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Pathophysiology of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and Use of Fingolimod in Cardioprotection

Pathophysiology of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and Use of Fingolimod in Cardioprotection
  • Author : Naseer Ahmed
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-30
  • Total pages :140
  • ISBN : 9780128182536
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Summary : Pathophysiology of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Use of Fingolimod in Cardioprotection is a deep examination into the mechanisms of myocardial ischemiareperfusion injury and role of fingolimod as a cardioprotective agent through its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. Dr. Ahmed explore the physiology and pathophysiology of myocardial metabolism under normal and ischemic conditions and focused on pharmacological cardioprotection. They provide a concise, yet rigorous discussion of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury, Myocardial Ischemia during Circulatory Arrest, Myocardial Reperfusion, Myocardial Protection related to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Role of Fingolimod in Cardioprotection. Pathophysiology of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Use of Fingolimod in Cardioprotection is ideal for researchers, cardiovascular scientists, and clinical pharmacologists to further work in this challenging area and apply this knowledge to clinical trials for cardioprotection. Provides detailed and critical analysis of the latest research in the field from molecular basis to potential clinical relevance Examines the effect of fingolimod/sphingosine 1-phosphate in cardioprotection, pointing to future myocardial preventative strategies

Novel Therapeutic Targets and Emerging Treatments for Fibrosis

Novel Therapeutic Targets and Emerging Treatments for Fibrosis
  • Author : Chrishan S. Samuel,Timothy D. Hewitson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-01-12
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889453726
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Summary : For decades we have known that the overgrowth, hardening and scarring of tissues (so-called fibrosis) represents the final common pathway and best histological predictor of disease progression in most organs. Fibrosis is the culmination of both excess extracellular matrix deposition due to ongoing or severe injury, and a failure to regenerate. An inadequate wound repair process ultimately results in organ failure through a loss of function, and is therefore a major cause of morbidity and mortality in disease affecting both multiple and individual organs. Whilst the pathology of fibrosis and its significance are well understood, until recently we have known little about its molecular regulation. Current therapies are often indirect and non-specific, and only slow progression by a matter of months. The recent identification of novel therapeutic targets, and the development of new treatment strategies based on them, offers the exciting prospect of more efficacious therapies to treat this debilitating disorder. This Research Topic therefore compromises several up-to-date mini-reviews on currently known and emerging therapeutic targets for fibrosis including: the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-family; epigenetic factors; Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors; mineralocorticoid receptors; adenosine receptors; caveolins; and the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate and notch signaling pathways. In each case, mechanistic insights into how each of these factors contribute to regulating fibrosis progression are described, along with how they can be targeted (by existing drugs, small molecules or other mimetics) to prevent and/or reverse fibrosis and its contribution to tissue dysfunction and failure. Two additional reviews will discuss various anti-fibrotic therapies that have demonstrated efficacy at the experimental level, but are not yet clinically approved; and the therapeutic potential vs limitations of stem cell-based therapies for reducing fibrosis while facilitating tissue repair. Finally, this Research Topic concludes with a clinical perspective of various anti-fibrotic therapies for cardiovascular disease (CVD), outlining limitations of currently used therapies, the pipeline of anti-fibrotics for CVD and why so many anti-fibrotic drugs have failed at the clinical level.

Kashmir Pending

Kashmir Pending
  • Author : Naseer Ahmed,Saurabh Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007
  • Total pages :95
  • ISBN : UOM:39015076865206
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Summary :

Coronary Angiogenesis

Coronary Angiogenesis
  • Author : Karel Rakusan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999-04
  • Total pages :294
  • ISBN : 0762303921
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Summary : This volume surveys the progress that has been made in the study of coronary angiogenesis and provides the reader with a general coverage of the advances in the core knowledge in the field. It is clear that as we gain a deeper understanding of mechanisms underlying stimulation (and inhibition) of coronary angiogenisis, it might become possible to develop novel therapies for increasing the growth and formation of collateral vessels in the ischemic heart. Although research in the domain of angiogenesis is steadily approaching its golden age, the study of coronary angiogenesis is still in its infancy.

The Role of Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Diseases

The Role of Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Diseases
  • Author : Kenneth V. Honn,Darryl C. Zeldin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-27
  • Total pages :257
  • ISBN : 9783030217358
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Summary : The Organizing Committee of the 15th International Conference on Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Diseases compiled a group of junior investigators to provide reviews on the topics they presented at the Puerto Vallarta Bioactive Lipids conference, as part of the book series, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (AEMB). The book in this series will be titled Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Diseases. Topics range from all classes of lipids including prostaglandins, resolvins, spingolipids, P450-derived lipids, endocannabanoids and phospholipids. The focus includes physiology, cell biology, and structural studies in organisms from bacteria to humans and how these studies addressed the role of lipids in various disease i.e. cancer, inflammation, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and others.

Metabolism of Human Diseases

Metabolism of Human Diseases
  • Author : Eckhard Lammert,Martin Zeeb
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-06-02
  • Total pages :416
  • ISBN : 9783709107157
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Summary : “Metabolism of Human Diseases” examines the physiology of key organs (e.g. brain, eye, lung, heart, blood vessels, blood, immune system, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, fat tissue, kidney, reproductive system, teeth, bone and joints) and how defective metabolism and signaling pathways within these organs contribute to common human diseases. The latter include depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Down syndrome, macular degeneration, glaucoma, asthma, COPD, pneumonia, atherosclerotic heart disease, heart failure, stroke, varicose veins, Sickle cell disease, hyperlipidemia, fever, sepsis, allergies, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, lactose intolerance, colon cancer, diabetes, cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, gout, urinary tract infections, kidney stones, dental caries, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, breast cancer and prostate cancer. The book also describes commonly used drugs and explains their molecular targets. It provides the first comprehensive and detailed summary of the metabolism of individual organs and their physiological and pathological functioning. Thus it serves as a useful supplement to previous textbooks of human physiology. “Metabolism of Human Diseases” is a must-have, state-of-the-art textbook written by International experts for graduate students, postdocs and scientists in metabolic research, biochemistry, physiology and pharmacy as well as for physicians interested in molecular mechanisms underlying common human diseases.

Marijuana and the Cannabinoids

Marijuana and the Cannabinoids
  • Author : Mahmoud A. ElSohly
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11-15
  • Total pages :322
  • ISBN : 9781592599479
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Summary : Although primarily used today as one of the most prevalent illicit leisure drugs, the use of Cannabis sativa L., commonly referred to as marijuana, for medicinal purposes has been reported for more than 5000 years. Marijuana use has been shown to create numerous health problems, and, consequently, the expanding use beyond medical purposes into recreational use (abuse) resulted in control of the drug through international treaties. Much research has been carried out over the past few decades following the identification of the chemical structure of THC in 1964. The purpose of Marijuana and the Cannabinoids is to present in a single volume the comprehensive knowledge and experience of renowned researchers and scientists. Each chapter is written independently by an expert in his/her field of endeavor, ranging from the botany, the constituents, the chemistry and pharmacokinetics, the effects and consequences of illicit use on the human body, to the therapeutic potential of the cannabinoids.

Myocardial Energy Metabolism

Myocardial Energy Metabolism
  • Author : J.W. de Jong
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :310
  • ISBN : 9789400913196
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Summary :

Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury

Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury
  • Author : Pierce A. Grace,RT Mathie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999-02-04
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 0632050217
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Summary : Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury is concerned with the consequences of interrupting and restoring blood flow to tissues. Many common clinical conditions are caused by interruption of blood flow to tissues (eg, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke); blood flow is also interrupted deliberately in many surgical procedures (eg, cardiac surgery, arterial surgery, transplant surgery, limb surgery with tourniquet). In treating such conditions or after performing such operations the aim of the clinician is to restore the blood supply to the ischaemic tissue. Paradoxically, restoration of blood flow to ischaemic tissues can lead to further tissue damage with the potential for severe local and systemic injury. This book focuses on the clinical, pathological and biochemical processes involved in ischaemia-reperfusion injury and gives an overview of the strategies that may be adopted to mitigate or prevent such injury. This book will be of interest to both clinicians and scientists who have to deal with or have interest in this difficult but important problem.

Regulation of Cardiac Contractility

Regulation of Cardiac Contractility
  • Author : R. John Solaro
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-04-01
  • Total pages :50
  • ISBN : 9781615041756
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Summary : Contractility describes the relative ability of the heart to eject a stroke volume (SV) at a given prevailing afterload (arterial pressure) and preload (end-diastolic volume; EDV). Various measures of contractility are related to the fraction as the SV/EDV or the ejection fraction, and the dynamics of ejection as determined from maximum pressure rise in the ventricles or arteries or from aortic flow velocities determined by echocardiography. At the cellular level, the ultimate determinant of contractility is the relative tension generation and shortening capability of the molecular motors (myosin cross-bridges) of the sarcomeres as determined by the rates and extent of Ca activation, the turnover kinetics of the cross-bridges, and the relative Ca responsiveness of the sarcomeres. Engagement of the regulatory signaling cascades controlling contractility occurs with occupancy and signal transduction by receptors for neurohumors of the autonomic nervous system as well as growth and stress signaling pathways. Contractility is also determined by the prevailing conditions of pH, temperature, and redox state. Short-term control of contractility is fully expressed during exercise. In long-term responses to stresses on the heart, contractility is modified by cellular remodeling and altered signaling that may compensate for a time but which ultimately may fail, leading to disorders.

The Chemokine Receptors

The Chemokine Receptors
  • Author : Jeffrey K. Harrison,Nicholas W. Lukacs
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11-17
  • Total pages :403
  • ISBN : 9781597450201
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Summary : This volume, new to The Receptors series, focuses on several areas, including the birth, maturation, and structure of Chemokines; Neutrophil, Dendritic, and Lymphocyte trafficking; and Chemokine Receptors in diseases such as AIDs and lung cancer. In particular the book contains cutting-edge information ranging from basic molecular and cellular mechanisms to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines.

Phytopharmaceuticals for Brain Health

Phytopharmaceuticals for Brain Health
  • Author : Shahnaz Subhan,Manashi Bagchi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-09-27
  • Total pages :444
  • ISBN : 9781351649032
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Summary : Research studies demonstrate diet and proper nutrition in conjunction with cognitive, mental, social, and physical activities can significantly help in improving brain health with advancing age, and potentially reduce the risk of cognitive decline. These studies of phytopharmaceuticals and medicinal plants, demonstrate the efficacy of Huperzine A, berry anthocyanins, trans-resveratrol, Ginkgo biloba, Bacopa monniera, Centella asiatica, tocotrienols, and palm oil in boosting brain health and physical well-being. In addition, consumption of marine fishes and general seafood is recommended for long-term nutritional intervention to preserve mental health, hinder neurodegenerative processes, and sustain cognitive capacities in humans. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3/n-6 PUFAs, flavonoids, and antioxidants prevent the initiation and progression of many neurological disorders. This book is a comprehensive review of phytopharmaceuticals impacting brain health with emphasis on diverse applications in food and nutrition sciences, biomedicine, neurology and other scientific and medical fields. It details available methods and contains numerous references making this the perfect guide for scientists who want to explore the fascinating world of phytopharmaceuticals with relation to brain health. Phytopharmaceuticals for Brain Health appeals to a diverse range of readers in industry, medical doctors, research and academia, including biologists, biochemists, food scientists, nutritionists and health professionals. Overall, this book brings a classic scenario of neurological problems to possible amelioration using novel nutraceuticals and functional foods.

Sphingolipids as Signaling and Regulatory Molecules

Sphingolipids as Signaling and Regulatory Molecules
  • Author : Charles Chalfant,Maurizio Del Poeta
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-01-12
  • Total pages :291
  • ISBN : 1441967419
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Summary : This book attempts to analyze the latest discoveries in sphingolipid biology and how the alteration of their metabolism leads to altered signaling events and to the development of pathobiological disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, diabetes, inflammation and infectious diseases.

Nanozymology

Nanozymology
  • Author : Xiyun Yan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-30
  • Total pages :564
  • ISBN : 9789811514906
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Summary : This book introduces the new concept of “nanozyme”, which refers to nanomaterials with intrinsic enzymatic activity, rather than nanomaterials with biological enzymes incorporated on the surface. The book presents the cutting-edge advances in nanozyme, with emphasis on state-of-the-art applications in many important fields, such as in the biomedical fields and for environmental protection. The nanozyme is a totally new type of artificial enzyme and exhibits huge advantages over natural enzymes, including greater stability, low cost, versatility, simplicity, and suitability for industry. It is of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers, as well as graduate students in nanoscience and technology, and biology wishing to learn the core principles, methods, and the corresponding applications of “nanozyme”.

Reactive Oxygen Species in Biology and Human Health

Reactive Oxygen Species in Biology and Human Health
  • Author : Shamim I. Ahmad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-19
  • Total pages :543
  • ISBN : 9781498735469
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Summary : Unlike other narrowly focused books, Reactive Oxygen Species in Biology and Human Health provides a comprehensive overview of ROS. It covers the current status of research and provides pointers to future research goals. Additionally, it authoritatively reviews the impact of reactive oxygen species with respect to various human diseases and discusses antioxidants and other compounds that counteract oxidative stress. Comprised of seven sections, the first section describes the introduction, detection, and production of ROS, emphasizing phenolic compounds and vitamin E for their abilities to act as antioxidants. This section also highlights the role of lipoprotein-associated oxidative stress. Section two addresses the importance of iron accumulation in the brain resulting in the development of a group of neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) and identifies several causative genes for neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) associated with Parkinsonism-related disorders. The third section discusses a number of NDs, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Section four addresses autoimmune diseases caused by ROS, including asthma, autoimmune liver diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, and systemic lupus. Section five analyzes a number of different cancers, including lung cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma, along with possible treatment regimens. Section six discusses cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) induced by ROS, presents the ROS-associated complex biochemical processes inducing inflammation as an important cause of CVDs, and explains the roles carotenoids play in preventing CVDs. The final section addresses other human diseases induced by oxidative stress, including sickle cell disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, retinopathy, fibromyalgia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, infertility, and aging of human skin.

Advances in Experimental Surgery

Advances in Experimental Surgery
  • Author : Paulo N. Martins
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11
  • Total pages :767
  • ISBN : 1536127752
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Summary : Experimental surgery is an important link for the development in clinical surgery, research and teaching. Experimental surgery was part of the most important surgical discoveries in the past century. Since 1901 nine Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the pioneers had remarkable achievements in the basic or practical surgery. In recent 20 years, experimental surgery has achieved new advances, like laparoscopic and robotic surgery, tissue engineering, and gene therapy which are widely applied in clinic surgery. The present book covers wide experimental surgery in preclinical research models subdivided in two volumes. Volume I introduces surgical basic notions, techniques, and different surgical models involved in basic experimental surgery and review the biomechanical models, ischemia/reperfusion injury models, repair and regeneration models, and organ and tissue transplantation models, respectively. Volume II introduces several specific experimental models such as laparoscopic and bariatric experimental surgical models. The second volume also introduces graft-versus-host disease, and other experimental models. Review the advances and development of recent techniques such as tissue engineering, organ preservation, wound healing and scarring, gene therapy and robotic surgery. The book documents the enormous volume of knowledge we have acquired in the field of experimental surgery. In this book, we have invited experts from the United States, Canada, France, Germany, China, Japan, Korea, UK, Sweden, Netherland, Hungary and Turkey to contribute 36 chapters in the fields of their expertise. These two volumes are the compilation of basic experimental surgery and updated advances of new development in this field that will be invaluable to surgeons, residents, graduate students, surgical researchers, physicians, immunologists, veterinarians and nurses in surgery.

Systems and Synthetic Immunology

Systems and Synthetic Immunology
  • Author : Shailza Singh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-05-09
  • Total pages :269
  • ISBN : 9811533520
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Summary : Systems and Synthetic Immunology focuses on the similarities between biology and engineering at the systems level, which are important for applying engineering theories to biology problems. With the advent of new genomic techniques, there are numerous systematic investigations underway in the scientific world. This volume highlights techniques that can be used to effectively combine two of the most essential biological fields - Systems Biology and Synthetic Immunology. The respective chapters discuss the role of synthetic immunology in biotechnology, production of biomaterials, and their use in vaccine delivery. Further topics include the importance of cytokines; the use of genomic engineering tools in immunotherapy; immunosensors; nanotherapeutics; and bioinformatics tools in biomedical applications. Given its scope, the book offers readers an up-to-date and comprehensive review of this unique and dynamic field of research.

Vascular Development

Vascular Development
  • Author : Derek J. Chadwick,Jamie A. Goode
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-08-20
  • Total pages :260
  • ISBN : 9780470319420
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Summary : The formation of blood vessels is an essential aspect of embryogenesis in vertebrates. It is a central feature of numerous post-embryonic processes, including tissue and organ growth and regeneration. It is also part of the pathology of tumour formation and certain inflammatory conditions. In recent years, comprehension of the molecular genetics of blood vessel formation has progressed enormously and studies in vertebrate model systems, especially the mouse and the zebrafish, have identified a common set of molecules and processes that are conserved throughout vertebrate embryogenesis while, in addition, highlighting aspects that may differ between different animal groups. The discovery in the past decade of the crucial role of new blood vessel formation for the development of cancers has generated great interest in angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones), with its major implications for potential cancer-control strategies. In addition, there are numerous situations where therapeutic treatments either require or would be assisted by vasculogenesis (the de novo formation of blood vessels). In particular, post-stroke therapies could include treatments that stimulate neovascularization of the affected tissues. The development of such treatments, however, requires thoroughly understanding the developmental properties of endothelial cells and the basic biology of blood vessel formation. While there are many books on angiogenesis, this unique book focuses on exactly this basic biology and explores blood vessel formation in connection with tissue development in a range of animal models. It includes detailed discussions of relevant cell biology, genetics and embryogenesis of blood vessel formation and presents insights into the cross-talk between developing blood vessels and other tissues. With contributions from vascular biologists, cell biologists and developmental biologists, a comprehensive and highly interdisciplinary volume is the outcome.

The HDL Handbook

The HDL Handbook
  • Author : Tsugikazu Komoda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-16
  • Total pages :354
  • ISBN : 9780124079243
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Summary : The HDL Handbook: Biological Functions to Clinical Implications brings laboratory research in HDL from bench to bedside in this needed resource for researchers and clinicians studying cholesterol, lipids, epidemiology, biochemistry, molecular medicine, and pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, researchers and clinicians working with an aging population, corporate researchers, post-doctorates; medical students and graduate students will find this publication useful because the scope of coverage includes basic science, genetics, epidemiology, and treatment of HDL cholesterol as well as potential targets to modify HDL cholesterol. Provides bench-to-bedside coverage of HDL with thorough coverage of basic science, genetics, epidemiology, and treatment Presents a complete update with six new chapters on the latest advances in HDL cholesterol research with international perspective New chapters on proteomics, clinical impact of LCAT in HDL metabolism, and an in-depth discussion of potential targets to modify HDL provide a translational reference for clinicians

Clinical Electrocardiography

Clinical Electrocardiography
  • Author : Ary Louis Goldberger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : 0323002528
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Summary : The sixth edition of CLINICAL ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY: A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH is an internationally acclaimed introductory text on ECG analysis. Its simple-to-follow, yet comprehensive coverage presents the ECG as it is used in the emergency wards and intensive care units, as well as in the day-to-day management of inpatients and outpatients. It covers the basic principles of electrocardiography, describes the major abnormalities of heart rhythm and conduction, and contains a set of unknowns for review and self-assessment. This is an ideal text for students and a great review for practicing clinicians. Incorporates practice questions throughout the book for review, self-test and understanding of key concepts. Provides separate chapters devoted to cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death, digitalis toxicity and limitations and uses of ECG for an in-depth study of these special and important topics. Presents simple, yet comprehensive coverage of information in an accessible writing style without compromising an in-depth coverage for beginning students or as a review for practicing clinicians.

Purinergic Regulation of Respiratory Diseases

Purinergic Regulation of Respiratory Diseases
  • Author : Maryse Picher,Richard C. Boucher
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-05-11
  • Total pages :282
  • ISBN : 9400712170
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Summary : We proudly present the first book to integrate all aspects of purinergic signaling in the respiratory system. The first chapters introduce basic notions of purinergic pharmacology and metabolism, which allows readers from all scientific backgrounds to fully grasp the importance of these signaling networks for airway defenses, including mucociliary clearance and inflammatory responses. Then, chapters are devoted to the groundbreaking discovery that chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), present specific aberrances in purinergic signaling which essentially drive lung complications. The last chapters describe the animal models used to investigate purinergic signaling in respiratory diseases, and the therapeutic applications developed by the pharmaceutical industry based on receptor agonists/antagonists and metabolic correctors. This highly comprehensive manuscript constitutes an invaluable tool for beginners and experts to follow the rapidly evolving research field of purinergic signaling. Furthermore, the critical analysis of past clinical protocols should facilitate the identification of potent therapeutic targets, and provide a better understanding of the data acquired in current clinical trials.