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Physiology and Pathology of Chloride Transporters and Channels in the Nervous System

Physiology and Pathology of Chloride Transporters and Channels in the Nervous System
  • Author : F. Javier Alvarez-Leefmans,Eric Delpire
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-08-22
  • Total pages :630
  • ISBN : 0080922031
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Summary : The importance of chloride ions in cell physiology has not been fully recognized until recently, in spite of the fact that chloride (Cl-), together with bicarbonate, is the most abundant free anion in animal cells, and performs or determines fundamental biological functions in all tissues. For many years it was thought that Cl- was distributed in thermodynamic equilibrium across the plasma membrane of most cells. Research carried out during the last couple of decades has led to a dramatic change in this simplistic view. We now know that most animal cells, neurons included, exhibit a non-equilibrium distribution of Cl- across their plasma membranes. Over the last 10 to 15 years, with the growth of molecular biology and the advent of new optical methods, an enormous amount of exciting new information has become available on the molecular structure and function of Cl- channels and carriers. In nerve cells, Cl- channels and carriers play key functional roles in GABA- and glycine-mediated synaptic inhibition, neuronal growth and development, extracellular potassium scavenging, sensory-transduction, neurotransmitter uptake and cell volume control. Disruption of Cl- homeostasis in neurons underlies pathological conditions such as epilepsy, deafness, imbalance, brain edema and ischemia, pain and neurogenic inflammation. This book is about how chloride ions are regulated and how they cross the plasma membrane of neurons. It spans from molecular structure and function of carriers and channels involved in Cl- transport to their role in various diseases. The first comprehensive book on the structure, molecular biology, cell physiology, and role in diseases of chloride transporters / channels in the nervous system in almost 20 years Chloride is the most abundant free anion in animal cells. THis book summarizes and integrates for the first time the important research of the past two decades that has shown that Cl- channels and carriers play key functional roles in GABA- and glycine-mediated synaptic inhibition, neuronal growth and development, extracellular potassium scavenging, sensory-transduction, neurotransmitter uptake and cell volume control The first book that systematically discusses the result of disruption of Cl- homeostasis in neurons which underlies pathological conditions such as epilepsy, deafness, imbalance, brain edema and ischemia, pain and neurogenic inflammation Spanning topics from molecular structure and function of carriers and channels involved in Cl- transport to their role in various diseases Involves all of the leading researchers in the field Includes an extensive introductory section that covers basic thermodynamic and kinetics aspects of Cl- transport, as well as current methods for studying Cl- regulation, spanning from fluorescent dyes in single cells to knock-out models to make the book available for a growing population of graduate students and postdocs entering the field

The olivo-cerebellar system

The olivo-cerebellar system
  • Author : Egidio D'Angelo,Elisa Galliano,Chris I De Zeeuw
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-04-29
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889198269
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Summary : During the last decades, investigations on the olivo-cerebellar system have attained a high level of sophistication, which led to redefinitions of several structural and functional properties of neurons, synapses, connections and circuits. Research has expanded and deepened in so many directions and so many theories and models have been proposed that an ensemble review of the matter is now needed. Yet, hot topics remain open and scientific discussion is very lively at several fronts. One major question, here as well as in other major brain circuits, is how single neurons and synaptic properties emerge at the network level and contribute to behavioural regulation via neuronal plasticity. Other major aspects that this Research Topic covers and discusses include the development and circuit organization of the olivo-cerebellar network, the established and recent theories of learning and motor control, and the emerging role of the cerebellum in cognitive processing. By touching on such varied and encompassing subjects, this Frontiers Special Topic aims to highlight the state of the art and stimulate future research. We hope that this unique collection of high-quality articles from experts in the field will provide scientists with a powerful basis of knowledge and inspiration to enucleate the major issues deserving further attention.

Neuronal Chloride Transporters in Health and Disease

Neuronal Chloride Transporters in Health and Disease
  • Author : Xin Tang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-06
  • Total pages :650
  • ISBN : 0128153180
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Summary : Neuronal Chloride Transporters in Health and Disease introduces core concepts and recent advances surrounding the physiology and pathophysiology of neuronal chloride transporters, with particular focus on the KCC and NKCC families of proteins. Chloride transporter biology is reviewed, including its role in setting the transmembrane chloride gradient and in chloride transport-independent functions, such as regulating excitatory neurotransmission. Chapters also address post-translational modifications and the trafficking of chloride transporters, protein interaction partners, and the genetic and environmental factors that regulate expression in neurons. This new volume will provide readers with an up-to-date summary on recent advances in neuronal chloride transporter research, with a particular emphasis on key and emerging topics in the field.

Research Awards Index

Research Awards Index
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1984
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105119624752
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Summary :

Chloride Movements Across Cellular Membranes

Chloride Movements Across Cellular Membranes
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-09-22
  • Total pages :392
  • ISBN : 0080475345
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Summary : All living cells are surrounded by a lipidic membrane that isolates them from the often harsh environment. However, to take up nutrients, to excrete waste, and to communicate among each other, Nature has invented an incredibly diverse set of transmembrane transport proteins. Specialized transporters exist to shuttle electrically charged ions, positive cations like sodium or negative anions like chloride, across the membrane. In the recent years, tremendous progress has been made in the field of chloride transport. The present book presents the state of the art of this rapidly expanding and interest-gaining field of membrane transport. It is addressed at a broad medically, physiologically, biologically, and biophysically interested readership. Describes the state-of-the-art in anion transport research Written by leaders in the field Presents a timely discussion of this rapidly emerging and expanding field

Physiology of Astroglia

Physiology of Astroglia
  • Author : Alexei Verkhratsky,Vladimir Parpura
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-03-01
  • Total pages :172
  • ISBN : 9781615046737
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Summary : Astrocytes can be defined as the glia inhabiting the nervous system with the main function in the maintenance of nervous tissue homeostasis. Classified into several types according to their morphological appearance, many of astrocytes form a reticular structure known as astroglial syncytium, owing to their coupling via intercellular channels organized into gap junctions. Not only do astrocytes establish such homocellular contacts, but they also engage in intimate heterocellular interactions with neurons, most notably at synaptic sites. As synaptic structures house the very core of information transfer and processing in the nervous system, astroglial perisynaptic positioning assures that these glial cells can nourish neurons and establish bidirectional communication with them, functions outlined in the concepts of the astrocytic cradle and multi-partite synapse, respectively. Astrocytes possess a rich assortment of ligand receptors, ion and water channels, and ion and ligand transporters, which collectively contribute to astrocytic control of homeostasis and excitability. Astroglia control glutamate and adenosine homeostasis to exert modulatory actions affecting the real-time operation of synapses. Fluctuations of intracellular calcium can lead to the release of various chemical transmitters from astrocytes through a process termed gliotransmission. Sodium fluctuations are closely associated to those of calcium with both dynamic events interfacing signaling and metabolism. Astrocytes appear fully integrated into the brain cellular circuitry, being an indispensable part of neural networks.

GABA And Glutamate

GABA And Glutamate
  • Author : Janko Samardzic
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-21
  • Total pages :138
  • ISBN : 9789535138211
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Summary : This book collates the contributions of a selected number of neuroscientists that are interested in the molecular, preclinical, and clinical aspects of neurotransmission research. The seven chapters in this book address the latest research/review data related to GABA/glutamate system's organization and function, the structure of receptors, subtypes and their ligands, as well as the translational approach and clinical implications. The book offers readers a rich collection of data regarding current and future applications of GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, including promising research strategies and potential clinical benefits.

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System
  • Author : Robert Vink,Mihai Nechifor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :342
  • ISBN : 9780987073051
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Summary : The brain is the most complex organ in our body. Indeed, it is perhaps the most complex structure we have ever encountered in nature. Both structurally and functionally, there are many peculiarities that differentiate the brain from all other organs. The brain is our connection to the world around us and by governing nervous system and higher function, any disturbance induces severe neurological and psychiatric disorders that can have a devastating effect on quality of life. Our understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the brain has improved dramatically in the last two decades. In particular, the critical role of cations, including magnesium, has become evident, even if incompletely understood at a mechanistic level. The exact role and regulation of magnesium, in particular, remains elusive, largely because intracellular levels are so difficult to routinely quantify. Nonetheless, the importance of magnesium to normal central nervous system activity is self-evident given the complicated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the concentration of this cation within strict limits essential for normal physiology and metabolism. There is also considerable accumulating evidence to suggest alterations to some brain functions in both normal and pathological conditions may be linked to alterations in local magnesium concentration. This book, containing chapters written by some of the foremost experts in the field of magnesium research, brings together the latest in experimental and clinical magnesium research as it relates to the central nervous system. It offers a complete and updated view of magnesiums involvement in central nervous system function and in so doing, brings together two main pillars of contemporary neuroscience research, namely providing an explanation for the molecular mechanisms involved in brain function, and emphasizing the connections between the molecular changes and behavior. It is the untiring efforts of those magnesium researchers who have dedicated their lives to unraveling the mysteries of magnesiums role in biological systems that has inspired the collation of this volume of work.

Handbook of Physiology: The gastrointestinal system. v. 1, pt. 1-2. Motility and circulation

Handbook of Physiology: The gastrointestinal system. v. 1, pt. 1-2. Motility and circulation
  • Author : American Physiological Society (1887- )
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : STANFORD:36105009589990
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Summary :

Ion Channels in Health and Sickness

Ion Channels in Health and Sickness
  • Author : Fatima Shad Kaneez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-10-10
  • Total pages :202
  • ISBN : 9781789842272
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Summary : Ion channels are proteins that make pores in the membranes of excitable cells present both in the brain and the body. These cells are not only responsible for converting chemical and mechanical stimuli into the electrical signals but are also liable for monitoring vital functions. All our activities, from the blinking of our eyes to the beating of our heart and all our senses from smell to sight, touch, taste and hearing are regulated by the ion channels. This book will take us on an expedition describing the role of ion channels in congenital and acquired diseases and the challenges and limitations scientist are facing in the development of drugs targeting these membrane proteins.

Cell Physiology Source Book

Cell Physiology Source Book
  • Author : Nicholas Sperelakis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-02
  • Total pages :1235
  • ISBN : 9780080574554
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Summary : This authoritative book gathers together a broad range of ideas and topics that define the field. It provides clear, concise, and comprehensive coverage of all aspects of cellular physiology from fundamental concepts to more advanced topics. The Third Edition contains substantial new material. Most chapters have been thoroughly reworked. The book includes chapters on important topics such as sensory transduction, the physiology of protozoa and bacteria, the regulation of cell division, and programmed cell death. Completely revised and updated - includes 8 new chapters on such topics as membrane structure, intracellular chloride regulation, transport, sensory receptors, pressure, and olfactory/taste receptors Includes broad coverage of both animal and plant cells Appendixes review basics of the propagation of action potentials, electricity, and cable properties Authored by leading experts in the field Clear, concise, comprehensive coverage of all aspects of cellular physiology from fundamental concepts to more advanced topics

Handbook of Physiology

Handbook of Physiology
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1977
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCSD:31822005678990
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Summary :

Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry

Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry
  • Author : Multiple authors
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-02-19
  • Total pages :242
  • ISBN : 9789535138570
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Summary : In 2016, it was 60 years since the eminent Soviet researcher, a disciple and a successor of Ivan Pavlov, Leon Orbeli had proclaimed the birth of a new branch of physiology, evolutionary physiology. In the same year, his ideas were embodied in the foundation in Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg, of the present Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This anniversary book includes the selected works carried out recently by his followers at the same institute. While addressing some hot aspects of evolutionary physiology and biochemistry, they demonstrate that this branch of physiology really represents a discipline in its own right.

Advanced Physiology and Pathophysiology

Advanced Physiology and Pathophysiology
  • Author : Nancy Tkacs, PhD, RN,Linda Herrmann, PhD, RN, ACHPN, AGACNP-BC, GNP-BC, FAANP,Randall Johnson, PhD, RN
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-03-26
  • Total pages :880
  • ISBN : 9780826177087
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Summary : Note to Readers: Publisher does not guarantee quality or access to any included digital components if book is purchased through a third-party seller. Specifically designed for future healthcare providers who will diagnose, manage, and prescribe This advanced physiology and pathophysiology text is designed to address the specific learning needs of future nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and other advanced healthcare providers caring for patients across the lifespan. Focusing on practical applications of physiology, it facilitates in-depth understanding of important pathophysiological concepts as they relate to major disorders commonly seen in clinical practice and includes comprehensive pediatric and geriatric considerations. This knowledge is crucial to providing the foundation required to be an informed and confident clinical decision maker. The author team includes experienced clinicians and educators: nurses and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, doctors of pharmacy, physicians, and basic scientists. This collaboration has produced a text that carefully details and richly illustrates the cellular structure and function of each organ system and mechanisms of associated major clinical disorders. Uniquely interweaving aspects of organ function during healthy states with disease-associated changes, the text emphasizes and extends the basic science foundation to practical clinical applications. The text promotes a deep understanding of cellular function in health and disease that provides the bedrock knowledge required to master pharmacology for prescriptive practice. Equally important, the solid foundation of applied pathophysiological mechanisms offered in this text prepares the student clinician to care for patients with a broad variety of disorders. This resource not only provides a deep dive into pathophysiology, but it also examines why patients often present with particular symptoms, the rationale for ordering specific diagnostic tests and interpretation of results, and common management strategies that proceed from the underlying pathophysiology. Key Features: Designed explicitly to build a foundation for pharmacology and clinical courses that lead to successful clinical practice and prescribing Includes comprehensive lifespan considerations with key insights from specialists in pediatric and geriatric pathophysiology Provides a complete chapter on the basic principles of genetics and genomics with coverage of genetic variations, assessment, and genomics woven throughout the book Integrates thought questions and case studies to promote discussion and synthesis of information Offers a unique Bridge to Clinical Practice in each chapter to translate science to patient care Includes more than 500 images to illustrate complex scientific concepts Summarizes the contents succinctly with handy key points at the end of each chapter Provides access to the fully searchable ebook, including student ancillaries on Springer Publishing ConnectTM

Epileptology

Epileptology
  • Author : Vladimir Kalinin
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-12
  • Total pages :278
  • ISBN : 9789535126980
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Summary : Epilepsy seems to represent one of the most frequent neurological diseases and occurs in about 1% of the general population. Although epilepsy is known since antiquity, the precise data on its pathogenesis and effective treatment are still collected and nowadays represents an interest for neurologists and psychiatrists. Being a neurological disease, epilepsy is characterized by a broad palette of comorbid psychiatric disorders (affective and anxiety disorders, psychoses) that reduce the quality of life. Moreover, the risk of suicidal attempts in persons with epilepsy is much higher than in general population that once again increases the actuality of epilepsy research in many aspects. The book contains 13 chapters written by different authors from all over the world on different topics, including phenomenology, pathogenesis, and treatment in epilepsy. The modern data on these topics may be helpful for many specialists in the domain of epileptology.

Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney

Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney
  • Author : Robert J. Alpern,Steven C. Hebert
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-10-10
  • Total pages :2928
  • ISBN : 9780080559506
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Summary : A classic nephrology reference for over 20 years, Seldin & Giebisch’s The Kidney, is the acknowledged authority on renal physiology and pathophysiology. The fourth edition follows the changed focus of nephrology research to the study of how individual molecules work together to affect cellular and organ function, emphasizing the mechanisms of disease. With over 40 new chapters and over 1000 illustrations, this edition offers the most in-depth discussion anywhere of the physiologic and pathophysiologic processes of renal disease. Comprehensive, authoritative coverage progresses from molecular biology and cell physiology to clinical issues regarding renal function and dysfunction. If you research the development of normal renal function or the mechanisms underlying renal disease, Seldin & Giebisch’s The Kidney is your number one source for information. * Offers the most comprehensive coverage of fluid and electrolyte regulation and dysregulation in 51 completely revised chapters unlike Brenner & Rector's The Kidney which devotes only 7 chapters to this topic. * Includes 3 sections, 31 chapters, devoted to regulation and disorders of acid-base homeostasis, and epithelial and nonepithelial transport regulation. Brenner & Rector's only devotes 5 chapters to these topics. * Previous three editions edited by Donald Seldin and Gerhard Giebisch, world renowned names in nephrology. The title for the fourth edition has been changed to reflect their considerable work on previous editions and they have also written the forward for this edition. * Over 20 million adults over age 20 have chronic kidney disease with the number of people diagnosed doubling each decade making it America's ninth leading cause of death.

Ion Channels and Transporters of Epithelia in Health and Disease

Ion Channels and Transporters of Epithelia in Health and Disease
  • Author : Kirk L. Hamilton,Daniel C Devor
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-12-14
  • Total pages :1019
  • ISBN : 9781493933662
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Summary : This book sheds new light on the physiology, molecular biology and pathophysiology of epithelial ion channels and transporters. It combines the basic cellular models and functions by means of a compelling clinical perspective, addressing aspects from the laboratory bench to the bedside. The individual chapters, written by leading scientists and clinicians, explore specific ion channels and transporters located in the epithelial tissues of the kidney, intestine, pancreas and respiratory tract, all of which play a crucial part in maintaining homeostasis. Further topics include the fundamentals of epithelial transport; mathematical modeling of ion transport; cell volume regulation; membrane protein folding and trafficking; transepithelial transport functions; and lastly, a discussion of transport proteins as potential pharmacological targets with a focus on the pharmacology of potassium channels.

Handbook of Physiology

Handbook of Physiology
  • Author : Michael Field
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1991
  • Total pages :662
  • ISBN : 019520817X
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Summary : (1E 1968) Comprehensive reference to structure/function intestinal transport of inorganic ions & organic compounds.

Chloride Channels and Carriers in Nerve, Muscle, and Glial Cells

Chloride Channels and Carriers in Nerve, Muscle, and Glial Cells
  • Author : F.J. Alvarez-Leefmans,John M. Russell
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-06-29
  • Total pages :426
  • ISBN : 9781475796858
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Summary : This is a book about how Cl- crosses the cell membranes of nerve, muscle, and glial cells. Not so very many years ago, a pamphlet rather than book might have resulted from such an endeavor! One might ask why Cl-, the most abundant biological anion, attracted so little attention from investigators. The main reason was that the prevailing paradigm for cellular ion homeostasis in the 1950s and 1960s assigned Cl- a ther modynamically passive and unspecialized role. This view was particularly prominent among muscle and neuroscience investigators. In searching for reasons for such a negative (no pun intended) viewpoint, it seems to us that it stemmed from two key experimental observations. First, work on frog skeletal muscle showed that Cl- was passively distributed between the cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid. Second, work on Cl- transport in red blood cells confirmed that the Cl- transmembrane distribution was thermodynamically passive and, in addition, showed that Cl- crossed the mem brane extremely rapidly. This latter finding [for a long time interpreted as being the result of a high passive chloride electrical permeability(? CI)] made it quite likely that Cl- would remain at thermodynamic equilibrium. These two observations were gener alized and virtually all cells were thought to have a very high P Cl and a ther modynamically passive Cl- transmembrane distribution. These concepts can still be found in some physiology and neuroscience textbooks.

Challenges in Pancreatic Pathology

Challenges in Pancreatic Pathology
  • Author : Andrada Seicean
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-04-26
  • Total pages :242
  • ISBN : 9789535131151
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Summary : The assessment of the pancreas is a challenging problem because it has a profound location and it often presents difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Despite many efforts in dealing with pancreatic diseases, the pathogenesis is not completely understood, the symptoms and imaging methods are unspecific, and the treatment possibilities are sometimes very limited. The major purpose of this book is to offer the reader a better understanding of the challenging aspects in pancreatic pathology, starting with anatomy and following with different pancreatic pathology. More space is allotted to pancreatic cancer, including surgical procedures, and to the management of the cystic lesions of the pancreas. This book is meant to provide a thorough guide for the best approaches in some of the difficult problems in pancreatology.

Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System

Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-07-05
  • Total pages :74
  • ISBN : 9780309212243
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Summary : Glutamate is the most pervasive neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Despite this fact, no validated biological markers, or biomarkers, currently exist for measuring glutamate pathology in CNS disorders or injuries. Glutamate dysfunction has been associated with an extensive range of nervous system diseases and disorders. Problems with how the neurotransmitter glutamate functions in the brain have been linked to a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, substance abuse, and traumatic brain injury. These conditions are widespread, affecting a large portion of the United States population, and remain difficult to treat. Efforts to understand, treat, and prevent glutamate-related disorders can be aided by the identification of valid biomarkers. The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders held a workshop on June 21-22, 2010, to explore ways to accelerate the development, validation, and implementation of such biomarkers. Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System: Workshop Summary investigates promising current and emerging technologies, and outlines strategies to procure resources and tools to advance drug development for associated nervous system disorders. Moreover, this report highlights presentations by expert panelists, and the open panel discussions that occurred during the workshop.