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Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Alberto Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780444594716
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Summary : Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and optimization is analyzed. The relation between the mixture molecular properties, the selection of the thermodynamic model and the process technology that could be applied are discussed. A classification of mixtures, separation process, thermodynamic models and technologies is presented to guide the engineer in the world of separation processes. The phase condition required for a given reacting system is studied at subcritical and supercritical conditions. The four cardinal points of phase equilibrium engineering are: the chemical plant or process, the laboratory, the modeling of phase equilibria and the simulator. The harmonization of all these components to obtain a better design or operation is the ultimate goal of phase equilibrium engineering. Methodologies are discussed using relevant industrial examples The molecular nature and composition of the process mixture is given a key role in process decisions Phase equilibrium diagrams are used as a drawing board for process implementation

Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering

Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering
  • Author : Stanley M. Walas
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :688
  • ISBN : 9781483145082
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Summary : Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering is devoted to the thermodynamic basis and practical aspects of the calculation of equilibrium conditions of multiple phases that are pertinent to chemical engineering processes. Efforts have been made throughout the book to provide guidance to adequate theory and practice. The book begins with a long chapter on equations of state, since it is intimately bound up with the development of thermodynamics. Following material on basic thermodynamics and nonidealities in terms of fugacities and activities, individual chapters are devoted to equilibria primarily between pairs of phases. A few topics that do not fit into these categories and for which the state of the art is not yet developed quantitatively have been relegated to a separate chapter. The chapter on chemical equilibria is pertinent since many processes involve simultaneous chemical and phase equilibria. Also included are chapters on the evaluation of enthalpy and entropy changes of nonideal substances and mixtures, and on experimental methods. This book is intended as a reference and self-study as well as a textbook either for full courses in phase equilibria or as a supplement to related courses in the chemical engineering curriculum. Practicing engineers concerned with separation technology and process design also may find the book useful.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082553
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Summary : This volume on phase equilibrium engineering (PEE) aims to fill the gap between the books on reactors and separation process design and the textbooks on chemical engineering thermodynamics. The goal is to change the focus from the use of thermodynamic relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. In this way, phase equilibrium thermodynamics is put to work. The main goal of PEE is the design of the system conditions to achieve the desired phase equilibrium scenario that the process at hand requires. In this chapter, the philosophy of phase equilibrium thermodynamic modeling is discussed in the context of process development and chemical plant operation. Typical phase scenarios that are encountered in separation, materials, and chemical process are presented as well as the problem of phase design and the PEE tools.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082652
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Summary : The benefits of using SCF as reaction media have promoted an intense research and development activity in this field. In this chapter, several case studies demonstrate the advantages of working under supercritical conditions. In particular, gas–liquid catalyzed reactions are one of the areas where the use of supercritical fluids is very attractive. In general, these reactions are diffusion-controlled and the use of supercritical fluids increases the reaction rate by eliminating the gas–liquid interface. In this chapter also, the interesting properties of operation under near-critical conditions are analyzed: higher solubility of reactants and products in the supercritical phase, reduced deposition of reacting components on the catalyst pores, diffusion coefficients higher than in liquids, independent control of the concentration of permanent gases like H2, O2, or CO in the reaction mixture, higher thermal capacity, and low interfacial tension The hydrogenation of low volatile liquids, using solid–fluid heterogeneous catalysts, is presented to show the advantages of working under supercritical conditions. In this case study, the selection of the process conditions that guarantees operation under a supercritical single-phase state is discussed as a typical phase equilibrium engineering problem. Finally, for reactions in which the SCF plays a role not only as solvent but also as a reactant, the problem of phase condition design and cosolvent selection is addressed.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082614
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Summary : This chapter starts with the analysis of the distillation path of binary mixtures on the general phase behavior P–T diagram of binary mixtures. The univariant lines of these diagrams limit the region of vapor–liquid equilibria where binary distillation can be applied. On this basis, the conditions under which distillation is possible for types I, II, IV, and V of binary mixtures are discussed. Furthermore, in this chapter, the principles of fractional distillation, as well as the computational procedures, are discussed. The thermodynamic modeling of a train of distillation columns to separate the components of an ethane-cracked gas mixture is used to develop a strategy for an equation of state parameter tuning. This strategy is based on the analysis of the distillation column phase equilibrium sensitivity and leads to an unique matrix of equation of state dominant binary parameters for the whole fractionation train. The chapter ends with a list of phase equilibrium engineering guidelines to make a realistic design/simulation of distillation columns.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Martín Cismondi,Marcelo S. Zabaloy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082591
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Summary : This chapter illustrates the wide variety of binary fluid phase equilibrium diagrams that can be obtained using models based on equations of state (EOS). It also highlights the need for paying attention to the predicted binary key lines, such as the critical and the liquid–liquid–vapor equilibrium lines, when fitting binary interaction parameters of an EOS model. In addition, efficient algorithms for the EOS-based automated computation of complete Univariant Lines Phase Equilibrium Diagrams and of complete restricted binary phase equilibrium diagrams, such as isoplethic, isothermal, or isobaric diagrams, are described.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082584
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Summary : In previous chapters, we have seen the fundamental criteria for phase equilibria and how the phenomenological phase behavior and separation technology of real mixtures are determined by their constituent molecular interactions. Our purpose in this chapter is to present the properties of fluids and the models for the prediction of thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. These models are classified as predictive models using only pure component properties and semiempirical models based on a molecular thermodynamic approach. Finally, the chapter highlights the importance of the class of mixture and molecular interactions of its components in the selection of thermodynamic models for phase equilibrium calculations.

Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering

Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering
  • Author : Camila Gambini Pereira
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-17
  • Total pages :682
  • ISBN : 9780128115572
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Summary : Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering is the definitive book on thermodynamics of equilibrium applied to food engineering. Food is a complex matrix consisting of different groups of compounds divided into macronutrients (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins), and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals). The quality characteristics of food products associated with the sensorial, physical and microbiological attributes are directly related to the thermodynamic properties of specific compounds and complexes that are formed during processing or by the action of diverse interventions, such as the environment, biochemical reactions, and others. In addition, in obtaining bioactive substances using separation processes, the knowledge of phase equilibria of food systems is essential to provide an efficient separation, with a low cost in the process and high selectivity in the recovery of the desired component. This book combines theory and application of phase equilibria data of systems containing food compounds to help food engineers and researchers to solve complex problems found in food processing. It provides support to researchers from academia and industry to better understand the behavior of food materials in the face of processing effects, and to develop ways to improve the quality of the food products. Presents the fundamentals of phase equilibria in the food industry Describes both classic and advanced models, including cubic equations of state and activity coefficient Encompasses distillation, solid-liquid extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, crystallization and supercritical fluid extraction Explores equilibrium in advanced systems, including colloidal, electrolyte and protein systems

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082669
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Summary : The application of the principles of phase equilibrium engineering to the development of two innovative technologies for the production of biofuels is discussed in this chapter. The first technology is the production of biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils with supercritical methanol; the second, the extraction and dehydration of alcohols by near-critical dual effect solvents that exhibit good solvent power to extract alcohols and water entrainment effect to dehydrate the extracted alcohol. In the first case, the complexity of the reacting system, the large size asymmetry, and strong molecular interactions of the mixture components: methanol, vegetable oils, fatty esters, and glycerin precluded the design and analysis of the process conditions based on thermodynamic model predictions. Therefore, in this case, a systematic approach based on experimental studies was used to unveil the phase scenario and the physical properties required for the design and optimization of this technology. The conceptual design of extraction and dehydration of alcohols by near-critical solvents followed a different path. The process development was initially based on very limited experimental information. In this case, an equation of state for highly nonideal systems was the main tool for exploration of the process conditions over a wide range of pressures, temperatures, and compositions. This equation of state was based on a group contribution approach (GC-EOS) that allowed extrapolating the scarce experimental information available not only in pressure, temperature, and composition but also in molecular structure. The basic conceptual design was later confirmed by experimental information and pilot plant studies. In this case, the design of the experimental studies was guided by the process conceptual design. The experimental results provided key information for the upgrading of the thermodynamic model.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082638
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Summary : In this chapter, the problem of sustainability of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries and the principles of green chemistry are outlined. In particular, the need for secure and environmentally safe solvents (ESSs) is pointed out. There are several ESS alternatives under study nowadays, like ionic liquids, polymeric solvents, and simple liquids like fatty esters; however, an increasing attention is being paid to supercritical fluids (SCFs) for a wide variety of applications in the chemical and pharmaceutical as well as in the materials and electronic industry. In the present chapter after an introduction to the fundamentals of SCF extraction, PEE principles are applied to several case studies of SCF—substrate mixtures of natural products with different types of phase behavior. Finally the application of SCF for supercritical micronization is reviewed and a case study is presented.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082560
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Summary : The design of the phase scenario that meets the process needs defines a phase equilibrium engineering problem. The first step in the design of the phase scenario is to consider the mixture(s) to be handled in the process. What are the components, their chemical nature, composition, physical state, pressure, and/or temperature? This is a critical step and quite often one goes back to this step in the search of an answer to solve the phase design problem. The phase behavior of the mixture is closely determined by the molecular interactions of the components of the mixture. Therefore, an introduction to the different types of molecular interactions is provided in this chapter. Finally, a classification of molecules and families of separation problems is given, which shows the strong connection between the classes of molecules and the proper separation technologies.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082645
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Summary : In this chapter, supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of natural oil mixtures are presented as an alternative to traditional methods like steam distillation, liquid solvent extraction, or vacuum distillation. In the search of alternatives to traditional methods, the principles of phase equilibrium engineering are followed to analyze the SCF extraction and continuous fractionation of natural products. The fundamentals of these high pressure technologies, which combine the principles of distillation and extractive distillation, are presented together with the limitation of simple countercurrent fractionation, which in the end justifies the need of external reflux. Through several case studies, the optimization and solvent selection are analyzed for processes in which the fractionation is driven by the pressure, temperature, and flow rate of the SCF.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
  • Author : Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-04-02
  • Total pages :346
  • ISBN : 9780128082621
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Summary : In this chapter, two well-known separation processes are introduced: homogeneous and heterogeneous azeotropic distillation. Since these technologies are reviewed in many separation process textbooks, the aim here is only to highlight the underlying phase equilibrium engineering principles of homogeneous and heterogeneous azeotropic distillation. Moreover, these types of distillations require the selection of a proper solvent to accomplish the mixture fractionation. Besides discussing the solvent functionality to make a proper selection, in the second part of the chapter we show how to design adequate solvents for liquid extraction and extractive distillation by computer-aided molecular design of solvents.

Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures

Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures
  • Author : M. B. King
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-22
  • Total pages :604
  • ISBN : 9781483152417
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Summary : Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures deals with phase equilibrium and the methods of correlating, checking, and predicting phase data. Topics covered range from latent heat and vapor pressure to dilute solutions, ideal and near-ideal solutions, and consistency tests. Molecular considerations and their use for the prediction and correlation of data are also discussed. Comprised of nine chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the role of thermodynamics and the criteria for equilibrium between phases, along with fugacity and the thermodynamic functions of mixing. The discussion then turns to some of the phase phenomena which may be encountered in chemical engineering practice; methods of correlating and extending vapor pressure data and practical techniques for calculating latent heats from these data; the behavior of dilute solutions both at low and high pressures for reacting and non-reacting systems; and the behavior of ideal and near-ideal solutions. The remaining chapters explore non-ideal solutions at normal pressures; practical methods for testing the thermodynamic consistency of phase data; and the extent to which the broad aspects of phase behavior may be interpreted in the light of simple molecular considerations. This book is intended primarily for graduate chemical engineers but should also be of interest to those graduates in physics or chemistry who need to use phase equilibrium data.

Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers

Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers
  • Author : Noel de Nevers
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :632
  • ISBN : UVA:X004804191
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Summary : Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, third edition retains the characteristics that made this introductory text a success in prior editions. It is still a book that emphasizes material and energy balances and maintains a practical orientation throughout. No more math is included than is required to understand the concepts presented. To meet the demands of today's market, the author has included many problems suitable for solution by computer. Two brand new chapters are included. The first, on mixing, augments the book's coverage of practical issues encountered in this field. The second, on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), shows students the connection between hand and computational fluid dynamics.

Working Guide to Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria Calculations

Working Guide to Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria Calculations
  • Author : Tarek Ahmed
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-08-27
  • Total pages :300
  • ISBN : 1856179028
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Summary : Working Guide to Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria Calculations offers a practical guide for calculations of vapor-phase equilibria. The book begins by introducing basic concepts such as vapor pressure, vapor pressure charts, equilibrium ratios, and flash calculations. It then presents methods for predicting the equilibrium ratios of hydrocarbon mixtures: Wilson's correlation, Standing's correlation, convergence pressure method, and Whitson and Torp correlation. The book describes techniques to determine equilibrium ratios of the plus fraction, including Campbell's method, Winn's method, and Katz's method. The remaining chapters cover the solution of phase equilibrium problems in reservoir and process engineering; developments in the field of empirical cubic equations of state (EOS) and their applications in petroleum engineering; and the splitting of the plus fraction for EOS calculations. Includes explanations of formulas Step by step calculations Provides examples and solutions

Introduction To Phase Diagrams In Materials Science And Engineering

Introduction To Phase Diagrams In Materials Science And Engineering
  • Author : Saka Hiroyasu
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-01-08
  • Total pages :188
  • ISBN : 9789811203725
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Summary : Phase diagrams are a MUST for materials scientists and engineers (MSEs). However, understanding phase diagrams is a difficult task for most MSEs. The audience of this book are young MSEs who start learning phase diagrams and are supposed to become specialists and those who were trained in fields other than materials science and engineering but are involved in research and/or development of materials after they are employed.Ternary phase diagrams presented in Chapter 4 are far more complex than binary phase diagrams. For this reason, ternary phase diagrams are nowadays less and less taught. However, in ceramics and semiconductors ternary phase diagrams become more and more important. Recent software provides necessary information to handle ternary phase diagrams. However, needless to say, without fundamental knowledge of ternary phase diagrams it is impossible to understand ternary phase diagrams correctly. In this book ternary phase diagrams are presented in a completely original way, with many diagrams illustrated in full color.In this book the essence of phase diagrams is presented in a user-friendly manner. This book is expected to be a Bible for MSEs.

Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures

Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1969
  • Total pages :585
  • ISBN : OCLC:473321563
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Summary :

Phase Equilibria, Phase Diagrams and Phase Transformations

Phase Equilibria, Phase Diagrams and Phase Transformations
  • Author : Mats Hillert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-11-22
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781139465861
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Summary : Computational tools allow material scientists to model and analyze increasingly complicated systems to appreciate material behavior. Accurate use and interpretation however, requires a strong understanding of the thermodynamic principles that underpin phase equilibrium, transformation and state. This fully revised and updated edition covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics, with a view to modern computer applications. The theoretical basis of chemical equilibria and chemical changes is covered with an emphasis on the properties of phase diagrams. Starting with the basic principles, discussion moves to systems involving multiple phases. New chapters cover irreversible thermodynamics, extremum principles, and the thermodynamics of surfaces and interfaces. Theoretical descriptions of equilibrium conditions, the state of systems at equilibrium and the changes as equilibrium is reached, are all demonstrated graphically. With illustrative examples - many computer calculated - and worked examples, this textbook is an valuable resource for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in materials science and engineering.

High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria
  • Author : Ulrich K Deiters,Thomas Kraska
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-04-26
  • Total pages :370
  • ISBN : 9780444563545
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Summary : The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Crc Handbook of Phase Equilibria and Thermodynamic Data of Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures

Crc Handbook of Phase Equilibria and Thermodynamic Data of Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures
  • Author : CHRISTIAN. WOHLFARTH
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-06-30
  • Total pages :595
  • ISBN : 1032098821
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Summary : Thermodynamic data of polymer solutions are paramount for industrial and laboratory processes. These data also serve to understand the physical behavior of polymer solutions, study intermolecular interactions, and gain insights into the molecular nature of mixtures. Nearly a decade has passed since the release of a similar CRC Handbook and since then a large amount of new experimental data have been published, which is now compiled in this book. The CRC Handbook of Phase Equilibria and Thermodynamic Data of Polymer Solutions at Elevated Pressures features nearly 500 newly published references containing approximately 175 new vapor-liquid equilibrium data sets, 25 new liquid-liquid equilibrium data sets, 540 new high-pressure fluid phase equilibrium data sets, 60 new data sets describing PVT properties of polymers, and 20 new data sets with densities or excess volumes. The book is a valuable resource for researchers, specialists, and engineers working in the fields of polymer science, physical chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science, biological science and technology, and those developing computerized predictive packages.