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Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Gerold Siedler,John A. Church,John Gould
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-04-25
  • Total pages :715
  • ISBN : 0126413517
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Summary : This book presents the views of leading scientists on the knowledge of the global ocean circulation following the completion of the observational phase of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. WOCE's in situ physical and chemical measurements together with satellite altimetry have produced a data set which provides for development of ocean and coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models used for understanding ocean and climate variability and projecting climate change. This book guides the reader through the analysis, interpretation, modelling and synthesis of this data.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Stefan Rahmstorf,Georg Feulner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058510
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Summary : The oceans play a crucial role in the Earth’s climate system due largely to their ability to store and transport heat. The instrumental record, spanning an order of magnitude of 100 years, is short compared with some of the important timescales of climate variability. To understand the oceans’ role in these long-term changes, proxy data from sediments, ice cores, and corals must be used. Using these proxy data, we examine the evidence for past ocean circulation and sea-level changes before instrumental oceanographic measurements began. We discuss what paleoclimatic data can tell us about past ocean states and what can be learned from ocean and climate models. Particular foci of the chapter are the ocean circulation and sea-level changes during the Quaternary and the Cretaceous, two particularly interesting periods in Earth’s history. The Quaternary covers the past 2.5 million years and is characterized by periodic glaciations, while the Cretaceous, reaching back around 100 million years, had a warm greenhouse climate with a weak temperature gradient between the tropics and the poles.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Carl Wunsch,Patrick Heimbach
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058701
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Summary : The World Ocean Circulation Experiment drove the development of estimates of the decadal scale time evolving general circulation that are dynamically and kinematically consistent. A long timescale, and a goal of estimation rather than prediction, preclude the use of meteorological methods called “data assimilation (DA).” Instead, “state estimation” methods are reviewed here and distinguished from DA. Results from the dynamically consistent family of solutions from the project Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean based upon least-squares Lagrange multipliers (adjoints) are used to discuss the determination of the dominant elements of the circulation in the period since 1992—which marked the beginning of the satellite altimetric record. Significant changes documented in the Arctic in recent decades now mandate consideration of the coupled ocean-cryospheric state.

Ocean Circulation

Ocean Circulation
  • Author : Andreas Schmittner,John C. H. Chiang,Sidney R. Hemming
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-01-09
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822033856519
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Summary : The meridional overturning circulation is a system of surface and deep currents encompassing all ocean basins. It transports large amounts of water, heat, salt, carbon, nutrients and other substances around the globe, and connects the surface ocean and atmosphere with the huge reservoir of the deep sea. As such, it is of critical importance to the global climate system. This monograph summarizes the current state of knowledge of this current system, how it has changed in the past and how it may change in the future, its driving mechanisms, and the impacts of its variability on climate, ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : John A. Church,Neil J. White,Catia M. Domingues,Didier P. Monselesan,Elaine R. Miles
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058763
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Summary : The ocean has the largest heat capacity in the climate system and as a result the ocean plays a critical role in the climate. Changes in ocean heat content dominate the Earth’s energy storage; and the ocean’s thermal expansion has been a major contributor to sea-level rise in the twentieth century and likely to be the largest contributor in the twenty-first century. The agreement between changes in ocean heat storage over recent decades and changes in the Earth’s radiative balance, within uncertainties, provides strong support for current understanding of anthropogenic climate change. As a result of improvements in observations and modeling of sea level and components contributing to sea-level change, there is now an improved explanation for twentieth century sea-level rise. Models project a continuing sea-level rise during the twenty-first century and beyond. However, a number of uncertainties remain in our understanding of the global mean and regional distribution of sea-level rise resulting from changes in ocean circulation and changes in the Earth’s gravitational field. Ocean-ice-sheet interactions are important for quantitatively estimating future ice-sheet contributions to sea-level rise.

Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change

Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change
  • Author : Jens Bischof,Springer-verlag
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-11
  • Total pages :215
  • ISBN : 185233648X
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Summary : The issue of global warming and climate change is of continuous concern. Since the 1970s, it bas been shown that the pack-ice around the Arctic Ocean is thinning, the margin of permafrost is moving north and the vegetation in the high northern parts of the world is changing (the 'greening' of the Arctic). But are these changes the result of human activity or simply regular variations of the Earth's climate system? Over thousands of years, a continuous archive of iceberg and sea ice drift bas formed in the deep-sea sediments, revealing the place of the ice's origin and allowing a reconstruction of the surface currents and the climate of the past. However, the drift of floating ice from one place to another is not just a passive record of past ocean circulation. It actively influences and changes the surface ocean circulation, thus having a profound effect on climate change. Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change is the first book to focus on the interactions between ice, the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how these three components of the climate system influence each other. It makes clear the positive contribution of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography and should be read by anyone concerned with global warming and climate change.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Christoph Heinze,Marion Gehlen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058756
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Summary : Biogeochemical ocean general circulation models are important tools for quantifying the marine carbon cycle and its feedback to the climate system. These models simulate the inorganic carbon cycle and also the organic carbon cycle through a series of simplified process parameterizations. This chapter presents an overview of the major concepts and methods in marine biogeochemical modeling including the combination of models with observations. Because of the climatic relevance of the carbon cycle, major emphasis is placed on it, but some other related matter cycles are also touched upon. New developments in ocean biogeochemistry during the last decade are described including the marine anthropogenic carbon uptake and ocean acidification. The chapter tries to acquaint scientists from other disciplines with marine biogeochemical modeling and provides key literature resources for further in-depth studies.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Shiro Imawaki,Amy S. Bower,Lisa Beal,Bo Qiu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058626
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Summary : Strong, persistent currents along the western boundaries of the world’s major ocean basins are called “western boundary currents” (WBCs). This chapter describes the structure and dynamics of WBCs, their roles in basin-scale circulation, regional variability, and their influence on atmosphere and climate. WBCs are largely a manifestation of wind-driven circulation; they compensate the meridional Sverdrup transport induced by the winds over the ocean interior. Some WBCs also play a role in the global thermohaline circulation, through inter-gyre and inter-basin water exchanges. After separation from the boundary, most WBCs have zonal extensions, which exhibit high eddy kinetic energy due to flow instabilities, and large surface fluxes of heat and carbon dioxide. The WBCs described here in detail are the Gulf Stream, Brazil and Malvinas Currents in the Atlantic, the Somali and Agulhas Currents in the Indian, and the Kuroshio and East Australian Current in the Pacific Ocean.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Sybren S. Drijfhout,David P. Marshall,Henk A. Dijkstra
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058602
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Summary : Conceptual models are a vital tool for understanding the processes that maintain the global ocean circulation, both in nature and in complex numerical ocean models. In this chapter we provide a broad overview of our conceptual understanding of the wind-driven circulation, the thermohaline circulation, and their transient behavior. While our conceptual understanding of the time-mean wind-driven circulation is now fairly mature, basic questions remain regarding the thermohaline circulation, for example, surrounding its overall strength and stability. Similarly, basic questions remain regarding the transient adjustment and internal variability of the ocean circulation.

Ocean Circulation

Ocean Circulation
  • Author : Rui Xin Huang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :791
  • ISBN : 9780521852289
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Summary : The modeling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science.

Polar Environments and Global Change

Polar Environments and Global Change
  • Author : Roger G. Barry,Eileen A. Hall-McKim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-09
  • Total pages :342
  • ISBN : 9781108423168
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Summary : Surveys atmospheric, oceanic and cryospheric processes, present and past conditions, and changes in polar environments.

Ocean Circulation in Three Dimensions

Ocean Circulation in Three Dimensions
  • Author : Barry A. Klinger,Thomas W. N. Haine
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-31
  • Total pages :494
  • ISBN : 9780521768436
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Summary : An innovative survey of large-scale ocean circulation that links observations, conceptual models, numerical models, and theories.

The Theory of Large-Scale Ocean Circulation

The Theory of Large-Scale Ocean Circulation
  • Author : R. M. Samelson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-06-27
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781139499002
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Summary : Mounting evidence that human activities are substantially modifying the Earth's climate brings a new imperative to the study of the ocean's large-scale circulation. This textbook provides a concise but comprehensive introduction to the theory of large-scale ocean circulation, as it is currently understood and established. Students and instructors will benefit from the carefully chosen chapter-by-chapter exercises. This advanced textbook is invaluable for graduate students and researchers in the fields of oceanic, atmospheric and climate sciences and other geophysical scientists, as well as physicists and mathematicians with a quantitative interest in the planetary fluid environment.

The Great Ocean Conveyor

The Great Ocean Conveyor
  • Author : Wally Broecker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-01-11
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : 9781400834716
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Summary : Exploring the link between the ocean's currents and rapid climate change Wally Broecker is one of the world's leading authorities on abrupt global climate change. More than two decades ago, he discovered the link between ocean circulation and climate change, in particular how shutdowns of the Great Ocean Conveyor—the vast network of currents that circulate water, heat, and nutrients around the globe—triggered past ice ages. Today, he is among the researchers exploring how our planet's climate system can abruptly "flip-flop" from one state to another, and who are weighing the implications for the future. In The Great Ocean Conveyor, Broecker introduces readers to the science of abrupt climate change while providing a vivid, firsthand account of the field's history and development. Could global warming cause the conveyor to shut down again, prompting another flip-flop in climate? What were the repercussions of past climate shifts? How do we know such shifts occurred? Broecker shows how Earth scientists study ancient ice cores and marine sediments to probe Earth's distant past, and how they blend scientific detective work with the latest technological advances to try to predict the future. He traces how the science has evolved over the years, from the blind alleys and wrong turns to the controversies and breathtaking discoveries. Broecker describes the men and women behind the science, and reveals how his own thinking about abrupt climate change has itself flip-flopped as new evidence has emerged. Rich with personal stories and insights, The Great Ocean Conveyor opens a tantalizing window onto how Earth science is practiced.

Climate and the Oceans

Climate and the Oceans
  • Author : Geoffrey K. Vallis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :231
  • ISBN : 9780691150284
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Summary : Explores climate and oceans, providing a look at the basics of climate, a descriptive overview of the oceans, a brief introduction to dynamics, and coverage of other related topics.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Gerold Siedler,Stephen M. Griffies,John Gould,William John Gould,John A. Church
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :868
  • ISBN : 0123918510
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Summary : The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage; Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components; and Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Marine Geochemistry

Marine Geochemistry
  • Author : Matthieu Roy-Barman,Catherine Jeandel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-09-08
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : 9780198787495
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Summary : Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works in terms of ocean circulation, chemical composition, biological activity and atmospheric CO2 regulation. This rapidly growing field is at a crossroad for many disciplines (physical, chemical and biological oceanography, geology, climatology, ecology, etc.). It provides important quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to anthropogenic pressure? This text gives a simple introduction to the concepts, the methods and the applications of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Overall introducing a very large number of topics (physical oceanography, ocean chemistry, isotopes, gas exchange, modelling, biogeochemical cycles), with a balance of didactic and indepth information, it provides an outline and a complete course in marine geochemistry. Throughout, the book uses a hands-on approach with worked out exercises and problems (with answers provided at the end of the book), to help the students work through the concepts presented. A broad scale approach is take including ocean physics, marine biology, ocean-climate relations, remote sensing, pollutions and ecology, so that the reader acquires a global perspective of the ocean. It also includes new topics arising from ongoing research programs. This textbook is essential reading for students, scholars, researchers and other professionals.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : Jennifer MacKinnon,Lou St Laurent,Alberto C. Naveira Garabato
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058565
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Summary : Diapycnal mixing in the ocean interior is driven by a wide range of processes, each with distinct governing physics and unique global geography. Here we review the primary processes responsible for turbulent mixing in the ocean interior, with an emphasis on active work from the past decade. We conclude with a discussion of global patterns of mixing and their importance for regional and large-scale modeling accuracy.

Measuring Ocean Currents

Measuring Ocean Currents
  • Author : Antony Joseph
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-08-12
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9780123914286
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Summary : Measuring Ocean Currents: Tools, Technologies, and Data covers all major aspects of ocean current measurements in view of the implications of ocean currents on changing climate, increasing pollution levels, and offshore engineering activities. Although more than 70% of the Earth is covered by ocean, there is limited information on the countless fine- to large-scale water motions taking place within them. This book fills that information gap as the first work that summarizes the state-of-the-art methods and instruments used for surface, subsurface, and abyssal ocean current measurements. Readers of this book will find a wealth of information on Lagrangian measurements, horizontal mapping, imaging, Eulerian measurements, and vertical profiling techniques. In addition, the book describes modern technologies for remote measurement of ocean currents and their signatures, including HF Doppler radar systems, satellite-borne sensors, ocean acoustic tomography, and more. Crucial aspects of ocean currents are described in detail as well, including dispersion of effluents discharged into the sea and transport of beneficial materials—as well as environmentally hazardous materials—from one region to another. The book highlights several important practical applications, showing how measurements relate to climate change and pollution levels, how they affect coastal and offshore engineering activities, and how they can aid in tsunami detection. Coverage of measurement, mapping and profiling techniques Descriptions of technologies for remote measurement of ocean currents and their signatures Reviews crucial aspects of ocean currents, including special emphasis on the planet-spanning thermohaline circulation, known as the ocean's "conveyor belt," and its crucial role in climate change

The Oceanic Thermohaline Circulation

The Oceanic Thermohaline Circulation
  • Author : Hendrik M. van Aken
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-03-12
  • Total pages :326
  • ISBN : 9780387480398
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Summary : This book presents a global hydrographic description of the thermohaline circulation, an introduction to the theoretical aspects of this phenomenon, and observational evidence for the theory. The hydrographic description and the observational evidence are based on data sources available via internet, mainly from the World Oceanographic Experiment (WOCE). The book also offers an introduction to hydrographic analysis and interpretation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
  • Author : John Gould,Bernadette Sloyan,Martin Visbeck
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :904
  • ISBN : 9780128058527
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Summary : Observations at and below the surface of the oceans are essential for understanding the ocean system and the role played by the ocean in earth’s climate, for documenting changes and for initializing, validating, and improving ocean models. It is only since the late twentieth century that, thanks to advances in microelectronics, battery technology, and satellite communication, in situ observations (together with satellite observations) have reached a volume and spatial distribution that allow us to track a wide range of global and regional phenomena. This review traces the development of in situ ocean observations primarily from a physical standpoint and describes the internationally coordinated observing networks that now supply these observations. It considers the enormous changes that have occurred in the volume and distribution of these observations and the implication of these changes for defining the evolving state of the global ocean. Finally, there is discussion of the prospects for further improving sustained ocean observations and for the delivery of integrated information from interrelated observing networks.