques, improved diagnostic applications of molecular biology, more accurate immunodiagnosis, and minimally invasive neurosurgery to diagnose parasitoses International list of contributors including the leading workers in the field

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Fabrizio Bruschi,Enrico Brunetti,Edoardo Pozio
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-03
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 0128079630
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Summary : Trichinellosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the nematode Trichinella spp. Neurotrichinellosis represents one of the most important complications of severe trichinellosis in humans and is sometimes fatal, especially when Trichinella spiralis is involved. There are numerous mechanisms responsible for the involvement of the nervous system through direct or indirect involvement of the parasite. In the latter, inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, appear to play a crucial role. Encephalopathy, neuromuscular disturbances, and ocular involvement represent the most frequent presentations of neurotrichinellosis, with the first being the most responsible for fatalities. The diagnosis is based on imaging (CT or MRI), which shows nodular multifocal hypodensities in serologically positive individuals with relevant epidemiological factors (e.g., consumption of raw pork). However, only direct diagnosis by muscle biopsy can give the absolute certainty of infection. Albendazole and mebendazole are the anthelminthic of choice and should be used with corticosteroids to prevent allergic manifestations.

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Sandra K. Halonen,Louis M. Weiss
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-03
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 0128079525
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Summary : Toxoplasma gondii, an Apicomplexan, is a pathogic protozoan that can infect the central nervous system. Infection during pregnancy can result in a congenial infection with severe neurological sequelae. In immunocompromisedindividuals reactivation of latent neurological foci can result in encephalitis. Immunocompetent individuals infected with T. gondii are typically asymptomatic and maintain this infection for life. However, recent studies suggest that these asymptomatic infections may have effects on behavior and other physiological processes. Toxoplasma gondii infects approximately one-third of the world population, making it one of the most successful parasitic organisms. Cats and other felidae serve as the definite host producing oocysts, an environmentally resistant life cycle stage found in cat feces, which can transmit the infection when ingested orally. A wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including humans, can serve as the intermediate host in which tissue cysts (containing bradyzoites) develop. Transmission also occurs due to ingestion of the tissue cysts. There are three predominant clonal lineages, termed Types I, II and III, and an association with higher pathogenicity with the Type I strains in humans has emerged. This chapter presents a review of the biology of this infection including the life cycle, transmission, epidemiology, parasite strains, and the host immune response. The major clinical outcomes of congenital infection, chorioretinitis and encephalitis, and the possible association of infection of toxoplasmosis with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, are reviewed.

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Govinda S. Visvesvara
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-03
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 0128079541
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Summary : Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri are mitochondria-bearing, free-living eukaryotic amebae that have been known to cause infections of the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. Several species of Acanthamoeba belonging to several different genotypes cause an insidious and chronic disease, granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), principally in immunocompromised hosts including persons infected with HIV/AIDS. Acanthamoeba spp., belonging to mostly group 2, also cause infection of the human cornea, Acanthamoeba keratitis. Balamuthia mandrillaris causes GAE in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts mostly in the very young or very old individuals. Both Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris also cause a disseminated disease including the lungs, skin, kidneys, and uterus. Naegleria fowleri, on the other hand, causes an acute and fulminating, necrotizing infection of the CNS called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in children and young adults with a history of recent exposure to warm fresh water. Additionally, another free-living ameba Sappinia pedata, previously described as S. diploidea, also has caused a single case of amebic meningoencephalitis. In this review the biology of these amebae, clinical manifestations, molecular and immunological diagnosis, and epidemiological features associated with GAE and PAM are discussed.

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Devender Bhalla,Michel Dumas,Pierre-Marie Preux
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-03
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 0128079622
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Summary : Filarial infections cause a huge public health burden wherever they are endemic. These filaria may locate anywhere in the human body. Their manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms, except the most common ones, are rarely investigated systematically. Their neurological manifestations, however, are being increasingly recognized particularly with onchocerciasis or Loa loa infections, Wuchereria bancrofti, or Mansonella perstans. The risk of developing these manifestations may also increase in cases that harbor multiple filariasis or coinfections, for instance as with Plasmodium. The microfilaria of Onchocerca and Loa loa are seen in cerebrospinal fluid. The pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of these infections is complex; however, pathogenic reactions may be caused by mechanical disruption, e.g., degeneration often followed by granulomas, causing fibrosis or mass effects on other tissues, vascular lesions, e.g., vascular block of cerebral vessels, or disordered inflammatory responses resulting in meningitis, encephalitis or localized inflammatory responses. The chances of having neurological manifestations may also depend upon the frequency and“heaviness”of infection over a lifetime. Hence, this type of infection should no longer be considered a disease of the commonly affected areas but one that may produce systemic effects or other manifestations, and these should be considered in populations where they are endemic.

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Gustavo C. Román
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-03
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 0128079746
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Summary : About three-fourths of the total world population live in the tropics but consume only 6% of worldwide food production and contribute 15% of the world's net revenue explaining the short life expectancy, high infantile mortality, and poor daily caloric intake; moreover, lack of clean drinking water and deficient sanitation promote water-borne infections, diarrhea, and risk of malabsorption that contribute to the prevalence of malnutrition in the tropics. One-third of the world's population consumes insufficient iodine increasing the risk for mental retardation and deafness due to maternal hypothyroidism. The main nutritional syndromes comprise protein-energy malnutrition (marasmus and kwashiorkor); nutritional neuropathies, myelopathies and neuromyelopathies, as well as specific deficiencies of vitamins and micronutrients including iodine, iron, zinc, and selenium.

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas,Braulio M. Valencia,Christine A. Petersen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-03
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 0128079576
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Summary : Leishmaniasis is a spectral disease, caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the species Leishmania. There are multiple reported instances where neurological manifestations, whether central or peripheral, are described. In this review we describe neurological manifestations seen during infection with Leishmania spp. Taken together, the material discussed here suggests that in patients from Leishmania-endemic areas, when observing neurological symptoms, causation secondary to infection with Leishmania spp. may be considered.

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Sahar Usmani-Brown,John J. Halperin,Peter J. Krause
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-03
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 0128079584
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Summary : Babesiosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa that are transmitted by Ixodid ticks, or less commonly through blood transfusion or transplacentally. Although headache and lethargy are common symptoms, babesiosis is uncommonly associated with specific neurological dysfunction in humans. Decreased level of consciousness or coma are rare complications that are associated with severe and often fatal disease but the pathogenesis is unclear.

Neuroepidemiology in Tropical Health

Neuroepidemiology in Tropical Health
  • Author : Pierre-Marie Preux,Michel Dumas
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-21
  • Total pages :340
  • ISBN : 0128046252
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Summary : Neuroepidemiology in Tropical Health covers major neurological diseases of relevance in tropical settings and examines the specificities of epidemiology of neurological diseases in the context of tropical countries that face many challenges when compared to the developed world. Part One focuses on methods and their eventual specificities, and how such methods, like sampling, can be adapted for specific scenarios. Parts Two and Three discuss environmental factors and their consequences for neurology in the tropical world, as well as large geographical areas and their specificities. Finally, Part Four presents relevant neurological diseases in in-depth chapters. This invaluable information will help readers recognize the various neurological conditions presented, with the inclusion of their aetiologies and treatment in tropical areas. The book therefore fills a gap in the neuroepidemiology literature, with chapters written by an international collection of experienced authors in the field. Highlights differences and similarities between neuroepidemiology in tropical areas and temperate zones with a focus on methods and underlying factors Covers environmental factors in the tropical world and their consequences for neurology Chapters include references (key articles, books, protocols) for additional detailed study Includes wide topics of neurological disease in the tropics, not only infectious diseases, but also nutrition and public health

Clinical Neuroendocrinology

Clinical Neuroendocrinology
  • Author : Eric Fliers,Marta Korbonits,J.A. Romijn
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-28
  • Total pages :456
  • ISBN : 0444626123
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Summary : Clinical Neuroendocrinology, a volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology Series gives an overview of the current knowledge in the field of clinical neuroendocrinology. It focuses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. It integrates a large number of medical disciplines, including clinical endocrinology, pediatrics, neurosurgery, neuroradiology, clinical genetics, and radiotherapy. Psychological consequences of various disorders and therapies, as well as therapeutic controversies, are discussed. It is the first textbook in the field to address all these aspects by a range of international experts. All contributors are recognized experts in the different fields of clinical neuroendocrinology The book provides expanded coverage on hypothalamic mechanisms in human pathophysiology The book includes current perspectives, diagnosis and treatment of pituitary diseases

Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders

Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
  • Author : Douglas S. Goodin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-02-05
  • Total pages :736
  • ISBN : 044463309X
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Summary : Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is generally understood to be an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. While we still are not certain of the root cause of MS, research results suggest that unknown environmental factors and the presence of specific genes seem the most probable targets. MS causes an inflammatory response in the central nervous system leading to neurodegeneration, oligodendrocyte death, axonal damage, and gliosis. Over the past five years ongoing research has greatly expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis of MS, detailed insight into the epidemiology and genetic factors related to MS, the introduction of new technologies and tests to better diagnose and predict the future course of the disease and the introduction of new treatments targeting MS. This collection of review chapters provides a comprehensive reference into the science and clinical applications of the latest Multiple Sclerosis research and will be a valuable resource for the neuroscience research community and the clinical neurology community of researchers and practitioners. A comprehensive tutorial reference detailing our current foundational understanding of Multiple Sclerosis Includes chapters on key topics including the genetics of MS, MRI imaging and MS, and the latest treatment options Each chapter is translational and focuses on current research and impact on diagnosis and treatment options

Diabetes and the Nervous System

Diabetes and the Nervous System
  • Author : Douglas W. Zochodne,Rayaz A. Malik
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-05
  • Total pages :640
  • ISBN : 0444635416
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Summary : This is a unique compilation, by experts worldwide, addressing how diabetes impacts the nervous system. For example, diabetic polyneuropathy, a disorder more common than MS, Parkinson’s disease, and ALS combined, is a major source of disability to diabetic persons worldwide. This book addresses diabetic polyneuropathy and how diabetes alters other parts of the nervous system. Offers a unique emphasis on the neurological manifestations of diabetes Provides thorough coverage of the clinical, experimental, mechanistic, therapeutic, peripheral, and central aspects of diabetic neuropathy Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Author : Jordan Grafman,Andres M. Salazar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-02-19
  • Total pages :490
  • ISBN : 0444634983
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Summary : The Handbook of Clinical Neurology volume on traumatic brain injury (TBI) provides the reader with an updated review of emerging approaches to traumatic brain injury (TBI) research, clinical management and rehabilitation of the traumatic brain injury patient. Chapters in this volume range from epidemiology and pathological mechanisms of injury, and neuroprotection to long-term outcomes with a strong emphasis on current neurobiological approaches to describing the consequences and mechanisms of recovery from TBI. The book presents contemporary investigations on blast injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, making this state-of-the-art volume a must have for clinicians and researchers concerned with the clinical management, or investigation, of TBI. Internationally renowned scientists describe cutting edge research on the neurobiological response to traumatic brain injury, including descriptions of potential biomarkers and indicators of potential targets for treatments to reduce the impact of the injury Explores cellular and molecular mechanisms as well as genetic predictors of outcome Offers coverage of various diagnostic tools – CT, MRI, DDTI, fMRI, EEG, resting functional imaging, and more State-of-the-art traumatic brain injury management and treatment principles are presented for both civilian and military care

The Human Auditory System

The Human Auditory System
  • Author : Gastone G. Celesia,Gregory Hickok
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-03-06
  • Total pages :722
  • ISBN : 0444626298
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Summary : The Human Auditory System: Fundamental Organization and Clinical Disorders provides a comprehensive and focused reference on the neuroscience of hearing and the associated neurological diagnosis and treatment of auditory disorders. This reference looks at this dynamic area of basic research, a multidisciplinary endeavor with contributions from neuroscience, clinical neurology, cognitive neuroscience, cognitive science communications disorders, and psychology, and its dramatic clinical application. A focused reference on the neuroscience of hearing and clinical disorders Covers both basic brain science, key methodologies and clinical diagnosis and treatment of audiology disorders Coverage of audiology across the lifespan from birth to elderly topics

Neurovirology

Neurovirology
  • Author : Alex C. Tselis,John Booss
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-08
  • Total pages :808
  • ISBN : 070204539X
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Summary : This volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series provides a complete review of the history, science and current state of neurovirology. It covers the science and clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of viruses of the brain and central nervous system, and is a trusted resource for scholars, scientists, neuroscientists, neurologists, virologists, and pharmacologists working on neurovirology. Neurovirology has been significantly bolstered by modern technologies such as PCR and MRI with direct impact on isolating viruses and advancing therapeutics based on molecular medicine. These advances are particularly important today with the introduction of emerging and re-emerging diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Nipah encephalitis and the appearance of West Nile encephalitis in the western hemisphere. Detailed coverage of neurovirology from the basic science to clinical presentation Covers advances in neurovirology via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and MRI technology Covers emerging and re-emerging diseases including HIV/AIDS, Nipah encephalitis, and the appearance of West Nile encephalitis in the western hemisphere

Alcohol and the Nervous System

Alcohol and the Nervous System
  • Author : Edith V. Sullivan,Adolf Pfefferbaum
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-08
  • Total pages :704
  • ISBN : 0444626220
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Summary : Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the world, yet alcoholism remains a serious addiction affecting nearly 20 million Americans. Our current understanding of alcohol's effect on brain structure and related functional damage is being revolutionized by genetic research, basic neuroscience, brain imaging science, and systematic study of cognitive, sensory, and motor abilities. Volume 125 of the Handbook of Clinical Neurology is a comprehensive, in-depth treatise of studies on alcohol and the brain covering the basic understanding of alcohol's effect on the central nervous system, the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism, and prospect for recovery. The chapters within will be of interest to clinical neurologists, neuropsychologists, and researchers in all facets and levels of the neuroscience of alcohol and alcoholism. The first focused reference specifically on alcohol and the brain Details our current understanding of how alcohol impacts the central nervous system Covers clinical and social impact of alcohol abuse disorders and the biomedical consequences of alcohol abuse Includes section on neuroimaging of neurochemical markers and brain function

Psychopharmacology of Neurologic Disease

Psychopharmacology of Neurologic Disease
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-12
  • Total pages :458
  • ISBN : 0444640134
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Summary : Psychopharmacology of Neurologic Disease, Volume 165 in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, provides clinicians with an up-to-date, critical review of the best approaches to treatment of neurologic disease as discussed by experienced clinical investigators. The book is organized into sections on dementia, delirium, movement disorders, hereditary degenerative disease, epilepsy and psychogenic seizures, brain vascular disease, pseudobulbar affect, traumatic brain injury, neuro-oncology, multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating disorders, chronic fatigue syndrome/fibromyalgia, pain, headache, sleep disorders, autoimmune encephalitis/anti- NMDA encephalitis, functional sensory neurologic symptom disorders and neurodevelopmental disorders. Each of these diagnostic categories has a significant incidence of behavioral symptomatology that is secondary to the neurologic diagnosis that can serve to complicate other therapeutic interventions, alter the course of illness, and cause distress in patients and family caregivers. Provides a systematic, evidence-based compendium of best practices in the treatment of behavioral symptomatology relating to neurologic conditions Integrates state-of-the-art approaches in treating all behavioral symptomatology across all major neurologic disorders Explores psychopharmacological intervention, non-pharmacological strategies, behavioral symptomatology, and therapeutic interventions

Canine Parasites and Parasitic Diseases

Canine Parasites and Parasitic Diseases
  • Author : Seppo Saari,Anu Näreaho,Sven Nikander
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-07
  • Total pages :287
  • ISBN : 0128141131
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Summary : Canine Parasites and Parasitic Diseases offers a concise summary, including the distribution, epidemiology, lifecycle, morphology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prophylaxis and therapeutic measures on the most important parasites affecting dogs. The book includes their classification, structure, lifecycles, occurrence, and the diagnosis and treatment of infestations. Chapters are presented in a consistent and logical format with extensive use of tables, photographs and line drawings that help veterinarians and students quickly find answers to questions. The book informs on 100 different species of parasite related to the canine world and is is aimed not only at veterinary practitioners but also in dog enthusiasts, pharmacies and laboratories. Fully illustrated with high-quality figures and illustrations Provides insights on the risk factors and prevention of parasite infections in dogs and gives guidelines for anthelmintic treatment Serves professionals, students, parasitologists and veterinary scientists Present an easy-to-use handbook on the identification of canine parasites and the diseases associated with parasitic infection

Parasitic Diseases

Parasitic Diseases
  • Author : Michael Katz,Dickson D. Despommier,Robert Gwadz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :301
  • ISBN : 1468403273
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Summary : Parasitic Disease, second edition remains unique in its emphasis on depictions of complete life cycles and its skillful knitting of basic and clinical information. Superbly illustrated with black and white and color photomicrographs and halftone drawings, it is an ideal text for medical, graduate, and advanced undergraduate students of parasitology and an excellent reference for physicians and researchers.

Important Helminth Infections in Southeast Asia

Important Helminth Infections in Southeast Asia
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-07-30
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 9780123819567
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Summary : This thematic volume provides authoritative, up-to-date reviews pertaining to the epidemiology, public health significance and shifts therein, control (current activities, successes, setbacks), persisting challenges (e.g. sanitation, universal coverage of health services, health-related behavior) of the key parasitic diseases in Southeast Asia. The book also discusses the new tools and approaches for enhanced discovery and control of helminthic diseases. Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Contributions from leading authorities and industry experts

New Research Centers

New Research Centers
  • Author : Gale Research Company
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :