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Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Michael Türk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-07
  • Total pages :139
  • ISBN : 0444594868
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Summary : Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids

Particle Formation with Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Michael Türk
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-11-06
  • Total pages :152
  • ISBN : 9780444594433
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Summary : Particle formation with supercritical fluids is a promising alternative to conventional precipitation processes as it allows the reduction of particle size and control of morphology and particle size distribution without degradation or contamination of the product. The book comprehensively examines the current status of research and development and provides perspectives and insights on promising future directions. The introduction to high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria and nucleation phenomena provides the basic principles of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena, allowing the reader an understanding of the relationship between process conditions and particle characteristics. Bridging the gap between theory and application, the book imparts the scientific and engineering fundamentals for innovative particle formation processes. The interdisciplinary "modus operandi" will encourage cooperation between scientists and researchers from different but complementary disciplines. Focuses on the general principles of particle formation in supercritical fluids Considers high pressure and high temperature phase equilibria, fluid dynamics and nucleation theory Discusses the underlying physical and chemical phenomena needed to understand the different applications, pointing out the relationship between process conditions and product properties

Novel Approaches for Controlled Particle Formation Using Supercritical Fluid Technology

Novel Approaches for Controlled Particle Formation Using Supercritical Fluid Technology
  • Author : Mazen H. Hanna
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995
  • Total pages :238
  • ISBN : OCLC:1179805985
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Summary : A novel apparatus and methods of controlled particle formation from supercritical fluids are proposed. A solution of the material of interest is fed together with a fluid (e.g. CO2) above its critical point through a concentric nozzle into a high pressure vessel. The temperature and pressure of the vessel are controlled by a thermocouple and an automated back pressure regulator respectively. The supercritical fluid disperses, mixes and rapidly extracts the solvent leading to formation of particulate products. The products are retained in the high pressure vessel by a particle retention device. The supercritical solution (i.e. the supercritical fluid and the solvent) emerging from the back pressure regulator is allowed to expand so that the solvent may separate from the gas, and both are recycled. By changing the working conditions of pressure, temperature and flow rate of the solution to the supercritical fluid, it is possible to control the size, shape and morphology of the products - increase of the pressure and/or flow rate of the supercritical fluid led to a decrease in particle size. Products prepared by this new technique include, drug materials, inorganics, polymers, carbohydrates and proteins. Microparticulate products of the drug salmeterol xinafoate exhibit narrow size distribution, batch-to-batch consistency, high degree of crystallinity, enhanced chemical and polymorphic purity, low dynamic bulk density, undetectable amounts of residual solvent content and are free flowing with low dispersion energy due to lack of static charge. This new method of preparation of particles from supercritical fluids has potential applicatlon to industrial particle formation processing avoiding problems of conventional crystallisation procedures.

Particle Formation from the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Fluid Solutions

Particle Formation from the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Fluid Solutions
  • Author : Gina Rae Shaub
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994
  • Total pages :364
  • ISBN : OCLC:31828365
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Summary :

Visualization of Particle Formation Processes in Supercritical Fluids

Visualization of Particle Formation Processes in Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Amendi Pennington Stephens
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :296
  • ISBN : OCLC:53179608
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Summary :

Particles Formation Using Supercritical Fluids

Particles Formation Using Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : A. Montes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1154260213
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Summary : Particles Formation Using Supercritical Fluids.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications
  • Author : Vladimir Anikeev,Maohong Fan I
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-12-21
  • Total pages :284
  • ISBN : 9780444626974
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Summary : Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection

Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology

Supercritical Fluid Science and Technology
  • Author : Keith P. Johnston,Johannes M. L. Penninger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :550
  • ISBN : UOM:39015016106513
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Summary : New directions in supercritical fluids science and technology, fluorescence spectroscopy studies of intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluids, solvation structure in supercritical fluid mixtures based on molecular distribution functions, gibbs-ensemble Monte Carlo simulations of phase equilibria in supercritical fluid mixtures, spectroscopic determination of solvent strength and structure in supercritical fluid mixtures, partition coefficients of polyethyle glycols in super critical carbon dioxide, experimental measurement of supercritical fluid-liquid phase equilibrium, vapor-liquid equilibria of fatty acid esters in supercritical fluids, four-phase equilibrium of two ternary organic systems with carbon dioxide, direct viscosity enhancement of carbon dioxide, inverse emulsion polymerization of acrylamide, interaction of polymers with near-critical carbon dioxide, fundamental kinetics of methanol oxidation in supercritical fluids, thermodynamic analysis of corrosion of iron alloys in supercritical water, electrochemical measurements of corrosion of iron alloys in supercritical water, phase and reaction equilibria considerations in the evaluation and operation of supercritical fluid reaction processes, kinetic model for supercritical delignification of wood, gas antisolvent recrystallization solids formation after the expansion of supercritical mixtures, food, pharmaceutical, and environmental applications, design of commercial plant.

Soerat Tambo Radja

Soerat Tambo Radja
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1850
  • Total pages :494
  • ISBN : OCLC:69365808
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Summary :

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : E. Kiran,Pablo G. Debenedetti,Cor J. Peters
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :596
  • ISBN : 9789401139298
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Summary : Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.

Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media

Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media
  • Author : Gerd H. Brunner
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-06-11
  • Total pages :650
  • ISBN : 0080542107
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Summary : Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of properties, and other advantageous properties of supercritical fluids led to innovative technologies. More than 100 plants of production size are now in operation worldwide in the areas of process and production technology, environmental applications, and particle engineering. New processes are under research and development in various fields. This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany. It is based on the research program "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the "GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik" (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). This research program provided an immensely valuable platform for exchange of knowledge and experience. More than 50 young researchers were involved contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth. The results of this innovative research are described in this book. - This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany - Contains results of projects within the research program on "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. - More than 50 young researchers were involved in contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth.

Phase Behavior and Particle Formation of Polymers in Supercritical Fluid Solvents

Phase Behavior and Particle Formation of Polymers in Supercritical Fluid Solvents
  • Author : Todd Matthew Martin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :490
  • ISBN : OCLC:46960748
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Summary :

Particle Formation and Encapsulation Using Supercritical Anti-Solvent

Particle Formation and Encapsulation Using Supercritical Anti-Solvent
  • Author : Gun Hean Chong,Robiah Yunus
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-01
  • Total pages :140
  • ISBN : 3843389861
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Summary : The controlled drug release has been proven to enhance the bioavailability of a drug by maintaining the drug concentration in therapeutic level within certain period of time and lowering the risk of drugs side effects by reducing the frequency of drug administration. Among the available drug administration systems, microcapsule has provided advantages over the conventional mode, due to higher efficiency and flexibility. This microcapsule can be produced by supercritical fluids (SCF) method which currently been used in composite particles production. This application solves the limitations of conventional pharmaceutical methods for the production of active ingredient loaded micro particles. Supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) is one of the SCF methods proven to have good potential in micronization of pure component. In this technique, SCF acts as an anti-solvent for the feed solution and the precipitation occurs when these two media (SCF and feed solution) contact each other.

Colloidal Particle Formation in Near-critical and Supercritical Fluid Reverse Micelle Solutions

Colloidal Particle Formation in Near-critical and Supercritical Fluid Reverse Micelle Solutions
  • Author : J. Todd Reaves,Joanna P. Cason,Kedar C. Khambaswadkar,American Institute of Chemical Engineers,American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Annual Meeting
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :5
  • ISBN : OCLC:41078665
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Summary :

Aerosol Formation in Supercritical Fluids with Explicit Particle Microphysics Simulations

Aerosol Formation in Supercritical Fluids with Explicit Particle Microphysics Simulations
  • Author : Lynn M. Russell,Markus Weber,Pablo G. Debenedetti,American Institute of Chemical Engineers,American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Annual Meeting
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1998
  • Total pages :3
  • ISBN : OCLC:41298255
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Summary :

Particles Formation Using Supercritical Fluids

Particles Formation Using Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : A. Montes,C. Pereyra,E. J. Martinez de la Ossa,M. D. Gordillo
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9533076364
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Summary :

Nanoparticle Formation and Coating Using Supercritical Fluids

Nanoparticle Formation and Coating Using Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : Abhijit Aniruddha Gokhale
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :156
  • ISBN : OCLC:936121474
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Summary : Jet breakup phenomenon and nanoparticle formation The focus of this dissertation is to study the SAS process to manufacture nanoparticles with minimum agglomeration, controlled size and size distribution. Solution jet breakup and solvent evaporation into supercritical fluid (SC CO2) is studied using high speed charged coupled device (CCD) camera facilitated with double shot particle image veloimetry (PIV) laser and a high pressure view cell. Particles formation using SAS is studied. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) particles are formed using micron size capillary nozzles and combination of thermodynamically good and poor solvents in order to achieve nano-sized particles with reduced agglomeration and narrow size distribution. Effects of operational parameters on physiochemical properties of particles are investigated. Since the proposed method is based on general thermodynamic properties of polymer-solvent systems, it should be applicable to a wide variety of polymers for applications ranging from the improvement of the flow and packing properties of powders to the control of particle interaction with their external surroundings for drug delivery systems. Fine particle coating and encapsulations using supercritical fluids. In certain applications, particle surfaces need to be modified or functionalized by coating them with another material to serve a specific purpose. As nanoparticles are extremely cohesive, it is very difficult to coat an individual particle by traditional methods. In this research, nanoparticles coating is investigated through supercritical fluid-based methods. Agglomeration of particles is reduced by combining poor solvent and ultrasonic techniques. The first technique uses a proprietary co-axial ultrasonic nozzle to spray the solution suspension into the SC CO2. Ultrasound is very effective in breaking agglomerates, and the introduction of the co-axial flow enables CO2 to not only serve as an antisolvent, but also as a mixing enhancer. The second technique uses a combination of thermodynamically good and poor solvents to tune the supersaturation of the polymer which serves as the coating material. Other methods like raid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) and particles from gas saturated solution (PGSS) are also investigated and compared with SAS. Syneresis of silica gel Effects of gravity, silica concentration in gel and time on syneresis are studied by exposing the simulants of gel propellants to higher gravities. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are used to characterize the gel. Based on results of experimental studies, a multi-scale computational strategy for modeling gel formation and syneresis is proposed. Based on the analysis of the existing literature, directions for experimental and theoretical approaches for particles formation and coating are proposed, and form the main parts of this thesis. This summary section outlines the major components of proposed research; first, important features of the nanoparticles formation using SAS techniques are discussed followed by the nanocoatings and finally syneresis of silica gels.

Study of Particle Formation Using Supercritical CO2 as an Antisolvent

Study of Particle Formation Using Supercritical CO2 as an Antisolvent
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:656419935
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Summary : Particle design using supercritical CO2 has been of great interest in the pharmaceutical, microelectronic, catalytic, and related industries over the past 10 years. There have been numerous papers and patents published on the processes studied in this work. The solubility of most drug compounds in carbon dioxide is very low, making it a very attractive antisolvent for particle formation at suitable ranges of temperatures and pressures. This thesis explores the use of different CO2 antisolvent precipitation system designs for the formulation of small crystalline drug particles of a given size, morphology, and uniformity, using the precipitation of acetaminophen from ethanol as an example. In order to understand the precipitation process, the equilibrium concentration of acetaminophen in CO2 and CO2 plus ethanol were measured at a range of temperatures and pressures in a high-pressure extraction system. This information is important in understanding the supersaturation of the drug at various precipitation conditions. Several antisolvent processes were tested in order to determine their effectiveness in controlling the precipitation of acetaminophen from ethanol. The first system involved the use of Solvent Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical Fluids (SEDS) patented by Hanna and York (WO9501221, 1994). This process uses a coaxial nozzle design where the solvent with the solute of interest is injected in the inner tube and the supercritical CO2 is injected in the outer tube. The two streams mix at nearly constant pressure and temperature in a small volume region of the nozzle before expanding through the nozzle tip into a chamber maintained at a fixed temperature and pressure. The fast mixing process rapidly expands the solvent with CO2 in order to induce phase split of the solid drug particles. The chamber pressure is maintained constant and nearly equal to the pressure in the nozzle. This process was studied because it was claimed that SEDS gave the best control of sy.

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development
  • Author : Peter York,Uday B. Kompella,Boris Y. Shekunov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-03-23
  • Total pages :632
  • ISBN : 9781135538170
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Summary : Interconnecting the fundamentals of supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies, their current and anticipated utility in drug delivery, and process engineering advances from related methodological domains and pharmaceutical applications, this volume unlocks the potential of supercritical fluids to further the development of improved pharmaceutical prod

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development
  • Author : Peter York,Uday B. Kompella,Boris Y. Shekunov
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-03-23
  • Total pages :632
  • ISBN : 9780824751029
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Summary : Interconnecting the fundamentals of supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies, their current and anticipated utility in drug delivery, and process engineering advances from related methodological domains and pharmaceutical applications, this volume unlocks the potential of supercritical fluids to further the development of improved pharmaceutical products-from drug powders for respiratory delivery to drug delivery systems for controlled release.

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids
  • Author : E. Kiran,Johanna M.H. Levelt Sengers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-11-11
  • Total pages :796
  • ISBN : 9789401582957
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Summary : Supercritical fluids which are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density, are gaining increasing importance as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the pressure, or more strictly the density, the properties of these fluids are customized and manipulated for the particular process at hand, be it a physical transformation, such as separation or solvation, or a chemical transformation, such as a reaction or reactive extraction. Supercritical fluids, however, differ from both gases and liquids in many respects. In order to properly understand and describe their properties, it is necessary to know the implications of their nearness to criticality, to be aware of the complex types of phase separation (including solid phases) that occur when the components of the fluid mixture are very different from each other, and to develop theories that can cope with the large differences in molecular size and shape of the supercritical solvent and the solutes that are present.