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Volcanism and Tectonism Across the Inner Solar System

Volcanism and Tectonism Across the Inner Solar System
  • Author : T. Platz,M. Massironi,P.K. Byrne,H. Hiesinger
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-01-05
  • Total pages :448
  • ISBN : 9781862396326
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Summary : Volcanism and tectonism are the dominant endogenic means by which planetary surfaces change. This book aims to encompass the broad range in character of volcanism, tectonism, faulting and associated interactions observed on planetary bodies across the inner solar system - a region that includes Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, Mars and asteroids. The diversity and breadth of landforms produced by volcanic and tectonic processes is enormous, and varies across the inner solar system bodies. As a result, the selection of prevailing landforms and their underlying formational processes that are described and highlighted in this volume are but a primer to the expansive field of planetary volcanism and tectonism. This Special Publication features 22 research articles about volcanic and tectonic processes manifest across the inner solar system.

Planetary Tectonism Across the Solar System

Planetary Tectonism Across the Solar System
  • Author : Christian Klimczak,Geoffrey Collins,Paul Byrne
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-05
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 0128160926
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Summary : Planetary Tectonism across the Solar System, Volume Two in the Comparative Planetology series, addresses key questions surrounding planetary tectonism, such our understanding of the global contraction of Mercury, the formation of giant rift zones on Saturn's icy moons, or the tesserated terrain on Venus. It makes connections to Earth, such as how deformation on Mercury is both similar and different, and how to apply theoretical considerations behind plate tectonics on Earth to other planets. The book offers an up-to-date, accessible and comprehensive discussion of the major tectonic processes and landforms that shape and drive the evolution of planets, moons and smaller bodies. By placing a singular emphasis on comparing tectonic processes and landforms on all relevant Solar System bodies, with the explicit objective of providing a systems-level understanding of this widespread phenomenon, this book is ideal for anyone studying planetary tectonism. Includes an introduction that places the book in the context of the larger Comparative Planetology series Compares tectonic processes on all relevant Solar System bodies, providing a systems-level understanding of this widespread phenomenon that shapes and drives the evolution of planets, moons and smaller bodies Features over 100 color illustrations and charts to better convey concepts Offers additional online content, including figures, animations, videos and interviews with contributing authors

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-01-30
  • Total pages :398
  • ISBN : 9780309224642
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Summary : In recent years, planetary science has seen a tremendous growth in new knowledge. Deposits of water ice exist at the Moon's poles. Discoveries on the surface of Mars point to an early warm wet climate, and perhaps conditions under which life could have emerged. Liquid methane rain falls on Saturn's moon Titan, creating rivers, lakes, and geologic landscapes with uncanny resemblances to Earth's. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 surveys the current state of knowledge of the solar system and recommends a suite of planetary science flagship missions for the decade 2013-2022 that could provide a steady stream of important new discoveries about the solar system. Research priorities defined in the report were selected through a rigorous review that included input from five expert panels. NASA's highest priority large mission should be the Mars Astrobiology Explorer Cacher (MAX-C), a mission to Mars that could help determine whether the planet ever supported life and could also help answer questions about its geologic and climatic history. Other projects should include a mission to Jupiter's icy moon Europa and its subsurface ocean, and the Uranus Orbiter and Probe mission to investigate that planet's interior structure, atmosphere, and composition. For medium-size missions, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 recommends that NASA select two new missions to be included in its New Frontiers program, which explores the solar system with frequent, mid-size spacecraft missions. If NASA cannot stay within budget for any of these proposed flagship projects, it should focus on smaller, less expensive missions first. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 suggests that the National Science Foundation expand its funding for existing laboratories and establish new facilities as needed. It also recommends that the program enlist the participation of international partners. This report is a vital resource for government agencies supporting space science, the planetary science community, and the public.

Planetary Tectonics

Planetary Tectonics
  • Author : Thomas R. Watters,Richard A. Schultz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :518
  • ISBN : 9780521765732
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Summary : This book is an essential reference volume that surveys tectonic landforms on solid bodies throughout the Solar System.

Planetary Geology

Planetary Geology
  • Author : Angelo Pio Rossi,Stephan van Gasselt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-11-28
  • Total pages :433
  • ISBN : 9783319651798
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Summary : This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are: Methods and tools Processes and Sources Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exobiology, early life, extreme environments and planetary resources, all areas where major advancements are expected in the forthcoming decades and both key to human exploration of the Solar System. The target readership includes advanced undergraduate students in geoscience-related topics with no specific planetary science knowledge; undergraduates in other natural science domains (e.g. physics, astronomy, biology or chemistry); graduates in engineering and space systems design who want to complement their knowledge in planetary science. The authors’ backgrounds span a broad range of topics and disciplines: rooted in Earth geoscience, their expertise covers remote sensing and cartography, field mapping, impact cratering, volcanology and tectonics, sedimentology and stratigraphy exobiology and life in extreme environments, planetary resources and mining. Several generations of planetary scientists are cooperating to provide a modern view on a discipline developed from Earth during and through Space exploration.

Thrust Faulting on the Terrestrial Planets

Thrust Faulting on the Terrestrial Planets
  • Author : Kelsey Taylor Warden
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :250
  • ISBN : OCLC:1114306895
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Summary : The exterior of a planet often reflects its internal workings. On planets with little to no erosion, the surface geology can record billions of years of planetary evolution. Mercury, the smallest planet in our solar system, has not experienced aqueous erosion and as such, is an ideal site for exploring the longest-lived and most ancient planetary processes. These include global contraction (a decrease in planet volume), tidal despinning (slowing of the planet's rotation), and reorientation (a shift in the orientation of the rotational axis). Each of these processes contributes to stresses that have influenced the tectonic development of structures like faults and folds in the rocks, often basalts, that cover the surface of the planet. On Earth, regional processes are also recorded in local structures. Studying the development of faults and folds is important for understanding the tectonic context of their structural evolution. Research presented in this dissertation ties together Earth and other-planetary tectonism, deciphering what structures are telling us about planetary evolution. By describing how basalts deform, I relate their deformation to more widespread processes. I present the first quantitative estimates for strain rates from global contraction on Mercury ranging back ~4 Ga, and describe the likely structural style of faulting based on the most detailed tectonic map ever produced of another planet. Results from mapping have also allowed for the constraint of the timing of despinning and reorientation. An investigation of an Earth analogue to these structures, the Yakima Fold Province of central Washington state is also carried out. The structures are represented with a three-dimensional model produced from structural data collected in the field and ~44 km of seismic profile interpretations. Insight into the distribution of deformation across these folds and faults has allowed me to intimately relate the strain observed in the belt to the tectonic setting of the Cenozoic northwest, including the opening of the Basin and Range, subduction of the Juan de Fuca and Farallon plates, and hotspot volcanism in the Snake River Plain.

Geologic Time Scale 2020

Geologic Time Scale 2020
  • Author : Felix M. Gradstein,James G. Ogg,Mark D. Schmitz,Gabi M. Ogg
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020
  • Total pages :1300
  • ISBN : 9780128243619
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Summary : Geologic Time Scale 2020 (2 volume set) contains contributions from 80+ leading scientists who present syntheses in an easy-to-understand format that includes numerous color charts, maps and photographs. In addition to detailed overviews of chronostratigraphy, evolution, geochemistry, sequence stratigraphy and planetary geology, the GTS2020 volumes have separate chapters on each geologic period with compilations of the history of divisions, the current GSSPs (global boundary stratotypes), detailed bio-geochem-sequence correlation charts, and derivation of the age models. The authors are on the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives surrounding the creation of an international geologic time scale. The included charts display the most up-to-date, international standard as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. As the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth, this book is essential for practicing Earth Scientists and academics. • Completely updated geologic time scale • Provides the most detailed integrated geologic time scale available that compiles and synthesize information in one reference • Gives insights on the construction, strengths and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility

Planetary Surface Processes

Planetary Surface Processes
  • Author : H. Jay Melosh
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-25
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9781139498302
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Summary : Planetary Surface Processes is the first advanced textbook to cover the full range of geologic processes that shape the surfaces of planetary-scale bodies. Using a modern, quantitative approach, this book reconsiders geologic processes outside the traditional terrestrial context. It highlights processes that are contingent upon Earth's unique circumstances and processes that are universal. For example, it shows explicitly that equations predicting the velocity of a river are dependent on gravity: traditional geomorphology textbooks fail to take this into account. This textbook is a one-stop source of information on planetary surface processes, providing readers with the necessary background to interpret new data from NASA, ESA and other space missions. Based on a course taught by the author at the University of Arizona for 25 years, it is aimed at advanced students, and is also an invaluable resource for researchers, professional planetary scientists and space-mission engineers.

Red Dwarfs

Red Dwarfs
  • Author : David S. Stevenson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-09-11
  • Total pages :370
  • ISBN : 9783030255503
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Summary : This thought-provoking book looks at the nature of red dwarf systems as potential homes for life. Realistically, what are the prospects for life on these distant worlds? Could life evolve and survive there? How do these planetary surfaces and geologies evolve? How would life on a planet orbiting a red dwarf differ from life on Earth? And what are the implications for finding further habitable worlds in our galaxy? The author provides readers with insight into the habitability of planets and how this changes as time progresses and the central star evolves. Since the previous 2013 edition Under a Crimson Sun, there has been a rise in newly discovered planets orbiting red dwarfs, accompanied by controversial areas of research that test what we think we know about these systems. This revised edition delves into the wealth of new material uncovered since that date. It explains the often conflicting results and analyses put forward and clarifies our understanding of these exciting new worlds. The chapters explore the full width of relevant scientific discovery and speculation on the potential for red dwarf planets to host life. New content includes improved atmospheric models, new understandings of the impact of stellar radiation on the atmosphere of red dwarf worlds, tidal-locking, and comparisons with terrestrial geology and climate.

A Field Guide to the Planets

A Field Guide to the Planets
  • Author : Sabine Stanley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-10-02
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1629977896
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Summary :

Rare Earth

Rare Earth
  • Author : Peter D. Ward,Donald Brownlee
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2007-05-08
  • Total pages :338
  • ISBN : 9780387218489
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Summary : What determines whether complex life will arise on a planet, or even any life at all? Questions such as these are investigated in this groundbreaking book. In doing so, the authors synthesize information from astronomy, biology, and paleontology, and apply it to what we know about the rise of life on Earth and to what could possibly happen elsewhere in the universe. Everyone who has been thrilled by the recent discoveries of extrasolar planets and the indications of life on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa will be fascinated by Rare Earth, and its implications for those who look to the heavens for companionship.

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Astrobiology Science Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-20
  • Total pages :188
  • ISBN : 9780309484169
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Summary : Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. It is an inherently interdisciplinary field that encompasses astronomy, biology, geology, heliophysics, and planetary science, including complementary laboratory activities and field studies conducted in a wide range of terrestrial environments. Combining inherent scientific interest and public appeal, the search for life in the solar system and beyond provides a scientific rationale for many current and future activities carried out by the National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) and other national and international agencies and organizations. Requested by NASA, this study offers a science strategy for astrobiology that outlines key scientific questions, identifies the most promising research in the field, and indicates the extent to which the mission priorities in existing decadal surveys address the search for life's origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the universe. This report makes recommendations for advancing the research, obtaining the measurements, and realizing NASA's goal to search for signs of life in the universe.

Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences

Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences
  • Author : J.H. Shirley,Rhodes W. Fairbridge
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997-06-30
  • Total pages :990
  • ISBN : 9780412069512
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Summary : Planetary science is a truly multidisciplinary subject. The book deals with the atmospheres, surfaces and interiors of the planets and moons, and with the interplanetary environment of plasma and fields, as well as with asteroids and meteorites. Processes such as accretion, differentiation, thermal evolution, and impact cratering form another category of entries. Remote sensing techniques employed in investigation and exploration, such as magnetometry, photometry, and spectroscopy are described in separate articles. In addition, the Encyclopedia chronicles the history of planetary science, including biographies of pioneering scientists, and detailed descriptions of all major lunar and planetary missions and programs. The Encyclopedia of Planetary Sciences is superbly illustrated throughout with over 450 line drawings, 180 black and white photographs, and 63 color illustrations. It will be a key reference source for planetary scientists, astronomers, and workers in related disciplines such as geophysics, geology, and the atmospheric sciences.

Volcanoes of the Solar System

Volcanoes of the Solar System
  • Author : Charles Frankel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1996
  • Total pages :232
  • ISBN : 0521477700
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Summary : Nothing can be more breathtaking than the spectacle of a volcano erupting. Space-age lunar and planetary missions offer us an unprecedented perspective on volcanism. Starting with the Earth, Volcanoes of the Solar System takes the reader on a guided tour of the terrestrial planets and moons and their volcanic features. We see lunar lava fields through the eyes of the Apollo astronauts, and take an imaginary hike up the Martian slopes of Olympus Mons--the tallest volcano in the solar system. Complemented by over 150 photographs, this comprehensive and lucid account of volcanoes describes the most recent data on the unique and varied volcanic features of Venus and updates our knowledge on the prodigiously active volcanoes of Io. A member of the Association of European Volcanologists, Charles Frankel has directed documentary films on geology, astronomy and space exploration and has authored a number of articles on the earth sciences.

Lunar and Planetary Science

Lunar and Planetary Science
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1992
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : WISC:89042280818
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Summary :

Forging the Future of Space Science

Forging the Future of Space Science
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board,Space Studies Board
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-03-08
  • Total pages :166
  • ISBN : 9780309215893
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Summary : From September 2007 to June 2008 the Space Studies Board conducted an international public seminar series, with each monthly talk highlighting a different topic in space and Earth science. The principal lectures from the series are compiled in Forging the Future of Space Science. The topics of these events covered the full spectrum of space and Earth science research, from global climate change, to the cosmic origins of life, to the exploration of the Moon and Mars, to the scientific research required to support human spaceflight. The prevailing messages throughout the seminar series as demonstrated by the lectures in this book are how much we have accomplished over the past 50 years, how profound are our discoveries, how much contributions from the space program affect our daily lives, and yet how much remains to be done. The age of discovery in space and Earth science is just beginning. Opportunities abound that will forever alter our destiny.

A Framework for K-12 Science Education

A Framework for K-12 Science Education
  • Author : National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Science Education,Committee on a Conceptual Framework for New K-12 Science Education Standards
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-02-28
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9780309214452
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Summary : Science, engineering, and technology permeate nearly every facet of modern life and hold the key to solving many of humanity's most pressing current and future challenges. The United States' position in the global economy is declining, in part because U.S. workers lack fundamental knowledge in these fields. To address the critical issues of U.S. competitiveness and to better prepare the workforce, A Framework for K-12 Science Education proposes a new approach to K-12 science education that will capture students' interest and provide them with the necessary foundational knowledge in the field. A Framework for K-12 Science Education outlines a broad set of expectations for students in science and engineering in grades K-12. These expectations will inform the development of new standards for K-12 science education and, subsequently, revisions to curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development for educators. This book identifies three dimensions that convey the core ideas and practices around which science and engineering education in these grades should be built. These three dimensions are: crosscutting concepts that unify the study of science through their common application across science and engineering; scientific and engineering practices; and disciplinary core ideas in the physical sciences, life sciences, and earth and space sciences and for engineering, technology, and the applications of science. The overarching goal is for all high school graduates to have sufficient knowledge of science and engineering to engage in public discussions on science-related issues, be careful consumers of scientific and technical information, and enter the careers of their choice. A Framework for K-12 Science Education is the first step in a process that can inform state-level decisions and achieve a research-grounded basis for improving science instruction and learning across the country. The book will guide standards developers, teachers, curriculum designers, assessment developers, state and district science administrators, and educators who teach science in informal environments.

Earth as an Evolving Planetary System

Earth as an Evolving Planetary System
  • Author : Kent C. Condie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-22
  • Total pages :578
  • ISBN : 9780123852281
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Summary : Earth as an Evolving Planetary System, Second Edition, examines the various subsystems that play a role in the evolution of the Earth. These subsystems include such components as the crust, mantle, core, atmosphere, oceans, and life. The book contains 10 chapters that discuss the structure of the Earth and plate tectonics; the origin and evolution of the crust; the processes that leave tectonic imprints in rocks and modern processes responsible for these imprints; and the structure of the mantle and the core. The book also covers the Earth’s atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere; crustal and mantle evolution; the supercontinent cycle; great events in Earth history; and the Earth in comparison to other planets. This book is meant for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Earth Sciences, with a basic knowledge of geology, biology, chemistry, and physics. It also may serve as a reference tool for specialists in the geologic sciences who want to keep abreast of scientific advances in this field. Kent Condie's corresponding interactive CD, Plate Tectonics and How the Earth Works, can be purchased from Tasa Graphic Arts here: http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progptearth.html Two new chapters on the Supercontinent Cycle and on Great Events in Earth history New and updated sections on Earth's thermal history, planetary volcanism, planetary crusts, the onset of plate tectonics, changing composition of the oceans and atmosphere, and paleoclimatic regimes Also new in this Second Edition: the lower mantle and the role of the post-perovskite transition, the role of water in the mantle, new tomographic data tracking plume tails into the deep mantle, Euxinia in Proterozoic oceans, The Hadean, A crustal age gap at 2.4-2.2 Ga, and continental growth

Physical Geology

Physical Geology
  • Author : Steven Earle
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :807
  • ISBN : 1774200287
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Summary : "Physical Geology is a comprehensive introductory text on the physical aspects of geology, including rocks and minerals, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, glaciation, groundwater, streams, coasts, mass wasting, climate change, planetary geology and much more. It has a strong emphasis on examples from western Canada, especially British Columbia, and also includes a chapter devoted to the geological history of western Canada. The book is a collaboration of faculty from Earth Science departments at Universities and Colleges across British Columbia and elsewhere"--BCcampus website.

Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms

Encyclopedia of Planetary Landforms
  • Author : Henrik Hargitai,Ákos Kereszturi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08-15
  • Total pages :2370
  • ISBN : 1461431336
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Summary : The technique of the mapping of planetary surfaces and the methods used for the identification of various planetary landforms improved much in the last 400 years. Until the 20th century, telescopic observers could interpret planetary landforms solely based on their appearance, while today various data sets acquired by space probes can be used for a more detailed analysis on the composition and origin of the surface features. Before the Greeks, the Earth and the Heavens were indisputably of different origin and nature. It was a major philosophical breakthrough - first appeared as an a priori theory, later based on observations - that the Heavens (planetary bodies) and the Earth share common features: gravity, composition and solar distance may be different, but the nature of the physical processes shaping the landforms are essentially the same. It has been a long way since we have arrived from the first telescopic description of lunar craters to the identification of various geological formations on Mars or on minor planets. Relief features of the Moon have first been observed by Galileo Galilee, via his telescope. During the next centuries, a multitude of Lunar landforms have been identified. Theories based on observations have been connected together by a scientific paradigm which explained their origin in a logical and seemingly undisputable manner. Telescopes showed a Lunar surface full of circular landforms, called craters, a landscape with no parallel on Earth. But the individual landforms had a morphological equivalent, volcanoes, which naturally led to the conclusion that craters had been created by volcanic processes. Maria ("seas") served as natural basins for water bodies. Observations clearly showed that water and air are hardly found on the Moon, the lack of clouds indicated the lack of precipitation. But the flat surface of the maria (obviously composed of marine sediments) and the meandering valleys suggested the presence of liquid water and a higher atmospheric pressure in the past - during the age of active volcanism and degassing. There were no observable active volcanic processes but some craters (though to be volcanoes) have been observed as being active: flashes of light - interpreted as eruptions - have been reported by several observers. The presence of pyroclasts thrown out from the volcanic vents of craters provided an independent evidence: meteor showers and individual meteorites falling from the sky - originating from Lunar craters. The logical and interconnected set of explanations based on observations proved to be completely false by the second half of the 20th century. The new paradigm interpreted the very same features in a new context. The case of Mars was different. There were no telescopes capable of observing relief forms (no shadows on Mars are visible from the Earth, because Mars always shows a nearly full Mars phase), so only albedo features could be seen and used for interpretation. The lack of visible relief features were interpreted as a lack of considerable topography: an unnoticed distortion in the observational data. The hue and contrast of dark and bright, orange, grey and white spots have changed seasonally, the polar areas clearly showed a polar cap made of ice and snow, but clouds have not been observed. Since Mars is farther away from the Sun than the Earth, it was evident that temperature values are lower there. Scientists concluded that Mars is an ancient, arid world. Then contemporary geology taught the theory according to which waters on the Earth are going to infiltrate underground in time, making the surface dry - observations showed that this had already happened on Mars. The last surface reservoirs of water were the polar caps. Some observers reported seeing a global network of linear features, but other have only seen very few of such albedo markings. These features were interpreted as "canals," made by a civilization for irrigation, carrying water from the poles to all around the flat plains of Mars. What was observable from the Earth were the broad stripes of irrigated vegetation (like those along the Nile), the canals themselves were too narrow to be visible from here. All theories converged - supposing that the features seen by some, but not seen by others, were real. There was no chance for verification until spacecrafts have been developed which were able to make local observations. Instead of canals, the first pictures returned revealed a surface full of craters - a landform not expected by anyone. A paradigm shift was needed to explain the features of the "new" Mars. On the Moon, features were observable, but the interpretation was wrong. On Mars, only blurred albedo markings could be observed, along with sharp lines of imagination, which again were interpreted falsely. In the case of Venus, there was no data on surface features. Only its bright cloud top could be observed from the Earth. But this fact along with the planet's orbital parameters provided enough information for a popular view on its surface conditions: a hot world (inferred from its proximity to the Sun) and also a rainy one (from its complete cloud cover). The conclusion: Venus is a global jungle possibly with dinosaurs, like the hot and wet world of the then-discovered Mesozoic era. Our current knowledge originated from these early attempts of interpreting surface conditions and geological origin of landforms from a very little set of available data. Today we have a huge set of images and other physical data which makes it possible to create models on the inner structure and thermal history of planetary bodies. Combined data sets lead to better supported models on the formation of surface features. Today we believe that most models give reliable explanation for the origin of planetary landforms. New, higher resolution images reveal new sets of meso- and microscale landforms, while images from previously not imaged dwarf planets, satellites, asteroids and cometary nuclei show landforms never seen before. In the future exoplanets are expected to provide brand new types of relief features no predictable by our Earth-and Solar System bound imagination. There are so many different landforms on planetary surfaces that it is nearly impossible for anybody to overview all of them who does not work exactly with that certain feature type. The Encyclopedia helps with presenting the landforms in searchable, alphabetical order. The book contains more than a simple list of various features: it provides context and connections between them and point to their origin. For example sand dunes were found on Venus, Mars and Titan, fluvial valleys and shorelines are present on Mars and Titan, impact craters have many different types - all are presented and explained here. Beyond the texts, references, schematic figures, images and planetary maps accompany the description of landforms, providing a wide background for detailed analyses even for geomorphologists working in planetary science. This book is to help the reader to discover the great variety of planetary landforms.

Kinematic Evolution and Mechanisms of Strike-Slip Faulting in the Solar System: Insight from Analogue Experiments

Kinematic Evolution and Mechanisms of Strike-Slip Faulting in the Solar System: Insight from Analogue Experiments
  • Author : Ivy Savannah Curren
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :184
  • ISBN : OCLC:1078240058
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Summary : Identifying the ways in which faults initiate and propagate in disparate tectonic environments is fundamental for understanding regional and global deformation on rocky and icy bodies throughout the solar system. Furthermore, the kinematics and mechanisms of faulting provide a framework for understanding the range of dynamic processes that operate (or have previously operated) on planetary surfaces. To provide insight into these processes, my research focuses on strike-slip fault formation on Earth, Venus, and tidally deformed satellites (e.g., Europa, Enceladus, Phobos). Strike-slip faults are widespread across tectonic environments and their geometry, morphology, and kinematics are easily identifiable through remote sensing techniques, making this class of structures ideal for reconstructing the histories of planetary crusts. In this work, I integrate geologic observations and interpretations with experimental analogues to investigate the tectonic development of strike-slip faults in response to (1) pre-existing heterogeneous crust structure and/or composition, and (2) cyclic "tidal" stresses. The geometry and morphology of strike-slip faults can be used to test competing models of structural deformation and geodynamic properties of solar system bodies. The current understanding for strike-slip fault initiation, geometry, and morphology, derived from field and experimental studies in homogenous material by unidirectional simple shear, suggests a sequence of deformation variable only by the shape of an underlying fault. Strike-slip fault zones are defined as having a primary throughgoing fault that accommodates the majority of regional strain and flanking offset folds and fractures that form at characteristic angles away from the applied stress direction. However, along-strike variations in morphology and lateral offsets, pervasive off-fault deformation, and the absence of throughgoing faults do not adhere to anticipated outcomes of traditional strike-slip fault formation models. Instead, I propose that the sequence, geometry, and morphology of strike-slip faults are highly dependent on the tectonic environment in which they were formed. Using experimental analogues I show that (1) strike-slip faults that initiate in structurally heterogeneous (i.e. previously deformed or compositionally disparate) crust fit a distributed deformation pattern that results in widening of the fault zone, fracture deflection, and regional strain accommodation across many faults exhibiting small or no lateral offsets (as opposed to a single throughgoing fault), and (2) the process of cyclic bidirectional horizontal shearing results in strike-slip fault morphologies that resemble commonly observed features on the surfaces of tidally deformed objects that are not observed elsewhere in the solar system in association with strike-slip faulting. In addition, I employ a scaling model to estimate crust strength on Europa and evaluate geodynamic processes for Europa, Enceladus, Phobos, Earth, and Venus. A more complete understanding of strike-slip faulting in response to diverse tectonic environments allows for improved tectonic reconstructions and interpretations of planetary surfaces and histories, respectively. By evaluating several planetary surfaces through the use of tectonic models, experimental analogues, and remote sensing observations, I propose and test that brittle strike-slip deformation is more complex than previously supposed, and highly dependent on the environment in which formation occurred. The implications for the results presented here span topics from earthquake hazard analysis to astrobiology, and broadly suggest that care must be taken when interpreting stress states, histories, and geodynamic processes based solely on fault structure.