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NK Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy
  • Author : Francisco Borrego,Susana Larrucea,Rafael Solana,Raquel Tarazona
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-09-08
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889199341
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Summary : Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that have a significant role in regulating the defenses against cancer development and certain viral infections. They are equipped with an array of activating and inhibitory receptors that stimulate or diminish NK cell activity, respectively. Inhibitory receptors include, among others, the MHC class I ligands killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in humans, and members of the Ly49 family of receptors in mice, and CD94/NKG2A. Activating receptors include cytokine and chemokine receptors, and those that interact with ligands expressed on target cells, such as the natural cytotoxicity receptors or NCRs (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46), NKG2D, CD244 and DNAM-1. In addition, NK cells express Fc?RIIIA or CD16, the receptor that exerts antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). NK cells also express the death ligands FasL and TRAIL. The killing or sparing of target cells depends on the integration of distinct signals that originate from NK cell receptors. NK cells spare healthy cells that express normal levels of MHC class I molecules and low amounts of stress-induced self-molecules, whereas they kill target cells that down-regulate MHC class I molecules and/or up-regulate stress-induced self-molecules. The latter are common signatures of virus-infected cells and tumors. All the accumulated knowledge on NK cell biology, along with many clinical observations, is driving multiple efforts to improve the arsenal of NK cell-based therapeutic tools in the fight against malignant diseases. Indeed, NK cell-based immunotherapy is becoming a promising approach for the treatment of many cancers. It is well known that NK cells have a significant role in the anti-tumor effect of therapeutic antibodies that use ADCC as a mechanism of action. In addition to this, administration of autologous and allogeneic NK cells after activation and expansion ex vivo is used in the treatment of cancer. Moreover, adoptive transfer of NK cell lines has been tested in humans, and genetically modified NK cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors are being studied in preclinical models for potential use in the clinic.

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges
  • Author : Anahid Jewett
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-03-15
  • Total pages :350
  • ISBN : 012822620X
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Summary : NK cells in cancer immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges explains the latest immunotherapeutic strategies focusing on NK cells to allow the best and precise combination treatment to be offered to cancer patients. It provides existing background knowledge in the field of immunotherapy and discusses the future areas of research required to carry out cutting edge validated therapies for patients. Immunotherapy is fast becoming the method of choice for cancer therapy. Although remarkable advances have been made in the field of immunotherapy, there are significant challenges and difficulties ahead since many of the current immunotherapeutic strategies do not provide long-lasting treatment strategies, and therefore are not very effective. This book provides recent advances in the immunotherapeutic strategies, in particular the use of NK cells with and without T cell therapy in the treatment of cancer and discusses the problems and challenges that are facing the field and the practitioners. The book is a valuable resource for cancer researchers, oncologists, graduate students and several members of biomedical field who are interested in learning more about novel strategies to treat cancer patients. Covers CAR/T and CAR/NK and adoptive NK cell therapy with and without T cell therapies Discusses basic biology of NK cells and mouse models of human cancers, and the role of NK cells in metastatic cancer and in cancer stem cells Encompasses information on combination therapies using check point inhibition, adoptive transfer of cytotoxic effector cells, chemotherapeutic drugs and activating and inhibitory antibodies

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy
  • Author : Krassimir Metodiev
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-04-26
  • Total pages :414
  • ISBN : 9789535131052
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Summary : This is another attempt of InTechOpen to continue the dissemination of international knowledge and experience in the field of immunology. The present book includes a number of modern concepts of specialists and experts in the field of immunotherapy, covering the major topics and analyzing the history, current stage, and future ideas of application of modern immunomodulation. It is always a benefit, but also a compliment, to gather a team of internationally distinguished authors and to motivate them to reveal their expertise for the benefit of medical science and health practice. On behalf of all readers, immunologists, immunogeneticists, biologists, oncologists, microbiologists, virologists, hematologists, chemotherapists, health-care experts, as well as students and medical specialists, also on my personal behalf, I would like to extend my gratitude and highest appreciation to InTechOpen for giving me the unique chance to be the editor of this exclusive book.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
  • Author : George C. Prendergast,Elizabeth M. Jaffee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-28
  • Total pages :428
  • ISBN : 0080521851
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Summary : There has been major growth in understanding immune suppression mechanisms and its relationship to cancer progression and therapy. This book highlights emerging new principles of immune suppression that drive cancer and it offers radically new ideas about how therapy can be improved by attacking these principles. Following work that firmly establishes immune escape as an essential trait of cancer, recent studies have now defined specific mechanisms of tumoral immune suppression. It also demonstrates how attacking tumors with molecular targeted therapeutics or traditional chemotherapeutic drugs can produce potent anti-tumor effects in preclinical models. This book provides basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers an indispensable overview of immune escape as a critical trait in cancer and how applying specific combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to attack this trait may radically improve the treatment of advanced disease. * Offers a synthesis of concepts that are useful to cancer immunologists and pharmacologists, who tend to work in disparate fields with little cross-communication * Drs Prendergast and Jaffee are internationally recognized leaders in cancer biology and immunology who have created a unique synthesis of fundamental and applied concepts in this important new area of cancer research * Summarizes the latest insights into how immune escape defines an essential trait of cancer * Includes numerous illustrations including: how molecular-targeted therapeutic drugs or traditional chemotherapy can be combined with immunotherapy to improve anti-tumor efficacy; and how reversing immune suppression by the tumor can cause tumor regression

Immunopathogenesis and Immune-based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders

Immunopathogenesis and Immune-based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders
  • Author : Mourad Aribi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-22
  • Total pages :182
  • ISBN : 9789535130215
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Summary : The book Immunopathogenesis and Immune-Based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders is a synthesis work that discusses two main aspects of autoimmunity: Immunopathogenesis and therapeutic approaches essentially based on the immunotherapies. This book deals with different topics on a number of autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes, autoimmune cardiomyopathy, autoimmunity of gastrointestinal tract, systemic sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis. This book will be useful to clinicians, biologists, researchers, teachers, and students who are interested in immunology and immunopathology.

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy
  • Author : Benjamin Bonavida,Anahid Jewett
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-03-15
  • Total pages :300
  • ISBN : 0128243759
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Summary : Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy: Increasing Anti-tumor Efficacy describes the very novel and unique therapeutic applications of NK cells to fight cancers and, primarily, eliminate both the bulk and the subset of cancer stem cells responsible for metastasis, relapse and recurrences. It provides up to date information on the development, engineering, mechanisms of action, response to various preclinical models, and current applications in various clinical trials. The book covers the state of the art on the development of highly engineered cytotoxic NK cells, their mechanisms of action, preclinical and clinical applications, the development and application of CAR-NK cells, as well as new NK-drug conjugates in order to potentiate their anti-tumor activities. In addition, the book emphasizes that, unlike other immunotherapeutic approaches, the activated NK cells can also target and kill the highly resistant cancer stem cells that are responsible for the relapses and recurrences by all other therapeutic treatments. Written by the leading experts on NK immunotherapy worldwide, this is a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, and members of biomedical field who are interested in understanding novel and efficient therapies to fight cancers. Discusses the unique developmental application of NK immunotherapy against cancers, which differs greatly from other types of immunotherapies Provides up-to-date and highly relevant information through chapters written by the leading researchers in the field Presents a significant number of schematic diagrams for easy understanding and reproducibility

Cancer Immunotherapy Principles and Practice

Cancer Immunotherapy Principles and Practice
  • Author : Lisa H. Butterfield, PhD,Howard L. Kaufman, MD, FACS,Francesco M. Marincola, MD, FACS
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-28
  • Total pages :920
  • ISBN : 9781617052736
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Summary : Cancer Immunotherapy Principles and Practice, from the Society of Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), is the authoritative reference on cancer immunobiology and the immunotherapy treatments that harness the immune system to combat malignant disease. Featuring five sections and over 50 chapters covering the Basic Principles of Tumor Immunology, Cancer Immunotherapy Targets and Classes, Immune Function in Cancer Patients, Disease Specific Treatments and Outcomes, and Regulatory Aspects of Cancer Immunotherapy, this book covers all major topics that have shaped the development of immunotherapy and propelled it to its current place at the forefront of cancer treatment innovation. This volume is a comprehensive resource for oncologists and fellows, immunologists, cancer researchers, and related practitioners seeking understanding of the basic science and clinical applications of cancer immunotherapy. As well as presenting the evidence for immune-based cancer treatment, it positions immunotherapy in the context of other available cancer treatments and provides data on response rates, risks, and toxicities across a variety of diseases. Filled with detailed tables, and instructive illustrations, as well as key points for quick reference, Cancer Immunotherapy Principles and Practice simplifies a challenging and dynamic subject. Key Features: Clearly summarizes the basic principles and research supporting cancer immunotherapy clinical translation Contains expert guidance and treatment strategies for all immunotherapy classes and agents, including cell-based therapies, monoclonal antibodies, cytokine therapies, checkpoint inhibitors, oncolytic viruses, adjuvant approaches, and treatment combinations Includes expert perspectives from leading authorities in the field Provides information on all FDA-approved immunotherapies, including clinical management and outcome data Discusses clinical aspects of immunotherapy for individual cancer types, including melanoma and other skin cancers, lung cancers, gynecologic cancers, gastrointestinal cancers, hematologic cancers, genitourinary cancers, head and neck cancers, sarcomas, brain and other CNS cancers, breast cancer, and pediatric malignancies. Explains regulatory aspects behind the development and approval of immunotherapy drugs Includes Online Access to the Digital Book

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells
  • Author : Srinivas S. Somanchi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-13
  • Total pages :365
  • ISBN : 1493936824
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Summary : This volume contains collection of Natural Killer Cell methodologies relevant for both basic and translational research. These methodologies present new developments in the natural killer (NK) cell field, such as understanding the influence of NK cells metabolism on its function, identifying complexity of NK cell subsets through mass cytometry, and determining the emergence of memory NK cells in murine model of MCMV infection. Methods that study NK cell migration and cytotoxicity through endpoint analysis or live single cell imaging are also discussed. Chapters also describe methods pertaining to translational application of NK cells, such as ex vivo expansion of NK cells on K562 cell lines genetically modified to express either membrane bound IL-15 or membrane bound IL-21, large scale NK cell culture, current techniques for engineering NK cells to express chimeric antigen receptors or chemokine receptors using retroviral vectors, electroporation of mRNA, and the natural phenomenon of trogocytosis. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, these chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting edge and thorough, Natural Killer Cells: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for researchers who not only want to understand mechanisms that govern NK cell behavior and diversity, but also for those who want to understand how to systematically evaluate NK cells for adoptive immunotherapy applications.

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy
  • Author : Lynda Addou-Klouche
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1154268044
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Summary : Natural killer (NK) cells are crucial components of the innate immune system and play critical roles in host immunity against viral infections and cancer. NK cells' activity is controlled by the interaction of a wide range of receptors expressed on their surfaces with cell surface ligands. Opposite signals delivered by inhibitory and activating receptors tightly regulate NK cells' cytotoxicity. Natural killer cells can discriminate between normal and cancer cells. NK cells are known to directly recognize and kill malignant cells or induce apoptosis. However, tumor cells have the ability to evade those attacks. The main mechanisms involve the lack of expression or downregulation of the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and secretion of soluble NKG2D ligands by tumor cells. Furthermore, tumors harbor a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can drive tumor progression and therapeutical resistance. This chapter highlights the roles of NK cells in tumor immunosurveillance and their applications for cancer immunotherapy. NK cell biology and function as well as the role of their receptor interactions will be described. We will discuss the therapeutic applications of NK cells in cancer and NK cells targeting CSCs as a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

Tumor Immunology and Cancer Therapy

Tumor Immunology and Cancer Therapy
  • Author : R. H. Goldfarb
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-07-25
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9781000148305
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Summary : Based on a Tumor Immunology Symposium held in Pittsburgh, this work provides comprehensive coverage of the most important aspects of tumor immunology. It reveals novel approaches to the immunotherapy of cancer and presents complex issues in an accessible manner.

Cancer Immunotherapy: Mechanisms of Cancer Immunity, Engineering Immune- Based Therapies and Developing Clinical Trials

Cancer Immunotherapy: Mechanisms of Cancer Immunity, Engineering Immune- Based Therapies and Developing Clinical Trials
  • Author : Jianxun Song
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-16
  • Total pages :283
  • ISBN : 9781681080482
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Summary : Clinicians, patients and scientists, alike, have been battling cancer for over several decades; however, patient outcomes have not significantly improved over the years with conventional therapies. In recent years, this has caused researchers to look for a change in the status quo, and, the awareness of the human immune system, which has an intrinsic mechanism to control microbial pathogens and dysfunctional self-tissues, has triggered scientists to look for new modes of cancer therapy. Cancer Immunotherapy has become a major research field as a result of these efforts, gaining some recognition for notable breakthroughs in cancer patient prognosis. Frontiers in Cancer Immunology collectively presents the methods which have been studied and used in cancer immunotherapy based on the different components of human immune system. The series will give clinicians and immunologists a roadmap of current trends in all branches of cancer immunology. This volume lists the major immune system components (such as T cells and NK cells and associated antigens/antibodies) which have been demonstrated to limit the growth of or kill tumor cells. Relevant applications in cancer therapy are also included in addition to a general introduction to engineered as well as targeted cancer immunotherapies (cancer vaccines).

Advances in Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy

Advances in Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy
  • Author : Joseph D. Rosenblatt,Eckhard R. Podack,Glen N. Barber,Augusto Ochoa
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-25
  • Total pages :371
  • ISBN : 9781461488095
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Summary : Recent advances in understanding of fundamental immunology have created new insights into the dynamic interactions between tumors and the immune system. This includes new understanding of T- and B-cell interaction, immune inhibitory mechanisms including the biology of T regulatory cells, myeloid suppressor cells, and dendritic cell subsets. Enhanced understanding of mechanisms underlying T-cell anergy such as arginine deprivation, immunosuppressive cytokines, defective innate and interferon response pathways, and NKG2D downregulation have all provided new insight into suppression of anti-tumor immunity and tumor evasion. In addition to emerging understanding of tumor evasion, new immune targets such as CTLA4 blockade, NK stimulatory receptors, manipulation of the antigen processing and presentation, cytokine and costimulatory responses all provide new possibilities for enhancing anti-tumor immunity even in tumors previously felt to be resistant to immune attack. Several of these strategies have already been realized in the clinic. The volume will explore evolving paradigms in antigen presentation, dendritic cell biology, the innate response and immunosuppressive mechanisms, and emerging strategies for manipulation of the immune system for therapeutic benefit that have realized success in neuroblastoma, leukemia, melanoma, lung cancer, and allogeneic transplantation. Early successes as well as failures will be highlighted to provide a snapshot of the state of clinical immunotherapy with an eye to future possibilities such as combination therapies, adoptive T-cell transfer, and the retargeting of immune cells via T-cell receptor engineering.

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy - Cellular Methods Part B

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy - Cellular Methods Part B
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-11
  • Total pages :586
  • ISBN : 9780128186756
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Summary : Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy - Cellular Methods Part B, Volume 632, the latest release in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Topics covered include Quantitation of calreticulin exposure associated with immunogenic cell death, Side-by-side comparisons of flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry for detection of calreticulin exposure in the course of immunogenic cell death, Quantitative determination of phagocytosis by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells via imaging flow cytometry, Cytofluorometric assessment of dendritic cell-mediated uptake of cancer cell apoptotic bodies, Methods to assess DC-dependent priming of T cell responses by dying cells, and more. Contains content written by authorities in the field Provides a comprehensive view on the topics covered Includes a high level of detail

Interleukin 12: Antitumor Activity and Immunotherapeutic Potential in Oncology

Interleukin 12: Antitumor Activity and Immunotherapeutic Potential in Oncology
  • Author : Witold Lasek,Radoslaw Zagozdzon
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-09-23
  • Total pages :75
  • ISBN : 9783319469065
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Summary : This book discusses the immunotherapeutic potential of Interleukin 12 in the context of clinical oncology, as well as antitumor effects confirmed in preclinical studies and clinical trials in cancer immunotherapy. Due to its ability to activate both innate (NK cells) and adaptive (cytotoxic T lymphocytes) immunities, Interleukin 12 (IL-12) has been regarded as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy. However, despite the encouraging results in animal models, only very modest antitumor effects have been confirmed in early clinical trials. Recently, several clinical studies have been initiated in which IL-12 was applied as an adjuvant in cancer vaccines, in gene therapy including locoregional injections of IL-12 plasmid, and in the form of tumor-targeting immunocytokines (IL-12 fused to monoclonal antibodies).

Cancer Immunology

Cancer Immunology
  • Author : Nima Rezaei
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-03
  • Total pages :802
  • ISBN : 9783030308452
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Summary : This book focusing on the immunopathology of cancers is published as part of the three-volume Springer series Cancer Immunology, which aims to provide an up-to-date, clinically relevant review of cancer immunology and immunotherapy. Readers will find detailed descriptions of the interactions between cancerous cells and various components of the innate and adaptive immune system. The principal focus, however, is very much on clinical aspects, the aim being to educate clinicians in the clinical implications of the latest research and novel developments in the field. In the new edition of this very well received book, first published in 2015, the original chapters have been significantly updated and additional chapters included on, for example, current knowledge on the roles of T-helper cells and NK cells in tumor immunity, the part played by oncoviruses in the development of various cancers, and the applications of fluorescent in situ hybridization, bioluminescence, and cancer molecular and functional imaging. Cancer Immunology: A Translational Medicine Context will be of special value to clinical immunologists, hematologists, and oncologists.

Tailoring NK Cell Receptor-Ligand Interactions: an Art in Evolution, 2nd Edition

Tailoring NK Cell Receptor-Ligand Interactions: an Art in Evolution, 2nd Edition
  • Author : Ulrike Koehl,Antoine Toubert,Gianfranco Pittari
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-13
  • Total pages :407
  • ISBN : 9782889456635
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Summary : Recognition and killing of aberrant, infected or tumor targets by Natural Killer (NK) cells is mediated by positive signals transduced by activating receptors upon engagement of ligands on target surface. These stimulatory pathways are counterbalanced by inhibitory receptors that raise NK cell activation threshold through negative antagonist signals. While regulatory effects are necessary for physiologic control of autoimmune aggression, they may restrain the ability of NK cells to activate against disease. Overcoming this barrier to immune surveillance, multiple approaches to enhance NK-mediated responses are being investigated since two decades. Propelled by considerable advances in the understanding of NK cell biology, these studies are critical for effective translation of NK-based immunotherapy principles into the clinic. In humans, dominant inhibitory signals are transduced by Killer Immunoglobulin Like Receptors (KIR) recognizing cognate HLA class I on target cells. Conversely, KIR recognition of “missing self-HLA” - due to HLA loss or HLA/ KIR mismatch - triggers NK-mediated tumor rejection. Initially observed in murine transplant models, these antitumor effects were later found to have important implications for the clinical outcome of haplotype-mismatched stemcell transplantation. Here, donor NK subsets protect against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse through missing self recognition of donor HLA-C allele groups (C1 or C2) and/or Bw4 epitope. These studies were subsequently extended by trials investigating the antileukemia effects of adoptively transferred haplotype-mismatched NK cells in non-transplant settings. Other mechanisms have been found to induce clinically relevant NK cell alloreactivity in transplantation, e.g., post-reconstitution functional reversal of anergic NK cells. More recently, activating KIR came into the spotlight for their potential ability to directly activate donor NK cells through in vivo recognition of HLA or other ligands. Novel therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) may optimize NK-mediated effects. Examples include obinutuzumab (GA101), a glyco-engineered anti-CD20 mAb with increased affinity for the FcγRIIIA receptor, enhancing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity; lirilumab (IPH2102), a first-in-class NK-specific checkpoint inhibitor, blocking the interaction between the major KIR and cognate HLA-C antigens; and elotuzumab (HuLuc63), a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for SLAMF7, whose anti-myeloma therapeutic effects are partly due to direct activation of SLAMF7-expressing NK cells. In addition to conventional antibodies, NK cell-targeted bispecific (BiKEs) and trispecific (TriKEs) killer engagers have also been developed. These proteins elicit potent effector functions by binding target ligands (e.g., CD19, CD22, CD30, CD133, HLA class II, EGFR) on one arm and NK receptors on the other. An additional innovative approach to direct NK cell activity is genetic reprogramming with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). To date, primary NK cells and the NK92 cell line have been engineered with CAR specific for antigens expressed on multiple tumors. Encouraging preclinical results warrant further development of this approach. This Research Topic welcomes contributions addressing mechanisms of NK-mediated activation in response to disease as well as past and contemporary strategies to enhance NK mediated reactivity through control of the interactions between NK receptors and their ligands.

Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer
  • Author : Alba Fabiola Costa Torres
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-31
  • Total pages :204
  • ISBN : 9781789843491
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Summary : Among the deadliest type of cancers, lung cancer faces several challenges in diagnosis and treatment: late diagnosis and misdiagnosis, inadequate tumor sampling, and resistance development to current therapies, among others. Together with advances in the understanding of molecular features, factors, and mechanisms involved in initiation and tumor progression, important improvements have occurred in diagnostics and therapeutics in the shape of advances in molecular genotyping, procedures for sampling, new potential, and less invasive sources of samples for the diagnosis and development of new targeted therapies. The aim of this book is to provide an exciting read on strategies in the diagnosis and therapy of lung cancer.

Dendritic Cells

Dendritic Cells
  • Author : Svetlana P. Chapoval
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-07
  • Total pages :138
  • ISBN : 9781789844160
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Summary : Since their discovery in 1973 by Zanvil Cohn and Ralph Steinman (Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine, 2011), dendritic cells (DCs) continue to intrigue research scientists as their new markers, subpopulations and properties are being detected and the relevant literature is being doubled each year. This book combines the most comprehensive reviews of several critical aspects of DC biology and function written by a group of international experts in the field. The first section briefly discusses recent advances in DC subtypes, phenotypes, and functions in different diseases. The following sections look closely at DC phenotyping, DC-NK cell interplay, and roles of DC in bone loss and repair and parasitic infections. The final section on DC and cancer includes perspectives on DC vaccination based on modifications and therapeutic applications.

Tumor Immunology

Tumor Immunology
  • Author : Giorgio Parmiani,Michael T. Lotze
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-04-25
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 9780203301852
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Summary : Recent advances in immunology and molecular biology have resulted in new therapeutic approaches being generated and implemented in cancer clinics. The discovery of new antigens, mechanisms of antigen presentation, and interplay of cells involved in anti-tumor immunity have made the clinical control of some cancers more plausible than previously tho

Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma
  • Author : Chandrika Gowda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-25
  • Total pages :168
  • ISBN : 9789535135838
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Summary : Neuroblastoma (NBL) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, with about 700 new cases of neuroblastoma seen each year in the United States. The 5-year survival rate for children with high-risk NBL is only 50-60%, and this survival rate has not improved over the last 10 years. High-risk patients receive multimodality treatment, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, biologic therapy and immunotherapy, all of which are associated with significant morbidity. Recent years have seen many advances in treatment of neuroblastoma, including therapeutic MIBG, immunotherapy, and personalized targeted therapy based on the genetic alterations seen in the tumor. The primary objective of this book is to provide the readers with a comprehensive review of neuroblastoma, from clinical aspects and the currently available treatment to recent advancements and future directions in the field of NBL treatment. The topics and chapters have been compiled keeping in mind a diverse group of readers in different areas of specialty such as pediatric oncology, surgery, radiation oncology, and immunology, as well as physician scientists and basic researchers working in the field of neuroblastoma.

The Memory Activation of NK Cells: New Methods in Cancer Immunotherapy

The Memory Activation of NK Cells: New Methods in Cancer Immunotherapy
  • Author : Gheorghita Isvoranu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1154199679
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Summary : Cancer remains a main cause of mortality, despite the research efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms and for developing personalized targeted therapies with acceptable side effects. In cancer, both players, the aggressor (tumor cells) and the endogenous defenders (immune cells), are key therapeutic targets. Immunotherapy is nowadays considered the fourth therapeutical approach in cancer, complementing and sometimes replacing surgery and chemo- and radiotherapy. Natural killer (NK) cells, generally considered part of the innate immune system, play a critical role in defense against pathogens and tumors. Immunological memory is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. However, NK cells have been shown to mediate Ag-specific recall responses and acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. This chapter summarizes evidence for NK cell immunotherapy, evidence and characteristics of NK cell memory and mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these cells. There is no doubt that NK cells have major role in cancer treatments and viral infections, and in the future, NK cell immunotherapy from "a new hope" may become "a reality" for malignant diseases.