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Numerical PDE Analysis of Retinal Neovascularization

Numerical PDE Analysis of Retinal Neovascularization
  • Author : William E. Schiesser
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-14
  • Total pages :144
  • ISBN : 9780128184530
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Summary : Numerical PDE Analysis of Retinal Neovascularization Mathematical Model Computer Implementation in R provides a methodology for the analysis of neovascularization (formation of blood capillaries) in the retina. It describes the starting point—a system of three partial differential equations (PDEs)—that define the evolution of (1) capillary tip density, (2) blood capillary density and (3) concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the retina as a function of space (distance along the retina), x, and time, t, the three PDE dependent variables for (1), (2) and (3), and designated as u1(x, t), u2(x, t), u3(x, t), amongst other topics. Includes PDE routines based on the method of lines (MOL) for computer-based implementation of PDE models Offers transportable computer source codes for readers in R, with line-by-line code descriptions as it relates to the mathematical model and algorithms Authored by a leading researcher and educator in PDE models

Ocular Fluid Dynamics

Ocular Fluid Dynamics
  • Author : Giovanna Guidoboni,Alon Harris,Riccardo Sacco
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-25
  • Total pages :612
  • ISBN : 9783030258863
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Summary : The chapters in this contributed volume showcase current theoretical approaches in the modeling of ocular fluid dynamics in health and disease. By including chapters written by experts from a variety of fields, this volume will help foster a genuinely collaborative spirit between clinical and research scientists. It vividly illustrates the advantages of clinical and experimental methods, data-driven modeling, and physically-based modeling, while also detailing the limitations of each approach. Blood, aqueous humor, vitreous humor, tear film, and cerebrospinal fluid each have a section dedicated to their anatomy and physiology, pathological conditions, imaging techniques, and mathematical modeling. Because each fluid receives a thorough analysis from experts in their respective fields, this volume stands out among the existing ophthalmology literature. Ocular Fluid Dynamics is ideal for current and future graduate students in applied mathematics and ophthalmology who wish to explore the field by investigating open questions, experimental technologies, and mathematical models. It will also be a valuable resource for researchers in mathematics, engineering, physics, computer science, chemistry, ophthalmology, and more.

Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing

Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing
  • Author : Nitin Afzalpulkar,Vishnu Srivastava,Ghanshyam Singh,Deepak Bhatnagar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-28
  • Total pages :1002
  • ISBN : 9788132226383
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Summary : This volume comprises the proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing. It brings together content from academicians, researchers, and industry experts in areas of Wireless Communication and Image Processing. The volume provides a snapshot of current progress in computational creativity and a glimpse of future possibilities. The proceedings include two kinds of paper submissions: (i) regular papers addressing foundation issues, describing original research on creative systems development and modeling; and (ii) position papers describing work-in-progress or research directions for computational creativity. This work will be useful to professionals and researchers working in the core areas of wireless communications and image processing.

High Resolution Imaging in Microscopy and Ophthalmology

High Resolution Imaging in Microscopy and Ophthalmology
  • Author : Josef F. Bille
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-08-13
  • Total pages :407
  • ISBN : 9783030166380
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Summary : This open access book provides a comprehensive overview of the application of the newest laser and microscope/ophthalmoscope technology in the field of high resolution imaging in microscopy and ophthalmology. Starting by describing High-Resolution 3D Light Microscopy with STED and RESOLFT, the book goes on to cover retinal and anterior segment imaging and image-guided treatment and also discusses the development of adaptive optics in vision science and ophthalmology. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the reader will learn about the latest developments and most up to date technology in the field and how these translate to a medical setting. High Resolution Imaging in Microscopy and Ophthalmology – New Frontiers in Biomedical Optics has been written by leading experts in the field and offers insights on engineering, biology, and medicine, thus being a valuable addition for scientists, engineers, and clinicians with technical and medical interest who would like to understand the equipment, the applications and the medical/biological background. Lastly, this book is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Gerhard Zinser, co-founder of Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, a scientist, a husband, a brother, a colleague, and a friend.

Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications

Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications
  • Author : Yanxi Liu,Tianzi Jiang,China) Cvbia 200 (2005 Beijing,Changshui Zhang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-10-10
  • Total pages :563
  • ISBN : 3540294112
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Summary : This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Workshop on Computer Vision for Biomedical Image Applications: Current Techniques and Future Trends, CVBIA 2005, held in Beijing, China, in October 2005 within the scope of ICCV 20.

Biological, Physical and Technical Basics of Cell Engineering

Biological, Physical and Technical Basics of Cell Engineering
  • Author : Gerhard M. Artmann,Aysegül Artmann,Azhar A. Zhubanova,Ilya Digel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-04-11
  • Total pages :481
  • ISBN : 9789811079047
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Summary : This book presents and discusses recent scientific progress on Cell and Stem Cell Engineering. It predominantly focuses on Biological, Physical and Technical Basics, and features new trends of research reaching far into the 21st century.

Ocular Disease: Mechanisms and Management E-Book

Ocular Disease: Mechanisms and Management E-Book
  • Author : Leonard A Levin,Daniel M. Albert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-03-10
  • Total pages :704
  • ISBN : 9780702047411
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Summary : Ocular Disease—a newly introduced companion volume to the classic Adler’s Physiology of the Eye—correlates basic science and clinical management to describe the how and why of eye disease processes and the related best management protocols. Editors Leonard A. Levin and Daniel M. Albert—two of the world’s leading ophthalmic clinician-scientists—have recruited as contributors the most expert and experienced authorities available in each of the major areas of ophthalmic disease specific to ophthalmology: retina, cornea, cataract, glaucoma, uveitis, and more. The concise chapter structure features liberal use of color—with 330 full-color line artworks, call-out boxes, summaries, and schematics for easy navigation and understanding. This comprehensive resource provides you with a better and more practical understanding of the science behind eye disease and its relation to treatment. Covers all areas of disease in ophthalmology including retina, cornea, cataract, glaucoma, and uveitis for the comprehensive information you need for managing clinical cases. Presents a unique and pragmatic blend of necessary basic science and clinical application to serve as a clinical guide to understanding the cause and rational management of ocular disease. Features 330 full-color line artworks that translate difficult concepts and discussions into concise schematics for improved understanding and comprehension. Provides the expert advice of internationally recognized editors with over 40 years of experience together with a group of world class contributors in basic science and clinical ophthalmology.

Bioeffects and Therapeutic Applications of Electromagnetic Energy

Bioeffects and Therapeutic Applications of Electromagnetic Energy
  • Author : Riadh Habash
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11-19
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 1420062859
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Summary : From cell phones to treating cancer, EM energy plays a part in many of the innovations that we take for granted everyday. A basic force of nature, like nuclear energy or gravity, this energy can be harnessed and used, but still holds the potential to be harmful. The question remains, how safe are EM products? Bioeffects and Therapeutic Applications of Electromagnetic Energy provides a review of cutting-edge research in EM health effects and EM therapy along with emerging areas of bioengineering and biomedical engineering. The book allows you to · Understand the necessary EM theory in the context of its interaction with the human body · Review cutting-edge research on EM health effects and EM therapy · Explore techniques developed to ensure adequate EM and thermal dosimetry required for health effects and thermal therapy · Strengthen your understanding of the rapidly emerging areas of bioengineering and biomedical engineering Taking a transdisciplinary approach drawn from several intellectual streams that include physics, epidemiology, medicine, environment, risk assessment, and various disciplines of engineering, this book ventures into the conflicting studies to access research on bioeffects and therapeutic applications of EM energy. It is the only resource currently available that covers bioeffects and risk assessment of both extremely low frequency (ELF) fields and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) along with the recent developments in thermal therapy and imaging techniques.

Recent Advances in Intelligent Informatics

Recent Advances in Intelligent Informatics
  • Author : Sabu M. Thampi,Ajith Abraham,Sankar Kumar Pal,Juan Manuel Corchado Rodriguez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-07-30
  • Total pages :466
  • ISBN : 9783319017785
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Summary : This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Intelligent Informatics (ISI 2013) held in Mysore, India during August 23-24, 2013. The 47 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 126 initial submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on pattern recognition, signal and image processing; data mining, clustering and intelligent information systems; multi agent systems; and computer networks and distributed systems. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of intelligent informatics.

Single-Cell-Based Models in Biology and Medicine

Single-Cell-Based Models in Biology and Medicine
  • Author : Alexander Anderson,Katarzyna Rejniak
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-08-08
  • Total pages :349
  • ISBN : 9783764381233
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Summary : Aimed at postgraduate students in a variety of biology-related disciplines, this volume presents a collection of mathematical and computational single-cell-based models and their application. The main sections cover four general model groupings: hybrid cellular automata, cellular potts, lattice-free cells, and viscoelastic cells. Each section is introduced by a discussion of the applicability of the particular modelling approach and its advantages and disadvantages, which will make the book suitable for students starting research in mathematical biology as well as scientists modelling multicellular processes.

Absolute Rheumatology Review

Absolute Rheumatology Review
  • Author : Petros Efthimiou
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-13
  • Total pages :478
  • ISBN : 9783030230227
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Summary : This book provides a concise and up-to-date review of key rheumatology topics along with extensive practice questions to assist in preparing for the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Rheumatology Certification Exam. Each chapter focuses on a single disease and starts with a short review (primarily tables and figures) to highlight the main points and key issues. The review is followed by 10-20 board-style multiple choice questions with detailed explanations for each topic. The chapters and associated preparation questions are written by established experts from top institutions in the United States. The book concludes with a 50-question practice test reflecting the format used by the ABIM Board Certification Exam. Absolute Rheumatology Review is an essential resource for not only graduate students, residents, and fellows in rheumatology and internal medicine studying for board exams but also rheumatologists, physicians, and related professionals preparing for recertification.

Multiscale Cancer Modeling

Multiscale Cancer Modeling
  • Author : Thomas S. Deisboeck,Georgios S. Stamatakos
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-12-08
  • Total pages :484
  • ISBN : 1439814422
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Summary : Cancer is a complex disease process that spans multiple scales in space and time. Driven by cutting-edge mathematical and computational techniques, in silico biology provides powerful tools to investigate the mechanistic relationships of genes, cells, and tissues. It enables the creation of experimentally testable hypotheses, the integration of data across scales, and the prediction of tumor progression and treatment outcome (in silico oncology). Drawing on an interdisciplinary group of distinguished international experts, Multiscale Cancer Modeling discusses the scientific and technical expertise necessary to conduct innovative cancer modeling research across scales. It presents contributions from some of the top in silico modeling groups in the United States and Europe. The ultimate goal of multiscale modeling and simulation approaches is their use in clinical practice, such as supporting patient-specific treatment optimization. This volume covers state-of-the-art methods of multiscale cancer modeling and addresses the field’s potential as well as future challenges. It encourages collaborations among researchers in various disciplines to achieve breakthroughs in cancer modeling.

Nonlinear Solid Mechanics

Nonlinear Solid Mechanics
  • Author : Gerhard A. Holzapfel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-04-07
  • Total pages :470
  • ISBN : 0471823198
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Summary : Nonlinear Solid Mechanics a Continuum Approach for Engineering Gerhard A. Holzapfel Graz University of Technology, Austria With a modern, comprehensive approach directed towards computational mechanics, this book covers a unique combination of subjects at present unavailable in any other text. It includes vital information on 'variational principles' constituting the cornerstone of the finite element method. In fact this is the only method by which Nonlinear Solid Mechanics is utilized in engineering practice. The book opens with a fundamental chapter on vectors and tensors. The following chapters are based on nonlinear continuum mechanics - an inevitable prerequisite for computational mechanicians. In addition, continuum field theory (applied to a representative sample of hyperelastic materials currently used in nonlinear computations such as incompressible and compressible materials) is presented, as are transversely isotropic materials, composite materials, viscoelastic materials and hyperelastic materials with isotropic damage. Another central chapter is devoted to the thermodynamics of materials, covering both finite thermoelasticity and finite thermoviscoelasticity. Also included are: * an up-to-date list of almost 300 references and a comprehensive index * useful examples and exercises for the student * selected topics of statistical and continuum thermodynamics. Furthermore, the principle of virtual work (in both the material and spatial descriptions) is compared with two and three-field variational principles particularly designed to capture kinematic constraints such as incompressibility. All of the features combined result in an essential text for final year undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in mechanical, civil and aerospace engineering and applied maths and physics.

Probabilistic Cellular Automata

Probabilistic Cellular Automata
  • Author : Pierre-Yves Louis,Francesca R. Nardi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-02-21
  • Total pages :344
  • ISBN : 9783319655581
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Summary : This book explores Probabilistic Cellular Automata (PCA) from the perspectives of statistical mechanics, probability theory, computational biology and computer science. PCA are extensions of the well-known Cellular Automata models of complex systems, characterized by random updating rules. Thanks to their probabilistic component, PCA offer flexible computing tools for complex numerical constructions, and realistic simulation tools for phenomena driven by interactions among a large number of neighboring structures. PCA are currently being used in various fields, ranging from pure probability to the social sciences and including a wealth of scientific and technological applications. This situation has produced a highly diversified pool of theoreticians, developers and practitioners whose interaction is highly desirable but can be hampered by differences in jargon and focus. This book – just as the workshop on which it is based – is an attempt to overcome these difference and foster interest among newcomers and interaction between practitioners from different fields. It is not intended as a treatise, but rather as a gentle introduction to the role and relevance of PCA technology, illustrated with a number of applications in probability, statistical mechanics, computer science, the natural sciences and dynamical systems. As such, it will be of interest to students and non-specialists looking to enter the field and to explore its challenges and open issues.

Complex Systems in Biomedicine

Complex Systems in Biomedicine
  • Author : A. Quarteroni,L. Formaggia,A. Veneziani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-03-20
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : 9788847003965
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Summary : Mathematicalmodelingofhumanphysiopathologyisatremendouslyambitioustask. It encompasses the modeling of most diverse compartments such as the cardiovas- lar,respiratory,skeletalandnervoussystems,aswellasthemechanicalandbioch- ical interaction between blood ?ow and arterial walls, and electrocardiac processes and electric conduction in biological tissues. Mathematical models can be set up to simulate both vasculogenesis (the aggregation and organization of endothelial cells dispersed in a given environment) and angiogenesis (the formation of new vessels sprouting from an existing vessel) that are relevant to the formation of vascular networks, and in particular to the description of tumor growth. The integration of models aimed at simulating the cooperation and interrelation of different systems is an even more dif?cult task. It calls for the setting up of, for instance, interaction models for the integrated cardio-vascular system and the interplay between the central circulation and peripheral compartments, models for the mid-to-long range cardiovascular adjustments to pathological conditions (e.g., to account for surgical interventions, congenital malformations, or tumor growth), models for integration among circulation, tissue perfusion, biochemical and thermal regulation, models for parameter identi?cation and sensitivity analysis to parameter changes or data uncertainty – and many others.

Branching Morphogenesis

Branching Morphogenesis
  • Author : Jamie Davies
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-02-12
  • Total pages :246
  • ISBN : 1441938133
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Summary : Branching morphogenesis, the creation of branched structures in the body, is a key feature of animal and plant development. This book brings together, for the first time, expert researchers working on a variety of branching systems to present a state-of-the-art view of the mechanisms that control branching morphogenesis. Systems considered range from single cells, to blood vessel and drainage duct systems to entire body plans, and approaches range from observation through experiment to detailed biophysical modelling. The result is an integrated overview of branching.

Numerical Integration of Space Fractional Partial Differential Equations

Numerical Integration of Space Fractional Partial Differential Equations
  • Author : Younes Salehi,William E. Schiesser
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-06
  • Total pages :205
  • ISBN : 9781681732107
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Summary : Partial differential equations (PDEs) are one of the most used widely forms of mathematics in science and engineering. PDEs can have partial derivatives with respect to (1) an initial value variable, typically time, and (2) boundary value variables, typically spatial variables. Therefore, two fractional PDEs can be considered, (1) fractional in time (TFPDEs), and (2) fractional in space (SFPDEs). The two volumes are directed to the development and use of SFPDEs, with the discussion divided as: •Vol 1: Introduction to Algorithms and Computer Coding in R •Vol 2: Applications from Classical Integer PDEs. Various definitions of space fractional derivatives have been proposed. We focus on the Caputo derivative, with occasional reference to the Riemann-Liouville derivative. In the second volume, the emphasis is on applications of SFPDEs developed mainly through the extension of classical integer PDEs to SFPDEs. The example applications are: •Fractional diffusion equation with Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions •Fisher-Kolmogorov SFPDE •Burgers SFPDE •Fokker-Planck SFPDE •Burgers-Huxley SFPDE •Fitzhugh-Nagumo SFPDE. These SFPDEs were selected because they are integer first order in time and integer second order in space. The variation in the spatial derivative from order two (parabolic) to order one (first order hyperbolic) demonstrates the effect of the spatial fractional order ?? with 1 ≤ ?? ≤ 2. All of the example SFPDEs are one dimensional in Cartesian coordinates. Extensions to higher dimensions and other coordinate systems, in principle, follow from the examples in this second volume. The examples start with a statement of the integer PDEs that are then extended to SFPDEs. The format of each chapter is the same as in the first volume. The R routines can be downloaded and executed on a modest computer (R is readily available from the Internet).

Tutorials in Mathematical Biosciences I

Tutorials in Mathematical Biosciences I
  • Author : Alla Borisyuk,G. Bard Ermentrout,Avner Friedman,David H. Terman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-02-18
  • Total pages :170
  • ISBN : 3540238581
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Summary : This volume introduces some basic theories on computational neuroscience. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to neurons, tailored to the subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 is a self-contained introduction to dynamical systems and bifurcation theory, oriented towards neuronal dynamics. The theory is illustrated with a model of Parkinson's disease. Chapter 3 reviews the theory of coupled neural oscillators observed throughout the nervous systems at all levels; it describes how oscillations arise, what pattern they take, and how they depend on excitory or inhibitory synaptic connections. Chapter 4 specializes to one particular neuronal system, namely, the auditory system. It includes a self-contained introduction, from the anatomy and physiology of the inner ear to the neuronal network that connects the hair cells to the cortex, and describes various models of subsystems.

The Real Projective Plane

The Real Projective Plane
  • Author : H.S.M. Coxeter
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :227
  • ISBN : 9781461227342
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Summary : Along with many small improvements, this revised edition contains van Yzeren's new proof of Pascal's theorem (§1.7) and, in Chapter 2, an improved treatment of order and sense. The Sylvester-Gallai theorem, instead of being introduced as a curiosity, is now used as an essential step in the theory of harmonic separation (§3.34). This makes the logi cal development self-contained: the footnotes involving the References (pp. 214-216) are for comparison with earlier treatments, and to give credit where it is due, not to fill gaps in the argument. H.S.M.C. November 1992 v Preface to the Second Edition Why should one study the real plane? To this question, put by those who advocate the complex plane, or geometry over a general field, I would reply that the real plane is an easy first step. Most of the prop erties are closely analogous, and the real field has the advantage of intuitive accessibility. Moreover, real geometry is exactly what is needed for the projective approach to non· Euclidean geometry. Instead of introducing the affine and Euclidean metrics as in Chapters 8 and 9, we could just as well take the locus of 'points at infinity' to be a conic, or replace the absolute involution by an absolute polarity.

Textbook of Refractive Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (ReLACS)

Textbook of Refractive Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (ReLACS)
  • Author : Ronald R. Krueger,Jonathan H. Talamo,Richard L. Lindstrom
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-11-29
  • Total pages :289
  • ISBN : 9781461410102
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Summary : Textbook of Laser Refractive Cataract Surgery is a comprehensive reference for the general ophthalmologist and cataract surgeon regarding the explosive new technology in femtosecond laser cataract surgery. Femtosecond laser allows extreme precision in surgery, and is used in refractive surgery and for ‘cuts’ in the cornea, leading to a more uniform treatment for the patient. Textbook of Laser Refractive Cataract Surgery is for cataract surgeons and all eye care providers managing or diagnosing cataracts who wish to be informed about this technology and its applications. Edited and written by recognized leaders in the field, this book covers background, technical, clinical, and commercial aspects of this exciting technology. Some of the topics covered include the evolution of cataract surgery, femtosecond laser fundamentals, challenges of femtosecond laser technology for cataract surgery, and the economics of laser cataract surgery. Edited and written by recognized leaders in the field, this book covers background, technical, clinical, and commercial aspects of this exciting technology. Some of the topics covered include the evolution of cataract surgery, femtosecond laser fundamentals, challenges of femtosecond laser technology for cataract surgery, and the economics of laser cataract surgery.

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology

Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology
  • Author : Yi-Wei Tang,Charles W. Stratton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-01-16
  • Total pages :540
  • ISBN : 9780387328928
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Summary : Clinical microbiologists are engaged in the field of diagnostic microbiology to determine whether pathogenic microorganisms are present in clinical specimens collected from patients with suspected infections. If microorganisms are found, these are identified and susceptibility profiles, when indicated, are determined. During the past two decades, technical advances in the field of diagnostic microbiology have made constant and enormous progress in various areas, including bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, parasitology, and virology. The diagnostic capabilities of modern clinical microbiology laboratories have improved rapidly and have expanded greatly due to a technological revolution in molecular aspects of microbiology and immunology. In particular, rapid techniques for nucleic acid amplification and characterization combined with automation and user-friendly software have significantly broadened the diagnostic arsenal for the clinical microbiologist. The conventional diagnostic model for clinical microbiology has been labor-intensive and frequently required days to weeks before test results were available. Moreover, due to the complexity and length of such testing, this service was usually directed at the hospitalized patient population. The physical structure of laboratories, staffing patterns, workflow, and turnaround time all have been influenced profoundly by these technical advances. Such changes will undoubtedly continue and lead the field of diagnostic microbiology inevitably to a truly modern discipline. Advanced Techniques in Diagnostic Microbiology provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of advanced methods that have evolved for the diagnosis of infectious diseases in the routine clinical microbiology laboratory. The book is divided into two sections. The first techniques section covers the principles and characteristics of techniques ranging from rapid antigen testing, to advanced antibody detection, to in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, and to nucleic acid microarray and mass spectrometry. Sufficient space is assigned to cover different nucleic acid amplification formats that are currently being used widely in the diagnostic microbiology field. Within each technique, examples are given regarding its application in the diagnostic field. Commercial product information, if available, is introduced with commentary in each chapter. If several test formats are available for a technique, objective comparisons are given to illustrate the contrasts of their advantages and disadvantages. The second applications section provides practical examples of application of these advanced techniques in several "hot" spots in the diagnostic field. A diverse team of authors presents authoritative and comprehensive information on sequence-based bacterial identification, blood and blood product screening, molecular diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, advances in mycobacterial diagnosis, novel and rapid emerging microorganism detection and genotyping, and future directions in the diagnostic microbiology field. We hope our readers like this technique-based approach and your feedback is highly appreciated. We want to thank the authors who devoted their time and efforts to produce their chapters. We also thank the staff at Springer Press, especially Melissa Ramondetta, who initiated the whole project. Finally, we greatly appreciate the constant encouragement of our family members through this long effort. Without their unwavering faith and full support, we would never have had the courage to commence this project.