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Patient Derived Tumor Xenograft Models

Patient Derived Tumor Xenograft Models
  • Author : Rajesh Uthamanthil,Peggy Tinkey,Elisa de Stanchina
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-13
  • Total pages :486
  • ISBN : 9780128040614
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Summary : Patient Derived Tumor Xenograft Models: Promise, Potential and Practice offers guidance on how to conduct PDX modeling and trials, including how to know when these models are appropriate for use, and how the data should be interpreted through the selection of immunodeficient strains. In addition, proper methodologies suitable for growing different type of tumors, acquisition of pathology, genomic and other data about the tumor, potential pitfalls, and confounding background pathologies that occur in these models are also included, as is a discussion of the facilities and infrastructure required to operate a PDX laboratory. Offers guidance on data interpretation and regulatory aspects Provides useful techniques and strategies for working with PDX models Includes practical tools and potential pitfalls for best practices Compiles all knowledge of PDX models research in one resource Presents the results of first ever global survey on standards of PDX development and usage in academia and industry

Patient-Derived Xenograft Models of Human Cancer

Patient-Derived Xenograft Models of Human Cancer
  • Author : Yuzhuo Wang,Dong Lin,Peter W. Gout
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-06-29
  • Total pages :204
  • ISBN : 9783319558257
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Summary : This book provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art review of PDX cancer models. In separately produced chapters, the history and evolution of PDX models is reviewed, methods of PDX model development are compared in detail, characteristics of available established models are presented, current applications are summarized and new perspectives about use of PDX models are proposed. Each chapter is written by a world-renowned expert who is conducting cutting-edge research in the field. Each of the subsections provide a comprehensive review of existing literature addressing the particular topic followed by a conclusive paragraph detailing future directions. Extensive illustrations make this an interactive text. Patient-Derived Xenograft Models of Human Cancer will serve as a highly useful resource for researchers and clinicians dealing with, or interested in, this important topic. It will provide a concise yet comprehensive summary of the current status of the field that will help guide preclinical and clinical applications as well as stimulate investigative efforts. This book will propagate innovative concepts and prompt the development of ground-breaking technological solutions in this field.

Patient-Derived Mouse Models of Cancer

Patient-Derived Mouse Models of Cancer
  • Author : Robert M. Hoffman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-08-31
  • Total pages :296
  • ISBN : 9783319574240
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Summary : This text highlights seminal discoveries and also provides comprehensive and state-of the-art approach to mouse models of human patient tumors. These areas include training, basic techniques, as well as general troubleshooting. Subsequent chapters focus on the different mouse models of patient tumors including the various strains of immunodeficient mice currently available and the transplantation techniques that can be used as well as state-of-the-art imaging techniques. Practical applications of the models from drug discovery, genome analysis to personalized treatment are also covered. Written by experts in that field, each of these sections address these critical issues. A brief review of the existing literature addressing the particular topic follows in each section. Presently, there is no single source to provide information on technique and uses of mouse models of human patient tumors. Patient-Derived Mouse Models of Cancer will satisfy this need for cancer researchers, oncologists, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry scientists as well as molecular biologists studying in vivo systems

Tumor Models in Cancer Research

Tumor Models in Cancer Research
  • Author : Beverly A. Teicher
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-12-01
  • Total pages :693
  • ISBN : 1607619687
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Summary : The past 6 years since the first edition of this book have seen great progress in the development of genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of cancer. These models are finding an important role in furthering our understanding of the biology of malignant disease. A comfortable position for GEM models in the routine conduct of screening for potential new therapeutics is coming more slowly but is coming. Increasing numbers of genetically engineered mice are available, some with conditional activation of oncogenes, some with multiple genetic changes providing mouse models that are moving closer to the human disease.

Anticancer Drug Development Guide

Anticancer Drug Development Guide
  • Author : Beverly A. Teicher,Paul A. Andrews
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-02-01
  • Total pages :451
  • ISBN : 9781592597390
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Summary : This unique volume traces the critically important pathway by which a "molecule" becomes an "anticancer agent. " The recognition following World War I that the administration of toxic chemicals such as nitrogen mustards in a controlled manner could shrink malignant tumor masses for relatively substantial periods of time gave great impetus to the search for molecules that would be lethal to specific cancer cells. Weare still actively engaged in that search today. The question is how to discover these "anticancer" molecules. Anticancer Drug Development Guide: Preclinical Screening, Clinical Trials, and Approval, Second Edition describes the evolution to the present of preclinical screening methods. The National Cancer Institute's high-throughput, in vitro disease-specific screen with 60 or more human tumor cell lines is used to search for molecules with novel mechanisms of action or activity against specific phenotypes. The Human Tumor Colony-Forming Assay (HTCA) uses fresh tumor biopsies as sources of cells that more nearly resemble the human disease. There is no doubt that the greatest successes of traditional chemotherapy have been in the leukemias and lymphomas. Since the earliest widely used in vivo drug screening models were the murine L 1210 and P388 leukemias, the community came to assume that these murine tumor models were appropriate to the discovery of "antileukemia" agents, but that other tumor models would be needed to discover drugs active against solid tumors.

Tumor Organoids

Tumor Organoids
  • Author : Shay Soker,Aleksander Skardal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-10-20
  • Total pages :213
  • ISBN : 9783319605111
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Summary : Cancer cell biology research in general, and anti-cancer drug development specifically, still relies on standard cell culture techniques that place the cells in an unnatural environment. As a consequence, growing tumor cells in plastic dishes places a selective pressure that substantially alters their original molecular and phenotypic properties.The emerging field of regenerative medicine has developed bioengineered tissue platforms that can better mimic the structure and cellular heterogeneity of in vivo tissue, and are suitable for tumor bioengineering research. Microengineering technologies have resulted in advanced methods for creating and culturing 3-D human tissue. By encapsulating the respective cell type or combining several cell types to form tissues, these model organs can be viable for longer periods of time and are cultured to develop functional properties similar to native tissues. This approach recapitulates the dynamic role of cell–cell, cell–ECM, and mechanical interactions inside the tumor. Further incorporation of cells representative of the tumor stroma, such as endothelial cells (EC) and tumor fibroblasts, can mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment. Collectively, bioengineered tumors create an important resource for the in vitro study of tumor growth in 3D including tumor biomechanics and the effects of anti-cancer drugs on 3D tumor tissue. These technologies have the potential to overcome current limitations to genetic and histological tumor classification and development of personalized therapies.

Cancer Models

Cancer Models
  • Author : Michael Breitenbach,Jens Hoffmann
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-02-05
  • Total pages :174
  • ISBN : 9782889457014
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Summary : Cancer research, like research on other diseases, highly depends on representative and reliable model systems. In the Research Topic “Cancer Models”, we collected original papers and review articles addressing the topic of tumor modeling from molecular biology, biochemistry, microorganisms, cells and organoids, fishes, animals and xenografts, up to computational cancer models and patient data analysis. This representative eBook describes that there is not a single molecular defined tumor but rather a heterogenic and highly variable complex of different individual diseases. This is what makes research on cancer so difficult, expensive, and explains the broad number of models needed for research. Our authors describe new next-generation sequencing-based methods to analyze complex patterns of chromosomal aberrations in order to understand the molecular biology of tumorigenesis as well as the role of cellular senescence and dormancy in the aetiology of tumor formation and development of therapy resistance of tumors. The current developments on 3D cultures are thoroughly reviewed, as these models help to overcome the current limitations of cell cultures and allow a more accurate mimicry of the native cancer tissue, including cellular heterogeneity and restore specific biochemical and morphological. Reviews about tumor models in zebrafish, different transgenic mouse strains and pigs conclude the book. In the final two chapters of this volume, the authors discuss the theoretical and mathematical models developed in cancer research.

HIV-1 Latency

HIV-1 Latency
  • Author : Guido Silvestri,Mathias Lichterfeld
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-11
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9783030028169
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Summary : This volume summarizes recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of HIV-1 latency, in characterizing residual viral reservoirs, and in developing targeted interventions to reduce HIV-1 persistence during antiretroviral therapy. Specific chapters address the molecular mechanisms that govern and regulate HIV-1 transcription and latency; assays and technical approaches to quantify viral reservoirs in humans and animal models; the complex interchange between viral reservoirs and the host immune system; computational strategies to model viral reservoir dynamics; and the development of therapeutic approaches that target viral reservoir cells. With contributions from an interdisciplinary group of investigators that cover a broad spectrum of subjects, from molecular virology to proof-of-principle clinical trials, this book is a valuable resource for basic scientists, translational investigators, infectious-disease physicians, individuals living with HIV/AIDS and the general public.

Cancer Genetics and Genomics for Personalized Medicine

Cancer Genetics and Genomics for Personalized Medicine
  • Author : Il-Jin Kim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-04-11
  • Total pages :286
  • ISBN : 9781315341101
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Summary : This book covers almost all fields of cancer genetics and genomics for personalized medicine. Targeted therapy, or precision medicine, or personalized medicine is becoming a standard treatment for many diseases, including cancer. However, how much do we know about the personalized medicine approach? This lucid book helps undergraduate and graduate students, professional researchers, and clinicians to better understand the key concept of personalized medicine. The most up-to-date topics on personalized medicine in this book cover the recent trends in and updates on lung, gastric, liver, breast, and other types of cancers. Circulating tumor cell, cell-free circulating DNA, and microRNAs are discussed as new diagnostic and prognostic markers for cancer. The avatar mouse model is also discussed for maximizing treatment efficacy and prognosis prediction, and so is microenvironment as a drug resistance mechanism. With classical and new pathological approaches, the book provides a systemic overview of personalized immunotherapies and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy, followed by new emerging fields of hereditary cancer, thereby equipping readers to eventually contribute in developing more advanced tools and therapies for curing cancer.

Comparative Anatomy and Histology

Comparative Anatomy and Histology
  • Author : Piper M. Treuting,Suzanne M. Dintzis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01
  • Total pages :461
  • ISBN : 9780123813619
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Summary : Comparative Anatomy and Histology: A Mouse and Human Atlas is aimed at the new mouse investigator as well as medical and veterinary pathologists who need to expand their knowledge base into comparative anatomy and histology. It guides the reader through normal mouse anatomy and histology using direct comparison to the human. The side by side comparison of mouse and human tissues highlight the unique biology of the mouse, which has great impact on the validation of mouse models of human disease. Print + Electronic product - E-book available on Elsevier's Expert Consult platform- through a scratch-off pin code inside the print book, customers will be able to access the full text online, perform quick searches, and download images at expertconsult.com Offers the first comprehensive source for comparing human and mouse anatomy and histology through over 600 full-color images, in one reference work Experts from both human and veterinary fields take readers through each organ system in a side-by-side comparative approach to anatomy and histology - human Netter anatomy images along with Netter-style mouse images Enables human and veterinary pathologists to examine tissue samples with greater accuracy and confidence Teaches biomedical researchers to examine the histologic changes in their mutant mice

Animal Models in Cancer Drug Discovery

Animal Models in Cancer Drug Discovery
  • Author : Asfar Azmi,Ramzi M. Mohammad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-16
  • Total pages :470
  • ISBN : 9780128147054
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Summary : Animal Models in Cancer Drug Discovery brings forward the most cutting-edge developments in tumor model systems for translational cancer research. The reader can find under this one volume virtually all types of existing and emerging tumor models in use by the research community. This book provides a deeper insight on how these newer models could de-risk modern drug discovery. Areas covered include up to date information on latest organoid derived models and newer genetic models. Additionally, the book discusses humanized animal tumor models for cancer immunotherapy and how they leverage personalized therapies. The chapter on larger animal, canine models and their use in and their use in pre-investigational new drug (pre-IND) development makes the volume unique. Unlike before, the incorporation of several simplified protocols, breeding methodologies, handling and assessment procedures to study drug intervention makes this book a must read. Animal Models in Cancer Drug Discovery is a valuable resource for basic and translational cancer researchers, drug discovery researchers, contract research organizations, and knowledge seekers at all levels in the biomedical field. Encompasses discussions on innovative animal models, xenograft, genetic models, primary models, organoid systems, humanized and other models in modern biology paradigms that are enhancing research in the field of drug discover Covers the use of these models in personalized medicine, immunotherapy, toxicology, pre-IND assessments and related drug development arenas Presents protocols, procedures, and a comprehensive glossary to help new readers understand technical terms and specialized nomenclature

Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Model and Precision Cancer Therapy

Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Model and Precision Cancer Therapy
  • Author : Fuyuhiko Tamanoi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-12
  • Total pages :178
  • ISBN : 9780128173992
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Summary : Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Model and Precision Cancer Therapy, Volume 46 in The Enzymes series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on the history of CAM model development, an overview of various CAM-based cancer models, the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane as an in vivo experimental model to study multiple myelomak, bioluminescent CAM models for screening drugs against pancreatic cancer, X-ray sensitizer screen, patient derived tumor model for esophageal cancer, renal cancer and metastasis, nanoparticle characterization and tumor targeting, and patient derived tumor model for human nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in The Enzymes series

Anticancer Drug Development

Anticancer Drug Development
  • Author : Bruce C. Baguley,David J. Kerr
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-11-17
  • Total pages :397
  • ISBN : 0080490441
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Summary : Here in a single source is a complete spectrum of ideas on the development of new anticancer drugs. Containing concise reviews of multidisciplinary fields of research, this book offers a wealth of ideas on current and future molecular targets for drug design, including signal transduction, the cell division cycle, and programmed cell death. Detailed descriptions of sources for new drugs and methods for testing and clinical trial design are also provided. One work that can be consulted for all aspects of anticancer drug development Concise reviews of research fields, combined with practical scientific detail, written by internationally respected experts A wealth of ideas on current and future molecular targets for drug design, including signal transduction, the cell division cycle, and programmed cell death Detailed descriptions of the sources of new anticancer drugs, including combinatorial chemistry, phage display, and natural products Discussion of how new drugs can be tested in preclinical systems, including the latest technology of robotic assay systems, cell culture, and experimental animal techniques Hundreds of references that allow the reader to access relevant scientific and medical literature Clear illustrations, some in color, that provide both understanding of the field and material for teaching

Nanotechnology Applications for Cancer Chemotherapy

Nanotechnology Applications for Cancer Chemotherapy
  • Author : Sanyog Jain,Kaisar Raza,Ashish Kumar Agrawal,Ankur Vaidya
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-01
  • Total pages :702
  • ISBN : 9780128178478
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Summary : Applications of Nanotechnology in Cancer Chemotherapy offers a complete and concise summary of nanotechnological interventions for cancer management. It highlights the basics of oncology, the cancer microenvironment, targets for active drug delivery, the underlying mechanisms and molecular pathways to enhance the drug delivery to the cancer site. The book discusses the principles of basic and innovative nanocarrier-based therapeutic approaches to modulate the progression of the disease. In addition, this book also explores the evolving targeting approaches specific to the cancer site and type. The scope of the book is not limited to targeted drug delivery for various cancers, but also explores the advancements in cancer imaging and diagnostics employing the nanotechnological tools. Emphasis has been given on the important evaluation techniques like in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo animal models to assess the performance of cancer nanomedicines. The book includes clinical study reports of various drug moieties explored using variety of nanoconstructs in myriad cancer conditions with the input of global market and pharmacoeconomics. Discusses how organic and inorganic nanoplatforms are being used in cancer treatment Shows how nanotechnology is being used to create new and more accurate diagnostic tools Surveys the current generation of cancer nanomedicines, assessing their advantages and challenges

Metabolic Signaling

Metabolic Signaling
  • Author : Sarah-Maria Fendt,Sophia Y. Lunt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-15
  • Total pages :294
  • ISBN : 1493987682
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Summary : This book provides protocols to quantify metabolism, to identify metabolic crosstalk, and to setup and develop tools and models to gain insight into metabolic signaling using experimental and computational approaches. Chapters detail protocols to quantify metabolism, identify metabolic crosstalk, and develop tools and models to gain a systems-level insight into metabolic signaling. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Metabolic Signaling: Methods and Protocols aims to provide researchers with methods to study, perturb, and functionally interpret metabolism and metabolic signaling from the sub-cellular to the whole-body level.

Advances in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Model Systems, Microenvironmental Influences, Therapy, and Origins

Advances in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Model Systems, Microenvironmental Influences, Therapy, and Origins
  • Author : Viive Maarika Howell,Ben Davidson,TIAN-Li WANG,Christina Annunziata
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-02-03
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889197699
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Summary : This eBook provides a compendium of the current state-of-the-art in research tools for, and understanding of, the critical research areas in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with a strong emphasis on (HG-SOC). Research areas covered include therapy response and development, microenvironmental influences and the etiology and progression of EOC. Ten articles detail established and novel in vivo and in vitro model systems. These include primary and immortalized cell culture in 2D and 3D as well as genetically engineered, transgenic, spontaneous, syngeneic, classical xenograft and patient derived xenograft mouse models. The generation of genetically engineered mouse models of HG-SOC has been a major dilemma as models with the oncogenic aberrations common in the human malignancy do not accurately recapitulate HG-SOC. Conversely, commonly used HG-SOC cell lines have been found to not harbor the expected genetic changes. These issues as well as the rapid acceptance of patient derived xenograft models are reviewed. Five articles discuss different aspects of the tumor microenvironment including its role in therapy resistance, disease progression and metastasis. Mutation of BRCA1/2 continues to be the best defined risk factor for HG-SOC. Three articles discuss BRCA-loss in the context of disease development, targeted therapies and changes in preventative measures proposed for mutation carriers in light of the recent advances in knowledge regarding the origins of this malignancy. An image of HG-SOC with reduced BRCA1 expression is featured on the cover (image by VM Howell). A major clinical issue for patients with HG-SOC is the development of therapy resistance. Five articles focus on therapy resistance and different ways to overcome resistance. Overall, this eBook is an outstanding resource to aid researchers design their programs of research and determine the most appropriate and up-to-date EOC model systems to address their research questions.

Predictive Biomarkers in Oncology

Predictive Biomarkers in Oncology
  • Author : Sunil Badve,George Louis Kumar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-12-06
  • Total pages :642
  • ISBN : 9783319952284
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Summary : “Precision/personalized or stratified medicine” refers to the tailoring of medical treatment or drug administration to the individual characteristics of each patient treatment. It does not literally mean that a pharmaceutical company makes a drug for an individual patient for consumption and treatment but rather means the ability to stratify (or classify) individuals into sub-populations that differ in their responsiveness to a specific drug. A marker that provides information on the likely response to therapy, i.e., either in terms of tumor shrinkage or survival of the patient is termed “predictive biomarker”. Despite their promise in precision medicine and the explosion of knowledge in this area, there is not a single source on this subject that puts all this evidence together in a concise or richly illustrated and easy to understand manner. This book provides a collection of ingeniously organized, well-illustrated and up-to-date authoritative chapters divided into five sections that are clear and easy to understand. Section one provides an overview of biomarkers, introduces the basic terminologies, definitions, technologies, tools and concepts associated with this subject in the form of illustrations/graphics, photographs and concise texts. Several recent biomarker endeavors that have been initiated and funded by the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, FDA and other International organizations are presented. Section two involves the signaling pathways controlling cell growth and differentiation altered in cancer. This section analyzes how predictive biomarkers are altered (expressed or amplified) across cancer types. Section three explores how predictive biomarkers play a role in patient stratification and tailored treatment in relationship to specific cancers. In addition, it includes discussion on the various precision medicine initiatives that are going on across the globe (e.g. TARGET, NCI-MATCH, BATTLE, SHIVA, etc.). Section four discusses: (a) how pharmaceutical companies validate predictive biomarker assays and accompanying companion diagnostics either internally or externally with partner companies such as central laboratories or clinical research organizations, and (b) how predictive biomarker tests fall under the oversight of US FDA, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and state laws. Section five wraps up novel agents and targets that are being used as targets for cancer therapeutics. The biomarkers associated with these protocols will also be presented. Throughout the book, sidebars, special interest boxes and illustrations are used to explain terms that are either newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized. Predictive Biomarkers in Oncology will serve as a definitive guide for practicing pathologists, oncologists, basic researchers, and personnel in the pharmaceutical or diagnostic industry interested in learning how “predictive biomarkers” are used in precision cancer therapy.

Drug Discovery and Development

Drug Discovery and Development
  • Author : Omboon Vallisuta,Suleiman Olimat
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-06-03
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : 9789535121282
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Summary : It is very important for scientists all over the globe to enhance drug discovery research for better human health. This book demonstrates that various expertise are essential for drug discovery including synthetic or natural drugs, clinical pharmacology, receptor identification, drug metabolism, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research. The following 5 sections cover diverse chapter topics in drug discovery: Natural Products as Sources of Leading Molecules in Drug Discovery; Oncology and Drug Discovery; Receptors Involvement in Drug Discovery; Management and Development of Drugs against Infectious Diseases; Advanced Methodology.

New Approaches to the Management of Primary and Secondary CNS Tumors

New Approaches to the Management of Primary and Secondary CNS Tumors
  • Author : Lee Roy Morgan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-23
  • Total pages :214
  • ISBN : 9789535130512
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Summary : Several new concepts are reviewed and discussed in this book and allude to the transport of drugs bound to red blood cells into the vascular blood-brain barrier and into cancer cells. Such a transport system is novel and of potential therapeutic potential. It is the goal of this book to provide information and data that will be useful for others to develop new approaches for the management of CNS malignancies.

Bioinformatics Analysis of Single Cell Sequencing Data and Applications in Precision Medicine

Bioinformatics Analysis of Single Cell Sequencing Data and Applications in Precision Medicine
  • Author : Jialiang Yang,Liao Bo,Tuo Zhang,Yifei Xu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-27
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889635283
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Summary :

Gynecologic Cancers

Gynecologic Cancers
  • Author : Samir Farghaly
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-02
  • Total pages :340
  • ISBN : 9789535122548
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Summary : Gynecologic cancers include malignancies of the female genital tract involving the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries. In the USA, 98,280 women had gynecological cancers in 2015, and 30,440 died of these cancers. World wide, the number of women who had cancers of the female genital tract was 1,085,900, in 2012 and the number of deaths was 417,600. Cancers of the uterus, cervix and ovary are most common. Widespread screening with the Pap test has allowed physicians to find per-cancerous changes in the cervix and vagina. This has assisted in identifying some invasive cancers early. Multidisciplinary team of experts includes specialists in medical oncology, gynecologic oncology, radiology, urology, radiotherapy, and surgery who work together to determine the best treatment approach for the patient. Recent progress in the development of new surgical techniques has transformed the treatment of gynecologic cancers, resulting in greater surgical precision and fewer complications. In addition targeted adjuvant therapy has become useful in improving the oncologic outcome of patients with these cancers.