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Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems and Management

Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems and Management
  • Author : R.F. Follett,J.L. Hatfield
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-12-03
  • Total pages :538
  • ISBN : 0080537561
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Summary : Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems, and Management is the first volume to provide a holistic perspective and comprehensive treatment of nitrogen from field, to ecosystem, to treatment of urban and rural drinking water supplies, while also including a historical overview, human health impacts and policy considerations. It provides a worldwide perspective on nitrogen and agriculture. Nitrogen is one of the most critical elements required in agricultural systems for the production of crops for feed, food and fiber. The ever-increasing world population requires increasing use of nitrogen in agriculture to supply human needs for dietary protein. Worldwide demand for nitrogen will increase as a direct response to increasing population. Strategies and perspectives are considered to improve nitrogen-use efficiency. Issues of nitrogen in crop and human nutrition, and transport and transformations along the continuum from farm field to ground water, watersheds, streams, rivers, and coastal marine environments are discussed. Described are aerial transport of nitrogen from livestock and agricultural systems and the potential for deposition and impacts. The current status of nitrogen in the environment in selected terrestrial and coastal environments and crop and forest ecosystems and development of emerging technologies to minimize nitrogen impacts on the environment are addressed. The nitrogen cycle provides a framework for assessing broad scale or even global strategies to improve nitrogen use efficiency. Growing human populations are the driving force that requires increased nitrogen inputs. These increasing inputs into the food-production system directly result in increased livestock and human-excretory nitrogen contribution into the environment. The scope of this book is diverse, covering a range of topics and issues from furthering our understanding of nitrogen in the environment to policy considerations at both farm and national scales.

Nitrogen in the Environment

Nitrogen in the Environment
  • Author : J.L. Hatfield,R.F. Follett
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-08-28
  • Total pages :720
  • ISBN : 0080569897
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Summary : Nitrogen is one of the most critical elements for all life forms. In agricultural systems it is essential for the production of crops for feed, food, and fiber. The ever-increasing world population requires increasing use of nitrogen in agriculture to supply human needs for dietary protein. Worldwide demand for nitrogen will increase as a direct response to increasing population. Nitrogen in the Environment provides a wholistic perspective and comprehensive treatment of nitrogen. The scope of this book is diverse covering a range of topics and issues related to furthering our understanding of nitrogen in the environment at farm and national levels. Issues of nitrogen from its effects on crops and human nutrition to nitrogen in ground water, watersheds, streams, rivers, and coastal marine environments are discussed to provide a broad view of the problem and support scientists, researchers, and engineers in formulating comprehensive solutions. * The only source which presents an international, wholistic perspective of the effects of nitrogen in the environment with worldwide mitigation practices * Provides details on how to improve the quality of the environment by analyzing the development of emerging technologies * Develops strategies to be used by soil scientists, agronomists, hydrologists, and geophysicists for broad scale improvement of nitrogen efficiency

Nitrogen Fertilization in the Environment

Nitrogen Fertilization in the Environment
  • Author : Peter Bacon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995-01-23
  • Total pages :624
  • ISBN : 0824789946
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Summary : This study examines the interactions between nitrogen and the ecosystem and discusses nitrogen fertilization practices around the world. Simulation models that play an important role in determining the dynamics of source-sink relationships are presented, helping to pinpoint inefficiencies and develop strategies to synchronize nitrogen supply and demand.

Nitrogen in the Marine Environment

Nitrogen in the Marine Environment
  • Author : Douglas G. Capone,Deborah A. Bronk,Margaret R. Mulholland,Edward J. Carpenter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-09-01
  • Total pages :1757
  • ISBN : 9780123725226
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Summary : Since the first edition of Nitrogen in the Marine Environment was published in 1983, it has been recognized as the standard in the field. In the time since the book first appeared, there has been tremendous growth in the field with unprecedented discoveries over the past decade that have fundamentally changed the view of the marine nitrogen cycle. As a result, this Second Edition contains twice the amount of information that the first edition contained. This updated edition is now available online, offering searchability and instant, multi-user access to this important information. *The classic text, fully updated to reflect the rapid pace of discovery *Provides researchers and students in oceanography, chemistry, and marine ecology an understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle *Available online with easy access and search - the information you need, when you need it

Soil Nitrogen Uses and Environmental Impacts

Soil Nitrogen Uses and Environmental Impacts
  • Author : Rattan Lal,B.A. Stewart
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-15
  • Total pages :380
  • ISBN : 9781351857413
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Summary : Nitrogen (N) is potentially one of the most complex elements on the Earth. It is necessary for all biological activity, but creates negative impacts on water and air quality. There is a balancing act between deficiency and surplus and the forms of N available further complicate our understanding of the dynamics. Biological fixation provides some plants with N supply while others are totally dependent upon N being available in the soil profile for the roots to extract. Nevertheless, the demand for N will increase because the human population with its increasing growth requires more protein and thus more N. Understanding the global N cycle is imperative to meeting current and future nitrogen demands while decreasing environmental impacts. This book discusses availability, production, and recycling of N in air, water, plants, and soils. It features information on N impacts to soil and water quality, management of N in agroecosystems, and techniques to maximize the use efficiency while minimizing the risks of leakage of reactive N into the environment. This volume in the Advances in Soil Science series is specifically devoted to availability, production, and recycling of N with impact on climate change and water quality, and management of N in agroecosystems in the context of maximizing the use efficiency and minimizing the risks of leakage of reactive N (NO-3, N¬2O) into the environment.

Nitrogen Overload

Nitrogen Overload
  • Author : Brian G. Katz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06-16
  • Total pages :272
  • ISBN : 9781119513964
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Summary : An integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the problem of excess nitrogen Human activities generate large amounts of excess nitrogen, which has dramatically altered the nitrogen cycle. Reactive forms of nitrogen, especially nitrate and ammonia, are particularly detrimental. Given the magnitude of the problem, there is an urgent need for information on reactive nitrogen and its effective management. Nitrogen Overload: Environmental Degradation, Ramifications, and Economic Costs presents an integrated, multidisciplinary review of alterations to the nitrogen cycle over the past century and the wide-ranging consequences of nitrogen-based pollution, especially to aquatic ecosystems and human health.

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment

Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment
  • Author : R. Nieder,D.K. Benbi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-05-30
  • Total pages :430
  • ISBN : 9781402084331
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Summary : Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary description of C and N fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere; issues related to C and N management in different ecosystems and their implications for the environment and global climate change; and the approaches to mitigate emission of greenhouse gases. Drawing upon the most up-to-date books, journals, bulletins, reports, symposia proceedings and internet sources documenting interrelationships between different aspects of C and N cycling in the terrestrial environment, Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment fills the gap left by most of the currently available books on C and N cycling. They either deal with a single element of an ecosystem, or are related to one or a few selected aspects like soil organic matter (SOM) and agricultural or forest management, emission of greenhouse gases, global climate change or modeling of SOM dynamics.

The Indian Nitrogen Assessment

The Indian Nitrogen Assessment
  • Author : YP Abrol,TK Adhya,Viney P. Aneja,N. Raghuram,Himanshu Pathak,Umesh Kulshrestha,Chhemendra Sharma,Bijay Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-08-14
  • Total pages :568
  • ISBN : 9780128119044
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Summary : The Indian Nitrogen Assessment: Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, and Management Options and Policies provides a reference for anyone interested in Reactive N, from researchers and students, to environmental managers. Although the main processes that affect the N cycle are well known, this book is focused on the causes and effects of disruption in the N cycle, specifically in India. The book helps readers gain a precise understanding of the scale of nitrogen use, misuse, and release through various agricultural, industrial, vehicular, and other activities, also including discussions on its contribution to the pollution of water and air. Drawing upon the collective work of the Indian Nitrogen Group, this reference book helps solve the challenges associated with providing reliable estimates of nitrogen transfers within different ecosystems, also presenting the next steps that should be taken in the development of balanced, cost-effective, and feasible strategies to reduce the amount of reactive nitrogen. Identifies all significant sources of reactive nitrogen flows and their contribution to the nitrogen-cycle on a national, regional, and global level Covers nitrogen management across sectors, including the environment, food security, energy, and health Provides a single reference on reactive nitrogen in India to help in a number of activities, including the evaluation, analysis, synthesis, documentation, and communications on reactive nitrogen

Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle

Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle
  • Author : Arvin Mosier,J. Keith Syers,John R. Freney
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-10
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9781597267434
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Summary : Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development and a key agricultural input-but in excess it can lead to a host of problems for human and ecological health. Across the globe, distribution of fertilizer nitrogen is very uneven, with some areas subject to nitrogen pollution and others suffering from reduced soil fertility, diminished crop production, and other consequences of inadequate supply. Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle provides a global assessment of the role of nitrogen fertilizer in the nitrogen cycle. The focus of the book is regional, emphasizing the need to maintain food and fiber production while minimizing environmental impacts where fertilizer is abundant, and the need to enhance fertilizer utilization in systems where nitrogen is limited. The book is derived from a workshop held by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) in Kampala, Uganda, that brought together the world's leading scientists to examine and discuss the nitrogen cycle and related problems. It contains an overview chapter that summarizes the group's findings, four chapters on cross-cutting issues, and thirteen background chapters. The book offers a unique synthesis and provides an up-to-date, broad perspective on the issues of nitrogen fertilizer in food production and the interaction of nitrogen and the environment.

Human Acceleration of the Nitrogen Cycle Managing Risks and Uncertainty

Human Acceleration of the Nitrogen Cycle Managing Risks and Uncertainty
  • Author : OECD
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-20
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : 9789264307438
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Summary : This publication examines the risks associated with the release of excessive nitrogen into the environment (climate change, depletion of the ozone layer, air pollution, water pollution, loss of biodiversity, deterioration of soil quality).

The European Nitrogen Assessment

The European Nitrogen Assessment
  • Author : Mark A. Sutton,Clare M. Howard,Jan Willem Erisman,Gilles Billen,Albert Bleeker,Peringe Grennfelt,Hans van Grinsven,Bruna Grizzetti
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-14
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781139501378
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Summary : Presenting the first continental-scale assessment of reactive nitrogen in the environment, this book sets the related environmental problems in context by providing a multidisciplinary introduction to the nitrogen cycle processes. Issues of upscaling from farm plot and city to national and continental scales are addressed in detail with emphasis on opportunities for better management at local to global levels. The five key societal threats posed by reactive nitrogen are assessed, providing a framework for joined-up management of the nitrogen cycle in Europe, including the first cost-benefit analysis for different reactive nitrogen forms and future scenarios. Incorporating comprehensive maps, a handy technical synopsis and a summary for policy makers, this landmark volume is an essential reference for academic researchers across a wide range of disciplines, as well as stakeholders and policy makers. It is also a valuable tool in communicating the key environmental issues and future challenges to the wider public.

Biology of the Nitrogen Cycle

Biology of the Nitrogen Cycle
  • Author : Hermann Bothe,William Edward Newton,Stuart Ferguson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :427
  • ISBN : 9780444531087
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Summary :

The Inadequate Environment

The Inadequate Environment
  • Author : Thomas C.R. White
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :425
  • ISBN : 9783642782992
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Summary : Ecology is characterized by a rapidly growing complexity and diversity of facts, aspects, examples, and observations. What is badly needed is the development of common patterns, of rules that, as in other sciences such as physics, can more generally explain the increasing complexity and variability we observe. Tom White, being one of the "seniors" in ecology, makes such an attempt in his book. the pattern he shows and explains with numerous examples from the entire animal kingdom is a universal hunger for nitrogen, a misery that drives the ecology of all organisms. He advocates that the awareness of this fundamental role that the limitation of nitrogen plays in the ecology of all organisms should be as a much part of each ecologis's intellectual equipment as is the awareness of the fact of evolution by means of natural selection. His claim is that not "enery" but "nitrogen" is the most limited "currency" in the animal world for the production and growth of their young.

The California Nitrogen Assessment

The California Nitrogen Assessment
  • Author : Thomas P. Tomich
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-06-14
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9780520962231
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Summary : Nitrogen is indispensable to all life on Earth. However, humans now dominate the nitrogen cycle, and nitrogen emissions from human activity have real costs: water and air pollution, climate change, and detrimental effects on human health, biodiversity, and natural habitats. Too little nitrogen limits ecosystem processes, while too much nitrogen transforms ecosystems profoundly. The California Nitrogen Assessment is the first comprehensive account of nitrogen flows, practices, and policies for California, encompassing all nitrogen flows—not just those associated with agriculture—and their impacts on ecosystem services and human wellbeing. How California handles nitrogen issues will be of interest nationally and internationally, and the goal of the assessment is to link science with action and to produce information that affects both future policy and solutions for addressing nitrogen pollution. This book also provides a model for application of integrated ecosystem assessment methods at regional and state (subnational) levels.

The Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Wastewater

The Removal of Nitrogen Compounds from Wastewater
  • Author : B. Halling-Sørensen,S.E. Jorgensen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1993-11-09
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 0080875130
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Summary : This volume gives an overview of the wide spectrum of nitrogen removal processes available today. Part A gives a brief outline of nitrogen pollution sources, the global nitrogen cycle and the treatment methods; part B presents details of all biological methods for nitrogen removal; and part C describes the physico-chemical nitrogen removal methods. Design examples relating to parts B and C are given in appendices. Design equations are given in the text, but more emphasis has been placed on the profound understanding of the biological and chemical processes and the basic factors that influence these. Parameters and regression equations for a quantitive description of these factors and their influence on the key processes are presented in several tables. This feature makes the volume a very useful handbook; it will be of great value to those environmentalists who require a record of the available nitrogen removal methods from both biological and chemical viewpoints.

Advances in Biology and Ecology of Nitrogen Fixation

Advances in Biology and Ecology of Nitrogen Fixation
  • Author : Takuji Ohyama
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-01-29
  • Total pages :284
  • ISBN : 9789535112167
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Summary : Biological nitrogen fixation has essential role in N cycle in global ecosystem. Several types of nitrogen fixing bacteria are recognized: the free-living bacteria in soil or water; symbiotic bacteria making root nodules in legumes or non-legumes; associative nitrogen fixing bacteria that resides outside the plant roots and provides fixed nitrogen to the plants; endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria living in the roots, stems and leaves of plants. In this book there are 11 chapters related to biological nitrogen fixation, regulation of legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and agriculture and ecology of biological nitrogen fixation, including new models for autoregulation of nodulation in legumes, endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane or forest trees, etc. Hopefully, this book will contribute to biological, ecological, and agricultural sciences.

Nitrogen in Terrestrial Ecosystems

Nitrogen in Terrestrial Ecosystems
  • Author : Carl O. Tamm
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :116
  • ISBN : 9783642751684
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Summary : Nitrogen is a key element in ecosystem processes. Aspects of local and global changes in nitrogen in both undisturbed and disturbed conditions are discussed. Environmental changes caused by pollution from nitrogenous compounds and changes in landuse are also described. Organisms, plants, animals and microorganisms are all affecting nitrogen supply. Emphasis is placed on natural and anthropogenic transfer of nitrogen between ecosystems and also on the interaction of nitrogen with other bioelements.

Legume Nitrogen Fixation in a Changing Environment

Legume Nitrogen Fixation in a Changing Environment
  • Author : Saad Sulieman,Lam-Son Phan Tran
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-24
  • Total pages :133
  • ISBN : 9783319062129
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Summary : The world population will grow more rapidly during the few coming years. This must be accompanied by a parallel increase in the agricultural production to secure adequate food. Sustainability considerations mandate that alternatives to chemical nitrogen fertilizers must be urgently sought. Biological nitrogen (N2) fixation, a microbiological process which converts atmospheric N2 into a plant-usable form, offers this alternative. Among these renewable sources, N2-fixing legumes offer an economically attractive and ecologically sound means of reducing external inputs and improving internal resources. Environmental factors such as drought, elevated temperature, salinity, soil acidity and rising CO2 are known to dramatically affect the symbiotic process and thus play a part in determining the actual amount of nitrogen fixed by a given legume in the field. Understanding how nodule N2 fixation responds to the environment is crucial for improving legume production and maintaining sustainability in the context of global change. In this thoughtful and provocative new Brief, we provide critical information on how current and projected future changes in the environment will affect legume growth and their symbiotic N2 fixing capabilities. Each section reviews the main drivers of environmental change on the legume performance that include drought, elevated temperature, salinity and rising CO2, and soil acidity. Importantly we discuss the molecular approaches to the analysis of the stress response in legumes and the possible biotechnological strategies to overcome their detrimental effects.

Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen in China

Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen in China
  • Author : Xuejun Liu,Enzai Du
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-04
  • Total pages :331
  • ISBN : 9789811385148
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Summary : Atmospheric reactive nitrogen (N) emissions, as an important component of global N cycle, have been significantly altered by anthropogenic activities, and consequently have had a global impact on air pollution and ecosystem services. Due to rapid agricultural, industrial, and urban development, China has been experiencing an increase in reactive N emissions and deposition since the late 1970s. Based on a literature review, this book summarizes recent research on: 1) atmospheric reactive N in China from a global perspective (Chapter 1); 2) atmospheric reactive N emissions, deposition and budget in China (Chapters 2-5); 3) the contribution of atmospheric reactive N to air pollution (e.g., haze, surface O3, and acid deposition) (Chapters 6-8); 4) the impacts of N deposition on sensitive ecosystems (e.g., forests, grasslands, deserts and lakes) (Chapters 9-12); and 5) the regulatory strategies for mitigation of atmospheric reactive N pollution from agricultural and non-agricultural sectors in China (Chapters 13-14). As such it offers graduate students, researchers, educators in agricultural, ecological and environmental sciences, and policy makers a glimpse of the environmental issues related to reactive N in China .

The Story of N

The Story of N
  • Author : Hugh S. Gorman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-01-24
  • Total pages :260
  • ISBN : 9780813554396
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Summary : In The Story of N, Hugh S. Gorman analyzes the notion of sustainability from a fresh perspective—the integration of human activities with the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen—and provides a supportive alternative to studying sustainability through the lens of climate change and the cycling of carbon. It is the first book to examine the social processes by which industrial societies learned to bypass a fundamental ecological limit and, later, began addressing the resulting concerns by establishing limits of their own The book is organized into three parts. Part I, “The Knowledge of Nature,” explores the emergence of the nitrogen cycle before humans arrived on the scene and the changes that occurred as stationary agricultural societies took root. Part II, “Learning to Bypass an Ecological Limit,” examines the role of science and market capitalism in accelerating the pace of innovation, eventually allowing humans to bypass the activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Part III, “Learning to Establish Human-Defined Limits,” covers the twentieth-century response to the nitrogen-related concerns that emerged as more nitrogenous compounds flowed into the environment. A concluding chapter, “The Challenge of Sustainability,” places the entire story in the context of constructing an ecological economy in which innovations that contribute to sustainable practices are rewarded.

Reactive Nitrogen in the Environment

Reactive Nitrogen in the Environment
  • Author : Elizabeth Braun,United Nations Environment Programme. Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics,Woods Hole Research Center (Woods Hole, Mass.)
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :51
  • ISBN : 9280727834
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Summary : This non-technical report summarises the present scientific understanding of the major issues surrounding reactive nitrogen, and discusses the overarching environmental, human health and economic issues created by both excesses and deficiencies. The report provides case studies of effective policy implementation and reviews emerging policies to show how negative impacts associated with reactive nitrogen may be successfully addressed locally, nationally and regionally, given similar challenges, shared experiences and effective solutions.