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Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses
  • Author : Esteban Domingo,Colin R. Parrish,John J. Holland
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-06-23
  • Total pages :560
  • ISBN : 0080564968
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Summary : New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses
  • Author : Esteban Domingo,Robert G. Webster,John F. Holland
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999-06-25
  • Total pages :500
  • ISBN : 9780080538235
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Summary : Are infectious diseases caused by novel entities, viruses that have rapidly evolved into more pathogenic forms, or viruses that have crossed species divides and become more virulent in their alternative host? These questions and how new diseases such as AIDS emerged have prompted renewed interest in the ways viruses originated and co-evolved with their hosts. Origin and Evolution of Viruses presents a full and clear description of general viral concepts and specific viral systems, and provides an excellent foundation to our understanding of how viruses emerged. This unique and comprehensive work is essential reading for all researchers in virology, molecular biology and related areas, as well as evolutionary biologists interested in phylogenetic approaches to molecular evolution. The reader is taken on an illumination journey--in time and concepts--from the first primitive replicons to their present-day complex viral counterparts. Apart from the obvious interest, as humans are potential hosts for these viruses, there is also a great deal of academic interest in the evolutionary aspects of this simple group of organisms, since information can be gained about the origin of stains/species and evolutionary patterns that might be applicable to higher species. The book addresses: * Nature and evolution of early replicons * DNA and RNA viruses in both plants and animals * Viral origin, mutation, and survival * Antigenic variation in influenza virus * Interplay between host evolution and DNA virus evolution * Emergence of viral-induced diseases, e.g. hepatitis, influenza and HIV

Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales

Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales
  • Author : Arne T. Skjeltorp,Alexander V. Belushkin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-09-26
  • Total pages :186
  • ISBN : 9781402087615
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Summary : Evolution is a critical challenge for many areas of science, technology and development of society. The book reviews general evolutionary facts such as origin of life and evolution of the genome and clues to evolution through simple systems. Emerging areas of science such as "systems biology" and "bio-complexity" are founded on the idea that phenomena need to be understood in the context of highly interactive processes operating at different levels and on different scales. This is where physics meets complexity in nature, and where we must begin to learn about complexity if we are to understand it. Similarly, there is an increasingly urgent need to understand and predict the evolutionary behavior of highly interacting man-made systems, in areas such as communications and transport, which permeate the modern world. The same applies to the evolution of human networks such as social, political and financial systems, where technology has tended to vastly increase both the complexity and speed of interaction, which is sometimes effectively instantaneous. The book contains reviews on such diverse areas as evolution experiments with microorganisms, the origin and evolution of viruses, evolutionary dynamics of genes and environment in cancer development, aging as an evolution-facilitating program, evolution of vision and evolution of financial markets.

Virus as Populations

Virus as Populations
  • Author : Esteban Domingo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-25
  • Total pages :428
  • ISBN : 9780128009949
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Summary : Virus as Populations: Composition, Complexity, Dynamics, and Biological Implications explains fundamental concepts that arise from regarding viruses as complex populations when replicating in infected hosts. Fundamental phenomena in virus behavior, such as adaptation to changing environments, capacity to produce disease, probability to be transmitted or response to treatment, depend on virus population numbers and in the variations of such population numbers. Concepts such as quasispecies dynamics, mutations rates, viral fitness, the effect of bottleneck events, population numbers in virus transmission and disease emergence, new antiviral strategies such as lethal mutagenesis, and extensions of population heterogeneity to nonviral systems are included. These main concepts of the book are framed in recent observations on general virus diversity derived from metagenomic studies, and current views on the origin of viruses and the role of viruses in the evolution of the biosphere. Features current views on the key steps in the origin of life and origins of viruses Includes examples relating ancestral features of viruses with their current adaptive capacity Explains complex phenomena in an organized and coherent fashion that is easy to comprehend and enjoyable to read Considers quasispecies as a framework to understand virus adaptability and disease processes

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses
  • Author : Edward C. Holmes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-06-25
  • Total pages :254
  • ISBN : 9780199211128
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Summary : While the study of viral evolution has developed rapidly in the last 30 years, little attention has been directed toward linking the mechanisms of viral evolution to the epidemiological outcomes of these processes. This book intends to fill this gap by considering the patterns and processes of viral evolution at all its spatial and temporal scales.

Viruses

Viruses
  • Author : Joseph Panno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :232
  • ISBN : 0816068550
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Summary : Learn all about viruses in this New Biology book.

Origin of Group Identity

Origin of Group Identity
  • Author : Luis P. Villarreal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-12-10
  • Total pages :614
  • ISBN : 0387779981
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Summary : A sense of belonging is basic to the human experience. But in this, humans are not unique. Essentially all life, from bacteria to humans, have ways by which it determines which members belong and which do not. This is a basic cooperative nature of life I call group membership which is examined in this book. However, cooperation of living things is not easily accounted for by current theory of evolutionary biology and yet even viruses display group membership. That viruses have this feature would likely seem coincidental or irrelevant to most scientist as having any possible relationship to human group identity. Surely such simple molecular-based relationships between viruses are unrelated to the complex cognitive and emotional nature of human group membership. Yet viruses clearly affect bacterial group membership, which are the most diverse and abundant cellular life form on Earth and from which all life has evolved. Viruses are the most ancient, numerous and adaptable biological entities we know. And we have long recognized them for the harm and disease they can cause, and they have been responsible for the greatest numbers of human deaths. However, with the sequencing of entire genomes and more recently with the shotgun sequencings of habitats, we have come to realize viruses are the black hole of biology; a giant force that has until recently been largely unseen and historically ignored by evolutionary biology. Viruses not only can cause acute disease, but also persist as stable unseen agents in their host.

The Major Transitions in Evolution

The Major Transitions in Evolution
  • Author : John Maynard Smith,Eors Szathmary
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997-10-30
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 019850294X
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Summary : During evolution there have been several major changes in the way genetic information is organized and transmitted from one generation to the next. These transitions include the origin of life itself, the first eukaryotic cells, reproduction by sexual means, the appearance of multicellular plants and animals, the emergence of cooperation and of animal societies. This is the first book to discuss all these major transitions and their implications for our understanding of evolution.Clearly written and illustrated with many original diagrams, this book will be welcomed by students and researchers in the fields of evolutionary biology, ecology, and genetics.

Viruses: Essential Agents of Life

Viruses: Essential Agents of Life
  • Author : Günther Witzany
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-11-13
  • Total pages :428
  • ISBN : 9789400748996
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Summary : A renaissance of virus research is taking centre stage in biology. Empirical data from the last decade indicate the important roles of viruses, both in the evolution of all life and as symbionts of host organisms. There is increasing evidence that all cellular life is colonized by exogenous and/or endogenous viruses in a non-lytic but persistent lifestyle. Viruses and viral parts form the most numerous genetic matter on this planet.

Viruses and the Evolution of Life

Viruses and the Evolution of Life
  • Author : Luis P. Villarreal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :395
  • ISBN : 1555813097
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Summary : Viruses and the Evolution of Life is an intriguing presentation of the virus–host relationship, as revealed through an examination of host evolution. This new volume avails the informed reader of a new perspective on the evolution of life while targeting the expert reader with discussions of specific scientific literature. Addresses the adaptation and evolution of viruses and, more importantly, the role of viruses in evolutionary biology Develops integrated themes for study of virology Contributes valuable information to the understanding of the virus–host relationship Integrates the relationship between genetic parasites found in host genomes with the virology of the host Communicates basic principles to the informed reader while presenting a scholarly evaluation of literature to challenge the specialist Written by one of the foremost experts in the field

Viruses

Viruses
  • Author : Michael G. Cordingley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-19
  • Total pages :373
  • ISBN : 9780674972087
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Summary : While viruses—the world’s most abundant biological entities—are not technically alive, they invade, replicate, and evolve within living cells. Michael Cordingley goes beyond our familiarity with infections to show how viruses spur evolutionary change in their hosts and shape global ecosystems, from ocean photosynthesis to drug-resistant bacteria.

A Planet of Viruses

A Planet of Viruses
  • Author : Carl Zimmer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-30
  • Total pages :109
  • ISBN : 9780226983363
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Summary : Explores the hidden world of viruses, explaining how they profoundly affect human lives and updating the reader in current virus-related issues, such has the frenetic evolution of the HIV virus, which could pose greater dangers in the future. By the author of Parasite Rex.

Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems
  • Author : Ricard Solé,Santiago F. Elena
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-11
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9780691158846
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Summary : How complex systems theory sheds new light on the adaptive dynamics of viral populations Viruses are everywhere, infecting all sorts of living organisms, from the tiniest bacteria to the largest mammals. Many are harmful parasites, but viruses also play a major role as drivers of our evolution as a species and are essential regulators of the composition and complexity of ecosystems on a global scale. This concise book draws on complex systems theory to provide a fresh look at viral origins, populations, and evolution, and the coevolutionary dynamics of viruses and their hosts. New viruses continue to emerge that threaten people, crops, and farm animals. Viruses constantly evade our immune systems, and antiviral therapies and vaccination campaigns can be powerless against them. These unique characteristics of virus biology are a consequence of their tremendous evolutionary potential, which enables viruses to quickly adapt to any environmental challenge. Ricard Solé and Santiago Elena present a unified framework for understanding viruses as complex adaptive systems. They show how the application of complex systems theory to viral dynamics has provided new insights into the development of AIDS in patients infected with HIV-1, the emergence of new antigenic variants of the influenza A virus, and other cutting-edge advances. Essential reading for biologists, physicists, and mathematicians interested in complexity, Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems also extends the analogy of viruses to the evolution of other replicators such as computer viruses, cancer, and languages.

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases
  • Author : Michel Tibayrenc
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-01-12
  • Total pages :686
  • ISBN : 9780128001530
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Summary : Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, Second Edition, discusses the constantly evolving field of infectious diseases and their continued impact on the health of populations, especially in resource-limited areas of the world. Students in public health, biomedical professionals, clinicians, public health practitioners, and decisions-makers will find valuable information in this book that is relevant to the control and prevention of neglected and emerging worldwide diseases that are a major cause of global morbidity, disability, and mortality. Although substantial gains have been made in public health interventions for the treatment, prevention, and control of infectious diseases during the last century, in recent decades the world has witnessed a worldwide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, increasing antimicrobial resistance, and the emergence of many new bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The economic, social, and political burden of infectious diseases is most evident in developing countries which must confront the dual burden of death and disability due to infectious and chronic illnesses. Takes an integrated approach to infectious diseases Includes contributions from leading authorities Provides the latest developments in the field of infectious disease

Viruses

Viruses
  • Author : Paula Tennant,Gustavo Fermin,Jerome E. Foster
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-12
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 9780128111949
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Summary : Viruses: Molecular Biology, Host Interactions, and Applications to Biotechnology provides an up-to-date introduction to human, animal and plant viruses within the context of recent advances in high-throughput sequencing that have demonstrated that viruses are vastly greater and more diverse than previously recognized. It covers discoveries such as the Mimivirus and its virophage which have stimulated new discussions on the definition of viruses, their place in the current view, and their inherent and derived ‘interactomics’ as defined by the molecules and the processes by which virus gene products interact with themselves and their host’s cellular gene products. Further, the book includes perspectives on basic aspects of virology, including the structure of viruses, the organization of their genomes, and basic strategies in replication and expression, emphasizing the diversity and versatility of viruses, how they cause disease and how their hosts react to such disease, and exploring developments in the field of host-microbe interactions in recent years. The book is likely to appeal, and be useful, to a wide audience that includes students, academics and researchers studying the molecular biology and applications of viruses Provides key insights into recent technological advances, including high-throughput sequencing Presents viruses not only as formidable foes, but also as entities that can be beneficial to their hosts and humankind that are helping to shape the tree of life Features exposition on the diversity and versatility of viruses, how they cause disease, and an exploration of virus-host interactions

Meiosis

Meiosis
  • Author : Carol Bernstein,Harris Bernstein
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-09-11
  • Total pages :134
  • ISBN : 9789535111979
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Summary : Meiosis is the key process underlying sexual reproduction in eukaryotes, occurring in single-celled eukaryotes and in most multicellular eukaryotes including animals and most plants. Thus meiosis is of considerable interest, both at the scientific level and at the level of natural human curiosity about sexual reproduction. Improved understanding of important aspects of meiosis has emerged in recent years and major questions are starting to be answered, such as: How does meiosis occur at the molecular level, How did meiosis and sex arise during evolution, What is the major adaptive function of meiosis and sex. In addition, changing perspectives on meiosis and sex have led to the question: How should meiosis be taught. This book proposes answers to these questions, with extensive supporting references to the current literature.

Viruses and Human Disease

Viruses and Human Disease
  • Author : Ellen G. Strauss,James H. Strauss
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-09-21
  • Total pages :480
  • ISBN : 0080553168
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Summary : Completely revised and updated, the new edition of this groundbreaking text integrates basic virology with pathophysiological conditions to examine the connection between virology and human disease. Most virology textbooks focus on the molecular biology involved without adequate reference to physiology. This text focuses on viruses that infect humans, domestic animals and vertebrates and is based on extensive course notes from James Strauss’ virology class at the California Institute of Technology taught for over 30 years. Expertly depicting in color the molecular structure and replication of each virus, it provides an excellent overview for students and professionals interested in viruses as agents of human disease. Includes over 30% new material - virtually all of the figures and tables have been redrawn to include the latest information and the text has been extensively rewritten to include the most up-to-date information Includes a new chapter on emerging and reemerging viral diseases such as avian flu, SARS, the spread of West Nile virus across America, and the continuing spread of Nipah virus in Southeast Asia Further reading sections at the end of each chapter make it easy find key references World maps depicting the current distribution of existing and newly emerging viruses are also incorporated into the text

Viruses

Viruses
  • Author : Arnold J. Levine
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991-08-15
  • Total pages :240
  • ISBN : 9781466813885
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Summary : Viruses encapsulates for the lay reader the enormous scientific and medical contributions that have come from the field of virology. Dr. Arnold Levine presents the story of the scientists behind our current understanding of these infective agents and explains how that knowledge has helped us comprehend life at both the molecular and the human level. Many intriguing facets of viral behavior are explored, as Dr. Levine provides a clear account of their natural history, the mechanisms by which they spread and survive, and the toll they exact on their animal, plant, and bacterial hosts. Dr. Levine celebrates the great successes that have come from viral studies--the development of a wide range of vaccines, the eradication of smallpox, and the insights into the origins of cancer. He also examines the challeges we still face, with a series of interconnected chapters on the specific viruses behind some of our most urgent public health problems, including the viruses that cause AIDS, influenza, herpes, and hepatitis. A concluding chapter on the origin and evolution of viruses touches on some of the most provocative issues in molecular biology today. Viral infections continue to be an immediate health concern of imposing proportions. Viruses is written for the general reader eager to know how we study and confront these diseases and where today's research may lead.

Emerging and Reemerging Viral Pathogens

Emerging and Reemerging Viral Pathogens
  • Author : Moulay Mustapha Ennaji
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-14
  • Total pages :388
  • ISBN : 9780128149676
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Summary : Emerging and Reemerging Viral Pathogens: Applied Virology Approaches Related to Human, Animal and Environmental Pathogens, Volume Two presents new research information on viruses and their impact on the scientific community. It provides a reference book on certain viruses in humans, animals and vegetal, along with a comprehensive discussion on interspecies interactions. The book then looks at the drug, vaccine and bioinformatical strategies that can be used against these viruses, giving the reader a clear understanding of transmission. The book's end goal is to create awareness that the appearance of newly transmissible pathogens is a global risk that requires shared/adoptable policies for prevention and control. Covers most emerging viral disease in humans, animals and plants Provides the most advanced tools and techniques in molecular virology and the modeling of viruses Creates awareness that the appearance of new transmissible pathogens is a global risk Highlights the need to adopt shared policies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases

Plant Virus Evolution

Plant Virus Evolution
  • Author : Marilyn J. Roossinck
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-02-23
  • Total pages :224
  • ISBN : 3540757635
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive look at the field of plant virus evolution. It is the first book ever published on the topic. Individual chapters, written by experts in the field, cover plant virus ecology, emerging viruses, plant viruses that integrate into the host genome, population biology, evolutionary mechanisms and appropriate methods for analysis. It covers RNA viruses, DNA viruses, pararetroviruses and viroids, and presents a number of thought-provoking ideas.

The Genetic Code and the Origin of Life

The Genetic Code and the Origin of Life
  • Author : Lluis Ribas de Pouplana
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-04-03
  • Total pages :254
  • ISBN : 9780387268873
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Summary : Early Thoughts on RNA and the Origin of Life The full impact of the essential role of the nucleic acids in biological systems was forcefully demonstrated by the research community in the 1950s. Although Avery and his collaborators had identified DNA as the genetic material responsible for the transformation of bacteria in 1944, it was not until the early 1950s that the Hershey-Chase experiments provided a more direct demonstration of this role. Finally, the structural DNA double helix proposed by Watson and Crick in 1953 clearly created a structural frame work for the role of DNA as both information carrier and as a molecule that could undergo the necessary replication needed for daughter cells. Research continued by Kornberg and his colleagues in the mid-1950s emphasized the biochemistry and enzymology of DNA replication. At the same time, there was a growing interest in the role of RNA. The 1956 dis covery by David Davies and myself showed that polyadenylic acid and polyuridylic acid could form a double-helical RNA molecule but that it differed somewhat from DN A A large number of experiments were subsequendy carried out with synthetic polyribonucleotides which illustrated that RNA could form even more complicated helical structures in which the specificity of hydrogen bonding was the key element in determining the molecular conformation. Finally, in I960,1 could show that it was possible to make a hybrid helix.