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Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Michael Türk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-06
  • Total pages :152
  • ISBN : 9780444594433
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Summary : Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties

Novel Approaches for Controlled Particle Formation Using Supercritical Fluid Technology

Novel Approaches for Controlled Particle Formation Using Supercritical Fluid Technology
  • Author : Mazen H. Hanna
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995
  • Total pages :238
  • ISBN : OCLC:1179805985
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Summary : A novel apparatus and methods of controlled particle formation from supercritical fluids are proposed. A solution of the material of interest is fed together with a fluid (e.g. CO2) above its critical point through a concentric nozzle into a high pressure vessel. The temperature and pressure of the vessel are controlled by a thermocouple and an automated back pressure regulator respectively. The supercritical fluid disperses, mixes and rapidly extracts the solvent leading to formation of particulate products. The products are retained in the high pressure vessel by a particle retention device. The supercritical solution (i.e. the supercritical fluid and the solvent) emerging from the back pressure regulator is allowed to expand so that the solvent may separate from the gas, and both are recycled. By changing the working conditions of pressure, temperature and flow rate of the solution to the supercritical fluid, it is possible to control the size, shape and morphology of the products - increase of the pressure and/or flow rate of the supercritical fluid led to a decrease in particle size. Products prepared by this new technique include, drug materials, inorganics, polymers, carbohydrates and proteins. Microparticulate products of the drug salmeterol xinafoate exhibit narrow size distribution, batch-to-batch consistency, high degree of crystallinity, enhanced chemical and polymorphic purity, low dynamic bulk density, undetectable amounts of residual solvent content and are free flowing with low dispersion energy due to lack of static charge. This new method of preparation of particles from supercritical fluids has potential applicatlon to industrial particle formation processing avoiding problems of conventional crystallisation procedures.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development
  • Author : Peter York,Uday B. Kompella,Boris Y. Shekunov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-03-23
  • Total pages :632
  • ISBN : 9780824751029
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Summary : Interconnecting the fundamentals of supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies, their current and anticipated utility in drug delivery, and process engineering advances from related methodological domains and pharmaceutical applications, this volume unlocks the potential of supercritical fluids to further the development of improved pharmaceutical products-from drug powders for respiratory delivery to drug delivery systems for controlled release.

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : E. Kiran,Johanna M.H. Levelt Sengers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-11
  • Total pages :796
  • ISBN : 9789401582957
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Summary : Supercritical fluids which are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density, are gaining increasing importance as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the pressure, or more strictly the density, the properties of these fluids are customized and manipulated for the particular process at hand, be it a physical transformation, such as separation or solvation, or a chemical transformation, such as a reaction or reactive extraction. Supercritical fluids, however, differ from both gases and liquids in many respects. In order to properly understand and describe their properties, it is necessary to know the implications of their nearness to criticality, to be aware of the complex types of phase separation (including solid phases) that occur when the components of the fluid mixture are very different from each other, and to develop theories that can cope with the large differences in molecular size and shape of the supercritical solvent and the solutes that are present.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications
  • Author : Vladimir Anikeev,Maohong Fan I
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-21
  • Total pages :284
  • ISBN : 9780444626974
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Summary : Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection

Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media

Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media
  • Author : Gerd H. Brunner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-06-11
  • Total pages :650
  • ISBN : 0080542107
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Summary : Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of properties, and other advantageous properties of supercritical fluids led to innovative technologies. More than 100 plants of production size are now in operation worldwide in the areas of process and production technology, environmental applications, and particle engineering. New processes are under research and development in various fields. This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany. It is based on the research program "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the "GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik" (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). This research program provided an immensely valuable platform for exchange of knowledge and experience. More than 50 young researchers were involved contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth. The results of this innovative research are described in this book. - This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany - Contains results of projects within the research program on "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. - More than 50 young researchers were involved in contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth.

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : E. Kiran,Pablo G. Debenedetti,Cor J. Peters
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :596
  • ISBN : 9789401139298
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Summary : Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.

Current Trends of Supercritical Fluid Technology in Pharmaceutical, Nutraceutical and Food Processing Industries

Current Trends of Supercritical Fluid Technology in Pharmaceutical, Nutraceutical and Food Processing Industries
  • Author : Ana Rita C. Duarte,Catarina Maria Martins Duarte
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-13
  • Total pages :124
  • ISBN : 9781608050468
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Summary : Supercritical fluid technology can be seen as a green and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional. Current information on these topics is spread through different publications in different peer-reviewed journals. The editors were therefore of

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies
  • Author : Suvendu Bhattacharya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-09-26
  • Total pages :744
  • ISBN : 9781118406304
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Summary : Food processing technologies are an essential link in the food chain. These technologies are many and varied, changing in popularity with changing consumption patterns and product popularity. Newer process technologies are also being evolved to provide the added advantages. Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies fuses the practical (application, machinery), theoretical (model, equation) and cutting-edge (recent trends), making it ideal for industrial, academic and reference use. It consists of two sections, one covering conventional or well-established existing processes and the other covering emerging or novel process technologies that are expected to be employed in the near future for the processing of foods in the commercial sector. All are examined in great detail, considering their current and future applications with added examples and the very latest data. Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies is a comprehensive treatment of the current state of knowledge on food processing technology. In its extensive coverage, and the selection of reputed research scientists who have contributed to each topic, this book will be a definitive text in this field for students, food professionals and researchers.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction
  • Author : Mark McHugh,Val Krukonis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780080518176
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Summary : Supercritical Fluid Extraction is a technique in which CO2 is used under extremely high pressure to separate solution (e.g., removing caffeine from coffee). Separations is basic to all process industries and supercritical fluid extraction is a specific type which is receiving a high level of attention. The book will combine basic fundamentals with industrial applications. The second edition has been expanded and updated and includes new chapters on chromatography and food processing. "...this is an excellent book which is both instructive and amusing to read. Its true value is neatly summarised in one of the closing sentences: 'We have supplied you with the guidelines and criteria which you can now apply when considering supercritical fluids for your own needs.'' - Chemistry in Britain, February 1995

Supercritical Antisolvent Precipitation Process

Supercritical Antisolvent Precipitation Process
  • Author : Diego T. Santos,Ádina L. Santana,M. Angela A. Meireles,Ademir José Petenate,Eric Keven Silva,Juliana Q. Albarelli,Júlio C. F. Johner,M.Thereza M. S. Gomes,Ricardo Abel Del Castillo Torres,Tahmasb Hatami
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-12
  • Total pages :82
  • ISBN : 9783030269982
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Summary : This book provides deep insights on the fundamentals, applications and perspectives of the Supercritical AntiSolvent (SAS) Precipitation Process. Chapter 1 provides recent (2013-2018) reports on the use of supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) antisolvent for micronization, coprecipitation and fractionation of high-value products for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Chapter 2 discusses another variant of the SAS precipitation process called Supercritical fluid extraction of emulsions (SFEE). This chapter provides recent data from 2016-2018 reports investigation of supercritical extraction of emulsions (SFEE) to encapsulate compounds of great interest to the food and non-food industry. Chapter 3 details the design and construction of a SAS Precipitation equipment. Chapter 4 presents experimental results regarding the validation of the supercritical particle formation equipment. Chapter 5 shows the effects of process parameters during particle precipitation using Combined High Turbulence Extraction Assisted by Ultrasound and Supercritical Antisolvent Fractionation (SAF) processes applied to semi-defatted annatto seeds, as a model raw material plant, were investigated. Chapter 6 shows experimental results regarding the process Ultrasound Emulsification Assisted by Nitrogen Hydrostatic Pressure (UEANHP), during the emulsification preparation step of the Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Emulsions (SFEE) process, one of the options of the SAS Precipitation-based process. Finally, Chaptesr 7 and 8 present some perspectives about the economics and process integration with other processes aiming the development of novel conceptual biorefinering approaches for plant materials valorization.

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Materials Science and Engineering

Supercritical Fluid Technology in Materials Science and Engineering
  • Author : Ya-Ping Sun
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-03-26
  • Total pages :600
  • ISBN : 9780824744717
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Summary : This title analyzes the chemical reactions, structures and fundamental properties of supercritical fluid systems for the production of new compounds, nanomaterials, fibers, and films. It complies contemporary research and technological advances for increased selectivity and reduced waste in chemical, industrial, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. Topics include fluid dynamics, catalysis, hydrothermal synthesis, surfactants, conducting polymers, crystal growth, and other aspects and applications of supercritical fluids.

Polymeric Sensors and Actuators

Polymeric Sensors and Actuators
  • Author : Johannes Karl Fink
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-11-13
  • Total pages :536
  • ISBN : 9781118547625
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Summary : This book covers in-depth the various polymers that are used for sensors and actuators from the vantage point of organic chemistry. Since many chemists may not be familiar with the physics and operational specifics of sensors, the book has a general chapter dealing with the overall physics and basic principles of sensors. Also included are methods of fabrication, as well as information on smart textiles, actuators, and the processing of data. The range of sensors covered include humidity, temperature, chemical, mechanical, optical, electrode, electronic nose, switchable devices, biosensors, and others.

Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems

Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems
  • Author : Jamileh M. Lakkis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-18
  • Total pages :408
  • ISBN : 9781118733523
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Summary : The emergence of the discipline of encapsulation and controlled release has had a great impact on the food and dietary supplements sectors; principally around fortifying food systems with nutrients and health-promoting ingredients. The successful incorporation of these actives in food formulations depends on preserving their stability and bioavailability as well as masking undesirable flavors throughout processing, shelf life and consumption. This second edition of Encapsulation and Controlled Release Technologies in Food Systems serves as an improvement and a complement companion to the first. However, it differentiates itself in two main aspects. Firstly, it introduces the reader to novel encapsulation and controlled release technologies which have not yet been addressed by any existing book on this matter, and secondly, it offers an in-depth discussion on the impact of encapsulation and controlled release technologies on the bioavailability of health ingredients and other actives. In common with the first edition the book includes chapters written by distinguished authors and researchers in their respective areas of specialization. This book is designed as a reference for scientists and formulators in the food, nutraceuticals and consumer products industries who are looking to formulate new or existing products using microencapsulated ingredients. It is also a post-graduate text designed to provide students with an introduction to encapsulation and controlled release along with detailed coverage of various encapsulation technologies and their adaptability to specific applications.

Microparticulate Systems for the Delivery of Proteins and Vaccines

Microparticulate Systems for the Delivery of Proteins and Vaccines
  • Author : Smadar Cohen,Howard Bernstein
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996-08-23
  • Total pages :552
  • ISBN : 0824797531
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Summary : This practical guide offers concise coverage of the scientific and pharmaceutical aspects of protein delivery from controlled release microparticulate systems-emphasizing protein stability during encapsulation and release.

Kona

Kona
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015058916753
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Summary :

Energetic Materials

Energetic Materials
  • Author : Ulrich Teipel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-03-06
  • Total pages :643
  • ISBN : 9783527604937
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Summary : Incorporation of particular components with specialized properties allows one to tailor the end product's properties. For instance, the sensitivity, burning behavior, thermal or mechanical properties or stability of energetic materials can be affected and even controllably varied through incorporation of such ingredients. This book examines particle technologies as applied to energetic materials such as propellants and explosives, thus filling a void in the literature on this subject. Following an introduction covering general features of energetic materials, the first section of this book describes methods of manufacturing particulate energetic materials, including size reduction, crystallization, atomization, particle formation using supercritical fluids and microencapsulation, agglomeration phenomena, special considerations in mixing explosive particles and the production of nanoparticles. The second section discusses the characterization of particulate materials. Techniques and methods such as particle size analysis, morphology elucidation and the determination of chemical and thermal properties are presented. The wettability of powders and rheological behavior of suspensions and solids are also considered. Furthermore, methods of determining the performance of particular energetic materials are described. Each chapter deals with fundamentals and application possibilities of the various methods presented, with particular emphasis on issues applicable to particulate energetic materials. The book is thus equally relevant for chemists, physicists, material scientists, chemical and mechanical engineers and anyone interested or engaged in particle processing and characterization technologies.

Chemical Synthesis Using Supercritical Fluids

Chemical Synthesis Using Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Philip G. Jessop,Walter Leitner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2008-07-11
  • Total pages :500
  • ISBN : 9783527613694
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Summary : For 'better solutions' - this practical guide describes how to take advantage of supercritical fluids in chemical synthesis. Well-established in extractions and materials processing, supercritical fluids are becoming increasingly popular as media for modern chemical syntheses. Historically, the application of compressed gases has been restricted mainly to the production of bulk chemicals. In the last decade, however, research has turned to exploiting the unique properties of supercritical fluids for the synthesis of fine chemicals and specialized materials. Now that the necessary equipment is more readily available, the use of supercritical fluids should become more widespread in both laboratory and industrial scale syntheses. More than merely a concise introduction to the properties of supercritical fluids, here leading experts give a thorough, up-to-date account of chemistry in these alternative media. In-depth scientific commentary, detailed reaction protocols, descriptions of necessary equipment, and an outline of spectroscopic techniques add to the value of this handbook aimed at innovative synthetic chemists.

Gas Extraction

Gas Extraction
  • Author : Gerd Brunner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-29
  • Total pages :387
  • ISBN : 9783662073803
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Summary : Application of compressed gases as solvents has found widespread interest within the scientific community. Its processes have industrial applications. Gas Extraction deals with the possibilities of supercritical gases as solvents for separation processes. The volume combines physico-chemical aspects with chemical engineering methods. The text generalizes as far as possible, and treats examples in detail. Gas Extraction covers, for the first time, the subject in textbook form. Most of the examples provide new results that will be helpful for practicing scientists, engineers, and students who want to make use of the techniques.

Concepts In Inhalation Toxicology

Concepts In Inhalation Toxicology
  • Author : Roger O. McClellan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995-09-25
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 1439805571
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Summary : Recent developments have provided new data on the subject of inhalation toxicology, requiring an update of the previous edition of this popular text. Like the first, this second edition explains the basic concepts and quantitative approaches in inhalation toxicology, and it gives a comprehensive treatment of evaluations of respiratory responses to inhaled particles and gases. The author here explores new understanding of the role of cytokines in pulmonary inflammation and risk assessment. Immunologists, oncologists, respiratory specialists and students in those fields will find Concepts In Inhalation Toxicology to be essential to their practice.

Viscosity of Dense Fluids

Viscosity of Dense Fluids
  • Author : K. Stephan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-29
  • Total pages :268
  • ISBN : 9781475769319
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Summary : The physical properties of fluids are perhaps among the most extensively investigated physical constants of any single group of materials. This is particularly true of the thermodynamic prop erties of pure substances since the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium provides the simplest considerations for experimental measurement as well as theoretical treatment. In the case of non equilibrium transport properties, the situation is significantly complicated by the necessity of measurement of gradients in the experiment and the mathematical difficulties in handling non equilibrium distribution functions in theoretical treatments. Hence, our knowledge of the trans port properties of gases and liquids is perhaps one order of magnitude lower than for equilibrium thermodynamic properties. This situation is very much apparent when examining the available nu merical data on the viscosity of fluids particularly at high pressures. In this work, the authors have performed an outstanding contribution to the engineering literature by their critical evaluation of the pressure dependence of the available data on the viscosity of selected substances. The recommended values reported in the tables and figures also incorporate the saturated liquid and gas states as well as the data of the dilute gas in an attempt to integrate the present work with the recently published work by CINDAS/Purdue University on the viscosity of fluids at low pressures [166]. A deliberate effort was made to treat as many of the substances in the CINDAS volume as possible for which adequate high pressure data exist.