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Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Gerold Siedler,Stephen M. Griffies,John Gould,William John Gould,John A. Church
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :868
  • ISBN : 0123918510
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Summary : The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage; Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components; and Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-03-27
  • Total pages :715
  • ISBN : 0080491979
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Summary : The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Gerold Siedler,John A. Church,John Gould
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-04-25
  • Total pages :715
  • ISBN : 0126413517
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Summary : This book presents the views of leading scientists on the knowledge of the global ocean circulation following the completion of the observational phase of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. WOCE's in situ physical and chemical measurements together with satellite altimetry have produced a data set which provides for development of ocean and coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models used for understanding ocean and climate variability and projecting climate change. This book guides the reader through the analysis, interpretation, modelling and synthesis of this data.

Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change

Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change
  • Author : Jens Bischof,Springer-verlag
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-11
  • Total pages :215
  • ISBN : 185233648X
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Summary : The issue of global warming and climate change is of continuous concern. Since the 1970s, it bas been shown that the pack-ice around the Arctic Ocean is thinning, the margin of permafrost is moving north and the vegetation in the high northern parts of the world is changing (the 'greening' of the Arctic). But are these changes the result of human activity or simply regular variations of the Earth's climate system? Over thousands of years, a continuous archive of iceberg and sea ice drift bas formed in the deep-sea sediments, revealing the place of the ice's origin and allowing a reconstruction of the surface currents and the climate of the past. However, the drift of floating ice from one place to another is not just a passive record of past ocean circulation. It actively influences and changes the surface ocean circulation, thus having a profound effect on climate change. Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change is the first book to focus on the interactions between ice, the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how these three components of the climate system influence each other. It makes clear the positive contribution of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography and should be read by anyone concerned with global warming and climate change.

Ocean Circulation

Ocean Circulation
  • Author : Andreas Schmittner,John C. H. Chiang,Sidney R. Hemming
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-02
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9781118671887
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Summary : Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 173. The ocean's meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a key factor in climate change. The Atlantic MOC, in particular, is believed to play an active role in the regional and global climate variability. It is associated with the recent debate on rapid climate change, the Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO), global warming, and Atlantic hurricanes. This is the first book to deal with all aspects of the ocean's large-scale meridional overturning circulation, and is a coherent presentation, from a mechanistic point of view, of our current understanding of paleo, present-day, and future variability and change. It presents the current state of the science by bringing together the world's leading experts in physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, marine geology, geochemistry, paleoceanography, and climate modeling. A mix of overview and research papers makes this volume suitable not only for experts in the field, but also for students and anyone interested in climate change and the oceans.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Thomas F. Stocker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058503
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Summary : A broad perspective of the ocean as a key component of the Earth System and of its role in the past, present, and future climate change is provided. The ocean is a huge reservoir of heat, mass, carbon, and many other quantities, and their estimated exchange fluxes suggest characteristic timescales of adjustment ranging from decades to many thousands of years. Surface patterns and meridional fluxes of these quantities highlight the important role of the wind-driven circulation and the deep ocean flow systems through all ocean basins. Ocean-dominated phenomena of natural variability, in particular associated with the tropical oceans, are explained. The relevance of the ocean circulation for abrupt climate change, as recorded from a variety of paleoclimate records, is discussed. This includes the bipolar seesaw concept which explains many features of interhemispheric response during the sequence of rapid warmings in the past ice age. Finally, the ocean’s role during the anthropocene, the time epoch which is dominated by the human-caused increase in greenhouse gases to levels unprecedented in the past 800,000 years, is explored. Both the warming and the increase in atmospheric transport of water polewards create conditions for the ocean that may induce large and irreversible changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Southampton Oceanography Centre
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997
  • Total pages :13
  • ISBN : OCLC:833559261
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Summary :

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Stefan Rahmstorf,Georg Feulner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058510
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Summary : The oceans play a crucial role in the Earth’s climate system due largely to their ability to store and transport heat. The instrumental record, spanning an order of magnitude of 100 years, is short compared with some of the important timescales of climate variability. To understand the oceans’ role in these long-term changes, proxy data from sediments, ice cores, and corals must be used. Using these proxy data, we examine the evidence for past ocean circulation and sea-level changes before instrumental oceanographic measurements began. We discuss what paleoclimatic data can tell us about past ocean states and what can be learned from ocean and climate models. Particular foci of the chapter are the ocean circulation and sea-level changes during the Quaternary and the Cretaceous, two particularly interesting periods in Earth’s history. The Quaternary covers the past 2.5 million years and is characterized by periodic glaciations, while the Cretaceous, reaching back around 100 million years, had a warm greenhouse climate with a weak temperature gradient between the tropics and the poles.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Nikolai Maximenko,Rick Lumpkin,Luca Centurioni
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058619
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Summary : This chapter summarizes the history of and recent progress in observations of surface circulation of the ocean. The description is biased toward Lagrangian drifting buoys and satellite altimetry that, in the authors’ opinion, have revolutionized our understanding of ocean surface currents by providing a high resolution, continuous global view of mesoscale ocean “weather.” We outline the current state of the observing system and characterize geostrophic surface circulation, Ekman currents, and effects of centrifugal force and nonlinear interaction between geostrophic and Ekman currents. This general description is complemented by regional examples, detailing processes in the California Current System, off Senegal, and the Kuroshio interaction with the East and South China Seas. Applications to various tasks, in which surface currents play important role, are illustrated by model simulations of motions of marine debris, including debris generated by the 2011 tsunami in Japan. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of the next tasks needed to improve understanding of the dynamics of the surface ocean circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780123918536
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Summary : The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

The Great Ocean Conveyor

The Great Ocean Conveyor
  • Author : Wally Broecker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-01-11
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : 9781400834716
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Summary : Exploring the link between the ocean's currents and rapid climate change Wally Broecker is one of the world's leading authorities on abrupt global climate change. More than two decades ago, he discovered the link between ocean circulation and climate change, in particular how shutdowns of the Great Ocean Conveyor—the vast network of currents that circulate water, heat, and nutrients around the globe—triggered past ice ages. Today, he is among the researchers exploring how our planet's climate system can abruptly "flip-flop" from one state to another, and who are weighing the implications for the future. In The Great Ocean Conveyor, Broecker introduces readers to the science of abrupt climate change while providing a vivid, firsthand account of the field's history and development. Could global warming cause the conveyor to shut down again, prompting another flip-flop in climate? What were the repercussions of past climate shifts? How do we know such shifts occurred? Broecker shows how Earth scientists study ancient ice cores and marine sediments to probe Earth's distant past, and how they blend scientific detective work with the latest technological advances to try to predict the future. He traces how the science has evolved over the years, from the blind alleys and wrong turns to the controversies and breathtaking discoveries. Broecker describes the men and women behind the science, and reveals how his own thinking about abrupt climate change has itself flip-flopped as new evidence has emerged. Rich with personal stories and insights, The Great Ocean Conveyor opens a tantalizing window onto how Earth science is practiced.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Carl Wunsch,Patrick Heimbach
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058701
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Summary : The World Ocean Circulation Experiment drove the development of estimates of the decadal scale time evolving general circulation that are dynamically and kinematically consistent. A long timescale, and a goal of estimation rather than prediction, preclude the use of meteorological methods called “data assimilation (DA).” Instead, “state estimation” methods are reviewed here and distinguished from DA. Results from the dynamically consistent family of solutions from the project Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean based upon least-squares Lagrange multipliers (adjoints) are used to discuss the determination of the dominant elements of the circulation in the period since 1992—which marked the beginning of the satellite altimetric record. Significant changes documented in the Arctic in recent decades now mandate consideration of the coupled ocean-cryospheric state.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : John Gould,Bernadette Sloyan,Martin Visbeck
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058527
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Summary : Observations at and below the surface of the oceans are essential for understanding the ocean system and the role played by the ocean in earth’s climate, for documenting changes and for initializing, validating, and improving ocean models. It is only since the late twentieth century that, thanks to advances in microelectronics, battery technology, and satellite communication, in situ observations (together with satellite observations) have reached a volume and spatial distribution that allow us to track a wide range of global and regional phenomena. This review traces the development of in situ ocean observations primarily from a physical standpoint and describes the internationally coordinated observing networks that now supply these observations. It considers the enormous changes that have occurred in the volume and distribution of these observations and the implication of these changes for defining the evolving state of the global ocean. Finally, there is discussion of the prospects for further improving sustained ocean observations and for the delivery of integrated information from interrelated observing networks.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997
  • Total pages :13
  • ISBN : OCLC:37951586
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Summary :

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Andreas Schiller,Tong Lee,Shuhei Masuda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058718
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Summary : The past 20 years have provided us with an unprecedented ability to observe, monitor, and forecast the oceans. In situ and remotely sensed ocean observations in combination with ocean general circulation models using data assimilation and state estimation methods underpin climate applications. State estimation aims to provide a dynamically consistent estimation of ocean fields, of errors of these fields, and of certain model parameters such as mixing coefficients. Conversely, data assimilation tools have been developed predominantly for ocean prediction applications and ocean reanalyses. This chapter describes approaches used by state estimation and data assimilation systems in synthesizing observations and model dynamics. We highlight some applications, including their limitations for climate research, and address the challenges ahead in relation to the ocean observing system.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Shiro Imawaki,Amy S. Bower,Lisa Beal,Bo Qiu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058626
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Summary : Strong, persistent currents along the western boundaries of the world’s major ocean basins are called “western boundary currents” (WBCs). This chapter describes the structure and dynamics of WBCs, their roles in basin-scale circulation, regional variability, and their influence on atmosphere and climate. WBCs are largely a manifestation of wind-driven circulation; they compensate the meridional Sverdrup transport induced by the winds over the ocean interior. Some WBCs also play a role in the global thermohaline circulation, through inter-gyre and inter-basin water exchanges. After separation from the boundary, most WBCs have zonal extensions, which exhibit high eddy kinetic energy due to flow instabilities, and large surface fluxes of heat and carbon dioxide. The WBCs described here in detail are the Gulf Stream, Brazil and Malvinas Currents in the Atlantic, the Somali and Agulhas Currents in the Indian, and the Kuroshio and East Australian Current in the Pacific Ocean.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Stephen M. Griffies,Anne Marie Treguier
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058695
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Summary : This chapter focuses on numerical models used to understand and predict large-scale circulation, such as the circulation comprising basin and global scales. It is organized according to two themes. The first addresses physical and numerical topics forming a foundation for ocean models. We focus here on the science of ocean models, in which we ask questions about fundamental processes and develop the mathematical equations for ocean thermo-hydrodynamics. We also touch upon various methods used to represent the continuum ocean fluid with a discrete computer model, raising such topics as the finite volume formulation of the ocean equations; the choice for vertical coordinate; the complementary issues related to horizontal gridding; and the pervasive questions of subgrid scale parameterizations. The second theme of this chapter concerns the applications of ocean models, in particular how to design an experiment and how to analyze results. This material forms the basis for ocean modelling, with the aim being to mechanistically describe, interpret, understand, and predict emergent features of the simulated, and ultimately the observed, ocean.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Paul J. Durack,Susan E. Wijffels,Tim P. Boyer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058770
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Summary : Long-term global ocean salinity variation provides an insight into water cycle change. This connection reflects changes to the evaporation and precipitation (E–P) fields along with terrestrial runoff, which comprises the global water cycle and sets the spatial pattern of salinity on the ocean surface. The dynamic nature of the global ocean ensures that along with E–P, temperature and circulation changes also play a role in driving patterns of salinity change. This chapter provides an introduction to the global water cycle, briefly outlines the history of ocean salinity observation, and introduces results that relate resolved salinity change to water cycle change. Because of sparse observational coverage, the use of climate models are necessary to investigate these relationships. Long-term changes to global ocean salinity suggest that an unambiguous and coherent water cycle change has occurred over the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Climate model simulations project that such changes will intensify in the twenty-first century in response to continued greenhouse gas emissions.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Alison M. Macdonald,Molly O. Baringer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058787
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Summary : The ability to ascertain the implications of a changing climate are based first and foremost on our understanding the fundamental balances comprising earth’s climate. The global energy budget is integral to this understanding, and the poleward transport of heat by the oceans is an intrinsic component of the energy balance. In this chapter, we look to describe what is presently known about ocean heat transport and its role in the climate system. At the end of the last century, as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), the ocean-going research community completed a decade-long international effort to explore the ocean through the acquisition of a single consistent and comparable set of high-quality, full-depth observations. This global-scale field campaign was designed to determine the mean steady-state basin-scale circulation and meridional ocean heat transport. At the time, it was recognized that this mean was unlikely to be stationary. It was also understood that patterns of variability that had yet to be measured would influence our eventual understanding of these one-time “synoptic” observations. A decade later, time series of ocean heat transport (from moorings, repeat XBT and CTD lines and profiling floats), although still quite short and either spatially and/or temporally sparse, are now becoming available. The WOCE/JGOFS programs of the 1990s have been extended through large international efforts first by the Climate Variability and Predictability program and now by the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program. Through these newly acquired time series, improvements in analysis techniques, and recent modeling advances, we are beginning to describe ocean heat transport variability and to understand its possible response to and role in climate change. In this chapter, we focus on what has been learnt about ocean heat transport through in situ observations. We include some history, a detailed description of ocean heat transport computation and decomposition, and a discussion of the present state of the science, seeking to measure ocean heat transport variability.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : P. Ted Strub,Vincent Combes,Frank A. Shillington,Oscar Pizarro
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058633
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Summary : In this chapter, we review the physical processes that create the mean and variable circulation features along the eastern margins of the ocean basins. Rather than describing the individual systems, we describe the processes and their variability between the systems, dividing the discussion into the low-, mid- and high-latitude regions. We start with the low latitudes, since their signals often move poleward along the coastal wave guides into the midlatitudes, which are the well-known eastern boundary upwelling systems. Our treatment of the higher latitudes is limited to examples from the better-studied NE Pacific Basin (The Alaska Current).

The Oceans and Climate

The Oceans and Climate
  • Author : Grant R Bigg,Grant R. Bigg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-12-11
  • Total pages :273
  • ISBN : 0521016347
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Summary : New edition of successful textbook that introduces the multi-disciplinary controls on air-sea interaction.