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Neutron and X-ray Optics

Neutron and X-ray Optics
  • Author : Jay Theodore Cremer, Jr.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-02-18
  • Total pages :1124
  • ISBN : 0124071597
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Summary : Covering a wide range of topics related to neutron and x-ray optics, this book explores the aspects of neutron and x-ray optics and their associated background and applications in a manner accessible to both lower-level students while retaining the detail necessary to advanced students and researchers. It is a self-contained book with detailed mathematical derivations, background, and physical concepts presented in a linear fashion. A wide variety of sources were consulted and condensed to provide detailed derivations and coverage of the topics of neutron and x-ray optics as well as the background material needed to understand the physical and mathematical reasoning directly related or indirectly related to the theory and practice of neutron and x-ray optics. The book is written in a clear and detailed manner, making it easy to follow for a range of readers from undergraduate and graduate science, engineering, and medicine. It will prove beneficial as a standalone reference or as a complement to textbooks. Supplies a historical context of covered topics. Detailed presentation makes information easy to understand for researchers within or outside the field. Incorporates reviews of all relevant literature in one convenient resource.

Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics

Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics
  • Author : Alexei Erko,Mourad Idir,Thomas Krist,Alan G. Michette
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-04-14
  • Total pages :534
  • ISBN : 3540745602
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Summary : This volume describes modern developments in reflective, refractive and diffractive optics for short wavelength radiation. It also covers recent theoretical approaches to modelling and ray-tracing the x-ray and neutron optical systems. It is based on the joint research activities of specialists in x-ray and neutron optics, working together under the framework of the European Programme for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST, Action P7) in the period 2002-2006.

Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials V

Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials V
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary : In 2012 the diffraction community will celebrate 100 years since the prediction of X-ray diffraction by M. Laue, and following his suggestion the first beautiful diffraction experiment by W. Friedrich and P. Knipping. The significance of techniques based on the analysis of the diffraction of X-rays, neutrons, electrons and Mossbauer photons discovered later, has continued to increase in the past 100 years. The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum for discussion of using state-of-the-art neutron and X-ray scattering techniques for probing advanced materials. These techniques have been widely used to characterize materials structures across all length scales, from atomic to nano, meso, and macroscopic scales. With the development of sample environments, in-situ experiments, e.g., at temperatures and applied mechanical load, are becoming routine. The development of ultra-brilliant third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources, together with advances in X-ray optics, has created intense X-ray microbeams, which provide the best opportunities for in-depth understanding of mechanical behavior in a broad spectrum of materials. Important applications include ultra-sensitive elemental detection by X-ray fluorescence/absorption and microdiffraction to identify phase and strain with submicrometer spatial resolution. X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly exciting application compared with alternative probes of crystalline structure, orientation and strain. X-ray microdiffraction is non-destructive with good strain resolution, competitive or superior spatial resolution in thick samples, and with the ability to probe below the sample surface. Advances in neutron sources and instrumentation also bring new opportunities in neutron scattering research. In addition to characterizing the structures, neutrons are also a great tool for elucidating the dynamics of materials. Because neutrons are highly penetrating, neutrons have been used to map stress in engineering systems. Neutrons have also played a vital role in our understanding of the magnetism and magnetic properties. Specialized instruments have been built to gain physical insights of the fundamental mechanisms governing phase transformation and mechanical behaviors of materials. The application of those techniques, in combination with theoretical simulations and numerical modeling, will lead to major breakthroughs in materials science in the foreseeable future that will contribute to the development of materials technology and industrial innovation.

Soft X-ray Optics

Soft X-ray Optics
  • Author : Eberhard Spiller
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994
  • Total pages :278
  • ISBN : 9780819416544
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Summary : This text describes optics mainly in the 10 to 500 angstrom wavelength region. These wavelengths are 50 to 100 times shorter than those for visible light and 50 to 100 times longer than the wavelengths of medical x rays or x-ray diffraction from natural crystals. There have been substantial advances during the last 20 years, which one can see as an extension of optical technology to shorter wavelengths or as an extension of x-ray diffraction to longer wavelengths. Artificial diffracting structures like zone plates and multilayer mirrors are replacing the natural crystals of x-ray diffraction. Some of these structures can now be fabricated to have diffraction-limited resolution. The new possibilities are described in a simple, tutorial way.

Hard X-ray/gamma-ray and Neutron Optics, Sensors, and Applications

Hard X-ray/gamma-ray and Neutron Optics, Sensors, and Applications
  • Author : Richard B. Hoover,F. Patrick Doty,Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

Complementarity Between Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering

Complementarity Between Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering
  • Author : Albert Furrer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998-12-24
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9814616273
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Summary : Understanding and manipulating the properties of materials naturally occurring in our world and artificially produced by modern technologies requires detailed information on their properties on the atomic scale. This information is the basis for any kind of research in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, metallurgy, and ceramics. Among the various experimental methods, neutron and photon scattering have become the key techniques of choice. This book provides an overview of the complementarity between neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. The most important topics are covered, including structure determination, magnetic correlations, polymer dynamics, thin films and multilayers, photoemission studies, etc; they are thoroughly introduced and discussed by experts from both the experimental and the theoretical side. Contents:Neutron- and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering (The Theoretical Principles) (W E Fischer)Structure Determination by Powder Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction (A N Fitch)Magnetic Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering (W G Stirling)Magnetic Excitations Through the Eye of the Neutron (W J L Buyers)Topological Excitations in Low-Dimensional Magnets (H B Braun)Elastic and Inelastic X-Ray Scattering from Correlated Electrons: A Theoretical Perspective (M Altarelli)From Thin Films to Superlattices Studied with X-Rays and Neutrons (D F McMorrow)Small-Angle and Surface Scattering from Porous and Fractal Materials (S K Sinha)Hot Topics in Condensed Matter Physics (H R Ott)Neutron Beam Optics (P Böni)Synchrotron X-Ray Beam Optics (A Freund)Summary Lecture: Some Features of the Scattering and Absorption of Beams of Neutrons and Beams of X-Rays (S W Lovesey)and other papers Readership: Condensed matter and solid state physicists. Keywords:Photon Scattering;Structure Determination;Magnetic Correlations;Polymer Dynamics;Thin Films;Multilayers;Photoemission Studies;Synchrotron X-Ray;Optics;Neutrons

Diffraction Optics of Complex-Structured Periodic Media

Diffraction Optics of Complex-Structured Periodic Media
  • Author : Vladimir Vladimir I.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 1461243963
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Summary : Probing matter with beams of photons, neutrons and electrons provides the main source of information about both the microscopic and macroscopic structure of materials. This is particularly true of media, such as crystals and liquid crystals, that have a periodic structure. This book discusses the interaction of waves (which may represent x-rays, gamma rays, electrons, or neutrons) with various kinds of ordered media. After two chapters dealing with exact and approximate solutions to the scattering problem in periodic media in general, the author discusses: the diffraction of Mößbauer radiation in magnetically ordered crystals; the optics of chiral liquid crystals; the radiation of fast particles in regular media (Cherenkov radiation); nonlinear optics of periodic media; neutron scattering in magnetically ordered media; polarization phenomena in x-ray optics; magnetic x-ray scattering; and Mößbauer filtration of synchrotron radiation.

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction in Nonideal Crystals

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction in Nonideal Crystals
  • Author : Mikhail A. Krivoglaz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :466
  • ISBN : 3642742912
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Summary : Mikhail Alexandrovich Krivoglaz died unexpectedly when he was preparing the English edition of his two-volume monograph on diffraction and diffuse scatter ing of X-rays and neutrons in imperfect crystals. His death was a heavy blow to all who knew him, who had worked with him and to the world science community as a whole. The application of the diffraction techniques for the study of imperfections of crystal structures was the major field of Krivoglaz' work throughout his career in science. He started working in the field in the mid-fifties and since then made fundamental contributions to the theory of real crystals. His results have largely determined the current level of knowledge in this field for more than thirty years. Until the very last days of his life, Krivoglaz continued active studies in the physics of diffraction effects in real crystals. His interest in the theory aided in the explanation of the rapidly advancing experimental studies. The milestones marking important stages of his work were the first mono graph on the theory of X-ray and neutron scattering in real crystals which was published in Russian in 1967 (a revised English edition in 1969), and the two volume monograph published in Russian in 1983-84 (this edition is the revised translation of the latter).

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics
  • Author : Ted Cremer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :516
  • ISBN : 0123969697
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Summary :

Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy

Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy
  • Author : Françoise Hippert,Erik Geissler,Jean Louis Hodeau,Eddy Lelièvre-Berna,Jean-René Regnard
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-12-13
  • Total pages :566
  • ISBN : 9781402033360
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Summary : - Up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources - Multi-technique approach set around a central theme, rather than a monograph on one technique - Emphasis on the complementarity of neutron spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy which are usually treated in separate books

X-Ray and Neutron Reflectivity: Principles and Applications

X-Ray and Neutron Reflectivity: Principles and Applications
  • Author : Jean Daillant,Alain Gibaud
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-07-01
  • Total pages :331
  • ISBN : 3540486968
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Summary : The reflection of and neutrons from surfaces has existed as an x-rays exp- imental for almost it is in the last technique fifty Nevertheless, only years. decade that these methods have become as of enormously popular probes This the surfaces and interfaces. to be due to of several appears convergence of intense different circumstances. These include the more n- availability be measured orders tron and sources that can over (so reflectivity x-ray many of and the much weaker surface diffuse can now also be magnitude scattering of thin films and studied in some the detail); growing importance multil- basic the realization of the ers in both and technology research; important which in the of surfaces and and role roughness plays properties interfaces; the of statistical models to characterize the of finally development topology its and its characterization from on roughness, dependence growth processes The of and to surface scattering experiments. ability x-rays neutro4s study four five orders of in scale of surfaces over to magnitude length regardless their and also their to ability probe environment, temperature, pressure, etc. , makes these the choice for buried interfaces often probes preferred obtaining information about the microstructure of often in statistical a global surfaces, the local This is manner to complementary imaging microscopy techniques, of such studies in the literature witnessed the veritable by explosion published the last few Thus these lectures will useful for over a resource years.

Neutron Stars and Pulsars

Neutron Stars and Pulsars
  • Author : Werner Becker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-02-11
  • Total pages :697
  • ISBN : 354076965X
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Summary : Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only reviews the progress made since the early days of pulsar astronomy, but especially focuses on questions such as: "What have we learned about the subject and how did we learn it?", "What are the most important open questions in this area?" and "What new tools, telescopes, observations, and calculations are needed to answer these questions?". All authors who have contributed to this book have devoted a significant part of their scientific careers to exploring the nature of neutron stars and understanding pulsars. Everyone has paid special attention to writing educational comprehensive review articles with the needs of beginners, students and young scientists as potential readers in mind. This book will be a valuable source of information for these groups.

Applications of Thin-film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-ray Optics

Applications of Thin-film Multilayered Structures to Figured X-ray Optics
  • Author : Gerald F. Marshall
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1985
  • Total pages :422
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

Neutrons, X-rays and Light

Neutrons, X-rays and Light
  • Author : Thomas Zemb,Peter Lindner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :541
  • ISBN : 9780444511225
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Summary : Scattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data.

X-ray and Neutron Reflectivity

X-ray and Neutron Reflectivity
  • Author : Jean Daillant,Alain Gibaud
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-11-21
  • Total pages :350
  • ISBN : 3540885870
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Summary : ways in which the magnetic interaction between neutrons and magnetic moments can yield information on the magnetization densities of thin ?lms and multilayers. I commend the organizers for having organized a group of expert lecturers to present this subject in a detailed but clear fashion, as the importance of the subject deserves. Argonne, IL S. K. Sinha Contents 1 The Interaction of X-Rays (and Neutrons) with Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 F. de Bergevin 1. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 2 Generalities and De?nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. 3 From the Scattering by an Object to the Propagation in a Medium . 14 1. 4 X-Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1. 5 X-Rays: Anisotropic Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 1. A Appendix: the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2 Statistical Aspects of Wave Scattering at Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 A. Sentenac and J. Daillant 2. 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2. 2 Description of Randomly Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 2. 3 Description of a Surface Scattering Experiment, Coherence Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 2. 4 Statistical Formulation of the Diffraction Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 2. 5 Statistical Formulation of the Scattered Intensity Under the Born Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3 Specular Re?ectivity from Smooth and Rough Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 A. Gibaud and G. Vignaud 3. 1 The Re?ected Intensity from an Ideally Flat Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3. 2 X-Ray Re?ectivity in Strati?ed Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 3. 3 From Dynamical to Kinematical Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 3. 4 In?uence of the Roughness on the Matrix Coef?cients . . . . . . . . . . 111 3. A Appendix: The Treatment of Roughness in Specular Re?ectivity . . 113 3. B Appendix: Inversion of re?ectivity data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Thin-film Neutron Optical Devices

Thin-film Neutron Optical Devices
  • Author : Charles Majkrzak
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :208
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

Advances in Computational Methods for X-ray and Neutron Optics

Advances in Computational Methods for X-ray and Neutron Optics
  • Author : Manuel Sánchez Del Río
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :200
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary : Proceedings of SPIE present the original research papers presented at SPIE conferences and other high-quality conferences in the broad-ranging fields of optics and photonics. These books provide prompt access to the latest innovations in research and technology in their respective fields. Proceedings of SPIE are among the most cited references in patent literature.

X-ray Optics

X-ray Optics
  • Author : H.-t. Queisser,A. Authier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1977
  • Total pages :227
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

Neutron Scattering in Biology

Neutron Scattering in Biology
  • Author : Jörg Fitter,Thomas Gutberlet
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-01-10
  • Total pages :557
  • ISBN : 9783540291084
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Summary : The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

Polycapillary Optics for Materials Science

Polycapillary Optics for Materials Science
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781422318300
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Summary :

Laser Program Annual Report

Laser Program Annual Report
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1979
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :