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Absorption-Based Post-Combustion Capture of Carbon Dioxide

Absorption-Based Post-Combustion Capture of Carbon Dioxide
  • Author : Paul Feron
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-05-27
  • Total pages :814
  • ISBN : 9780081005156
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Summary : Absorption-Based Post-Combustion Capture of Carbon Dioxide provides a comprehensive and authoritative review of the use of absorbents for post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide. As fossil fuel-based power generation technologies are likely to remain key in the future, at least in the short- and medium-term, carbon capture and storage will be a critical greenhouse gas reduction technique. Post-combustion capture involves the removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases after fuel combustion, meaning that carbon dioxide can then be compressed and cooled to form a safely transportable liquid that can be stored underground. Provides researchers in academia and industry with an authoritative overview of the amine-based methods for carbon dioxide capture from flue gases and related processes Editors and contributors are well known experts in the field Presents the first book on this specific topic

Post-combustion CO2 Capture Technology

Post-combustion CO2 Capture Technology
  • Author : Helei Liu,Raphael Idem,Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-25
  • Total pages :51
  • ISBN : 9783030009229
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Summary : This book presents a comprehensive review of the latest information on all aspects of the post-combustion carbon capture process. It provides designers and operators of amine solvent-based CO2 capture plants with an in-depth understanding of the most up-to-date fundamental chemistry and physics of the CO2 absorption technologies using amine-based reactive solvents. Topics covered include the physical properties, chemical analysis, reaction kinetics, CO2 solubility, and innovative configurations of absorption and stripping columns as well as information on technology applications. This book also examines the post-build operational issues of corrosion prevention and control, solvent management, solvent stability, solvent recycling and reclaiming, intelligent monitoring and plant control including process automation. In addition, the authors discuss the recent insights into the theoretical basis of plant operation in terms of thermodynamics, transport phenomena, chemical reaction kinetics/engineering, interfacial phenomena, and materials. The insights provided help engineers, scientists, and decision makers working in academia, industry and government gain a better understanding of post-combustion carbon capture technologies.

Recent Progress and New Developments in Post-combustion Carbon-capture Technology with Reactive Solvents

Recent Progress and New Developments in Post-combustion Carbon-capture Technology with Reactive Solvents
  • Author : Future Science Ltd
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013
  • Total pages :239
  • ISBN : 1909453331
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Summary :

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage
  • Author : Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Working Group III.
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-12-19
  • Total pages :431
  • ISBN : 9780521866439
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Summary : IPCC Report on sources, capture, transport, and storage of CO2, for researchers, policy-makers and engineers.

Recent Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage

Recent Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage
  • Author : Yongseung Yun
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-08
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 9789535130055
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Summary : Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been considered as a practical way in sequestering the huge anthropogenic CO2 amount with a reasonable cost until a more pragmatic solution appears. The CCS can work as a bridge before fulfilling the no-CO2 era of the future by applying to large-scale CO2 emitting facilities. But CCS appears to lose some passion by the lack of progress in technical developments and in commercial success stories other than EOR. This is the time to go back to basics, starting from finding a solution in small steps. The CCS technology desperately needs far newer ideas and breakthroughs that can overcome earlier attempts through improving, modifying, and switching the known principles. This book tries to give some insight into developing an urgently needed technical breakthrough through the recent advances in CCS research, in addition to the available small steps like soil carbon sequestration. This book provides the fundamental and practical information for researchers and graduate students who want to review the current technical status and to bring in new ideas to the conventional CCS technologies.

CO2 Capture

CO2 Capture
  • Author : Fabrice Lecomte,Paul Broutin,Etienne Lebas
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010
  • Total pages :176
  • ISBN : 2710809486
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Summary : CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) is now recognised as being one of the pathways that can be implemented to reduce CO2 emissions and fight against global warming. But where, how and at what price can CO2 be captured? This book attempts to provide the answers to these questions, reviewing the state of the art of the technologies required. It presents the three main pathways considered in which the CO2 capture technologies are expected to be implemented, respectively: the post-combustion pathway, in which the CO2 contained in industrial flue gases is extracted; the oxy-combustion pathway, in which combustion is performed in oxygen to obtain flue gases with high CO2 concentration; and lastly the pre-combustion pathway, in which carbon is extracted from the initial fuel to generate hydrogen, whose combustion will produce only water vapour. The book introduces, for each pathway, the technologies currently available and those under development. It is intended for everyone wanting to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms implemented in CO2 capture operations, as well as the technological and economic challenges to be met to ensure that the costs generated by these operations are no longer an obstacle to their worldwide generalisation.Contents: 1. Why capture and store CO2? Global warming. How to reduce CO2 emissions. Main links of the CCS chain. 2. Where capture CO2? CO2 fixed emission sources worldwide. Fixed sources in France. CO2 capture potential in France. 3. Post-Combustion CO2 capture. Principles and stakes. Characteristics of post-combustion flue gases. Separation techniques potentially suitable for post-combustion CO2 capture. Technologies under development for post-combustion CO2 Capture. CO2 conditioning. Conclusion. 4. Oxy-combustion CO2 capture. Principles and stakes. Oxy-combustion. Chemical looping combustion. CO2 conditioning. Demonstrations. 5. Pre-combustion CO2 capture. Principles and stakes. Syngas production. Water-gas shift reaction. CO2 extraction. CO2 conditioning. Hydrogen combustion. Integrated power production processes with pre-combustion CO2 capture. 6. Capture and store CO2: at what cost? Calculation bases. CO2 capture costs. CO2 transport costs. CO2 storage costs. Trend in the cost of the CCS chain - Power production. Variability of CCS chain costs. Application to existing installations. Conclusion. Appendix.

Carbon Dioxide Chemistry, Capture and Oil Recovery

Carbon Dioxide Chemistry, Capture and Oil Recovery
  • Author : Iyad Karamé,Janah Shaya,Hassan Srour
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-08-16
  • Total pages :266
  • ISBN : 9781789235746
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Summary : Fossil fuels still need to meet the growing demand of global economic development, yet they are often considered as one of the main sources of the CO2 release in the atmosphere. CO2, which is the primary greenhouse gas (GHG), is periodically exchanged among the land surface, ocean, and atmosphere where various creatures absorb and produce it daily. However, the balanced processes of producing and consuming the CO2 by nature are unfortunately faced by the anthropogenic release of CO2. Decreasing the emissions of these greenhouse gases is becoming more urgent. Therefore, carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) of CO2, its utilization in oil recovery, as well as its conversion into fuels and chemicals emerge as active options and potential strategies to mitigate CO2 emissions and climate change, energy crises, and challenges in the storage of energy.

Advanced CO2 Capture Technologies

Advanced CO2 Capture Technologies
  • Author : Shin-ichi Nakao,Katsunori Yogo,Kazuya Goto,Teruhiko Kai,Hidetaka Yamada
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-05-07
  • Total pages :83
  • ISBN : 9783030188580
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Summary : This book summarises the advanced CO2 capture technologies that can be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, especially those from large-scale sources, such as power-generation and steel-making plants. Focusing on the fundamental chemistry and chemical processes, as well as advanced technologies, including absorption and adsorption, it also discusses other aspects of the major CO2 capture methods: membrane separation; the basic chemistry and process for CO2 capture; the development of materials and processes; and practical applications, based on the authors’ R&D experience. This book serves as a valuable reference resource for researchers, teachers and students interested in CO2 problems, providing essential information on how to capture CO2 from various types of gases efficiently. It is also of interest to practitioners and academics, as it discusses the performance of the latest technologies applied in large-scale emission sources.

Carbon Capture, Utilization and Sequestration

Carbon Capture, Utilization and Sequestration
  • Author : Ramesh K. Agarwal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-12
  • Total pages :196
  • ISBN : 9781789237641
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Summary : This book is divided in two sections. Several chapters in the first section provide a state-of-the-art review of various carbon sinks for CO2 sequestration such as soil and oceans. Other chapters discuss the carbon sequestration achieved by storage in kerogen nanopores, CO2 miscible flooding and generation of energy efficient solvents for postcombustion CO2 capture. The chapters in the second section focus on monitoring and tracking of CO2 migration in various types of storage sites, as well as important physical parameters relevant to sequestration. Both researchers and students should find the material useful in their work.

Carbon Dioxide Capture

Carbon Dioxide Capture
  • Author : Jonathan Albo Sanchez
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-13
  • Total pages :310
  • ISBN : 1634853210
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Summary : The large scale consumption of fossil fuels for the production of energy has raised CO2 levels up to 400 ppm over the last decades. These high atmospheric CO2 concentrations are linked to severe environmental problems such as the undesirable effects of global warming. In the 21st century, the world will be still searching for strategies to re-balance the natural carbon cycle and decoupling the economic growth from CO2 emissions. The transition to a low-carbon economy emerges as a priority to sustain socio-economic progress in a world of finite resources. In this sense, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) are different approaches aimed at mitigating greenhouse gas impacts from fossil fuels combustion in industrial and energy-related processes. With the rapidly growing energy demand as countries develop, the CCS and CCU may be considered as an interesting mid-term solution to mitigate environmental impacts and allow humans to continue using fossil energy until renewable energy technologies have matured. In both processes, the CO2 capture seems to be one of the main bottleneck steps where the efforts have to be applied. Thus, the development of new processes and technologies for CO2 capture in energy production is under research in order to maximise their cost-efficiency in this CO2-emission constrained framework. The book Carbon Dioxide Capture: Processes, Technology and Environmental Implications aims at presenting the recent developments for CO2 capture processes in fossil fuel power plants (i.e. pre-combustion, post-combustion, and oxy-combustion). Besides, new and prospective breakthrough technologies for CO2 capture for CCS and CCU approaches are examined.

Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration

Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Developing a Research Agenda for Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-04-08
  • Total pages :510
  • ISBN : 9780309484527
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Summary : To achieve goals for climate and economic growth, "negative emissions technologies" (NETs) that remove and sequester carbon dioxide from the air will need to play a significant role in mitigating climate change. Unlike carbon capture and storage technologies that remove carbon dioxide emissions directly from large point sources such as coal power plants, NETs remove carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere or enhance natural carbon sinks. Storing the carbon dioxide from NETs has the same impact on the atmosphere and climate as simultaneously preventing an equal amount of carbon dioxide from being emitted. Recent analyses found that deploying NETs may be less expensive and less disruptive than reducing some emissions, such as a substantial portion of agricultural and land-use emissions and some transportation emissions. In 2015, the National Academies published Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration, which described and initially assessed NETs and sequestration technologies. This report acknowledged the relative paucity of research on NETs and recommended development of a research agenda that covers all aspects of NETs from fundamental science to full-scale deployment. To address this need, Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda assesses the benefits, risks, and "sustainable scale potential" for NETs and sequestration. This report also defines the essential components of a research and development program, including its estimated costs and potential impact.

Process Systems and Materials for CO2 Capture

Process Systems and Materials for CO2 Capture
  • Author : Athanasios I. Papadopoulos,Panos Seferlis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-04-17
  • Total pages :680
  • ISBN : 9781119106449
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Summary : Computer-aided approaches enable the fast, automated and accurate evaluation of a vast number of process and material characteristics that lead to economically efficient and sustainable CO2 capture systems. In this context, they offer a promising route to exploit experimental know-how and guide the search for novel and efficient CO2 capture processes and materials. This comprehensive volume brings together an extensive collection of systematic computer-aided tools and methods developed in recent years for CO2 capture applications, and presents a structured and organized account of works from internationally acknowledged scientists and engineers, through: modelling of materials and processes based on chemical and physical principles design of materials and processes based on systematic optimization methods utilization of advanced control and integration methods in process and plant-wide operations. The tools and methods described are illustrated through case studies on materials such as solvents, adsorbents and membranes, and on processes such as absorption/desorption, pressure and vacuum swing adsorption, membranes, oxycombustion, solid looping, etc. Process Systems and Materials for CO2 Capture: Modelling, Design, Control and Integration should become the essential introductory resource for researchers and industrial practitioners in the field of CO2 capture technology who wish to explore developments in computer-aided tools and methods. In addition, it aims to introduce CO2 capture technologies to process systems engineers working in the development of general computational tools and methods by highlighting opportunities for new developments to address the needs and challenges in CO2 capture technologies.

Oxy-Fuel Combustion for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

Oxy-Fuel Combustion for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture
  • Author : L Zheng
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-02-26
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 9780857090980
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Summary : Oxy-fuel combustion is currently considered to be one of the major technologies for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in power plants. The advantages of using oxygen (O2) instead of air for combustion include a CO2-enriched flue gas that is ready for sequestration following purification and low NOx emissions. This simple and elegant technology has attracted considerable attention since the late 1990s, rapidly developing from pilot-scale testing to industrial demonstration. Challenges remain, as O2 supply and CO2 capture create significant energy penalties that must be reduced through overall system optimisation and the development of new processes. Oxy-fuel combustion for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture comprehensively reviews the fundamental principles and development of oxy-fuel combustion in fossil-fuel fired utility boilers. Following a foreword by Professor János M. Beér, the book opens with an overview of oxy-fuel combustion technology and its role in a carbon-constrained environment. Part one introduces oxy-fuel combustion further, with a chapter comparing the economics of oxy-fuel vs. post-/pre-combustion CO2 capture, followed by chapters on plant operation, industrial scale demonstrations, and circulating fluidized bed combustion. Part two critically reviews oxy-fuel combustion fundamentals, such as ignition and flame stability, burner design, emissions and heat transfer characteristics, concluding with chapters on O2 production and CO2 compression and purification technologies. Finally, part three explores advanced concepts and developments, such as near-zero flue gas recycle and high-pressure systems, as well as chemical looping combustion and utilisation of gaseous fuel. With its distinguished editor and internationally renowned contributors, Oxy-fuel combustion for power generation and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture provides a rich resource for power plant designers, operators, and engineers, as well as academics and researchers in the field. Comprehensively reviews the fundamental principles and development of oxy-fuel combustion in fossil-fuel fired utility boilers Provides an overview of oxy-fuel combustion technology and its role in a carbon-constrained environment Introduces oxy-fuel combustion comparing the economics of oxy-fuel vs. post-/pre-combustion CO2 capture

Handbook of Membrane Separations

Handbook of Membrane Separations
  • Author : Anil Kumar Pabby,Syed S.H. Rizvi,Ana Maria Sastre Requena
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-04-09
  • Total pages :878
  • ISBN : 9781466555587
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Summary : The Handbook of Membrane Separations: Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Food, and Biotechnological Applications, Second Edition provides detailed information on membrane separation technologies from an international team of experts. The handbook fills an important gap in the current literature by providing a comprehensive discussion of membrane application

Energy Efficient Solvents for CO2 Capture by Gas-Liquid Absorption

Energy Efficient Solvents for CO2 Capture by Gas-Liquid Absorption
  • Author : Wojciech M. Budzianowski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-12-01
  • Total pages :277
  • ISBN : 9783319472621
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Summary : This book reviews and characterises promising single-compound solvents, solvent blends and advanced solvent systems suitable for CO2 capture applications using gas-liquid absorption. Focusing on energy efficient solvents with minimal adverse environmental impact, the contributions included analyse the major technological advantages, as well as research and development challenges of promising solvents and solvent systems in various sustainable CO2 capture applications. It provides a valuable source of information for undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as for chemical engineers and energy specialists.

Advanced Membrane Science and Technology for Sustainable Energy and Environmental Applications

Advanced Membrane Science and Technology for Sustainable Energy and Environmental Applications
  • Author : Angelo Basile,Suzana Pereira Nunes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-08-24
  • Total pages :848
  • ISBN : 9780857093790
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Summary : Membrane materials allow for the selective separation of gas and vapour and for ion transport. Materials research and development continues to drive improvements in the design, manufacture and integration of membrane technologies as critical components in both sustainable energy and clean industry applications. Membrane utilisation offers process simplification and intensification in industry, providing low-cost, and efficient and reliable operation, and contributing towards emissions reductions and energy security. Advanced membrane science and technology for sustainable energy and environmental applications presents a comprehensive review of membrane utilisation and integration within energy and environmental industries. Part one introduces the topic of membrane science and engineering, from the fundamentals of membrane processes and separation to membrane characterization and economic analysis. Part two focuses on membrane utilisation for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in coal and gas power plants, including pre- and post-combustion and oxygen transport technologies. Part three reviews membranes for the petrochemical industry, with chapters covering hydrocarbon fuel, natural gas and synthesis gas processing, as well as advanced biofuels production. Part four covers membranes for alternative energy applications and energy storage, such as membrane technology for redox and lithium batteries, fuel cells and hydrogen production. Finally, part five discusses membranes utilisation in industrial and environmental applications, including microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and forward osmosis, as well as water, wastewater and nuclear power applications. With its distinguished editors and team of expert contributors, Advanced membrane science and technology for sustainable energy and environmental applications is an essential reference for membrane and materials engineers and manufacturers, as well as researchers and academics interested in this field. Presents a comprehensive review of membrane science and technology, focusing on developments and applications in sustainable energy and clean-industry Discusses the fundamentals of membrane processes and separation and membrane characterization and economic analysis Addresses the key issues of membrane utilisation in coal and gas power plants and the petrochemical industry, the use of membranes for alternative energy applications and membrane utilisation in industrial and environmental applications

Membrane Technology for CO2 Sequestration

Membrane Technology for CO2 Sequestration
  • Author : Zeinab Abbas Jawad
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-03-26
  • Total pages :256
  • ISBN : 9781351380805
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Summary : This book addresses the fundamentals of CO2 storage for long-term sequestration in a subsurface geologic formation. In general, membrane gas separation can find a large room of application in flue gas. To achieve the development of this technology on a larger scale than which is possible in the lab we have to use membrane engineering. Consequently, greater emphasis is placed on novel materials for gas separation. Possible design strategies and role of novel materials are discussed. Additionally, the latest progress in design and preparation of asymmetric membranes for natural gas purification are highlighted. In fact, further development should focus on module and process design in order to bring gas separation membrane technology into commercial application. Therefore, the keys issues to propel current research towards industrial application are examined. Besides, the feasibility of implementing polyimide membrane for CO2 removal under real industrial conditions and its economic viability are highlighted. In order to exhibit excellent film-forming properties, zeolite membrane and cellulose acetate butyrate membrane areaddressed. Interestingly, it was found that the most accurate theoretical three-phase model is arguably revised Pal model with average percentage error of 0.74%.

Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture

Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture
  • Author : Paul Fennell,Ben Anthony
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-05-21
  • Total pages :466
  • ISBN : 9780857097606
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Summary : Calcium and Chemical Looping Technology for Power Generation and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to chemical looping and combustion. Chapters review the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems, also providing detailed information on the variety of materials and processes that will help to shape the future of CO2 capture ready power plants. Reviews the fundamental principles, systems, oxygen carriers, and carbon dioxide carriers relevant to calcium and chemical looping Provides a lucid explanation of advanced concepts and developments in calcium and chemical looping, high pressure systems, and alternative CO2 carriers Presents information on the market development, economics, and deployment of these systems

Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies

Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies
  • Author : B. Eliasson,P. Riemer,A. Wokaun
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999-05-20
  • Total pages :1205
  • ISBN : 0080553036
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Summary : These proceedings contain 270 papers outlining ideas and contributions to the new scientific, technical and political discipline of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Control. The contributions were presented at the 4th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-4). It was the largest gathering of experts active in this new and fast-developing field. GHGT-4 was different from its predecessors in that it included all greenhouse gases, not only CO2, and all issues which could contribute to the mitigation of the greenhouse problem - technical, economic and political. The main focus was on practical solutions and real demonstrations of mitigation technology being planned and implemented today. It also addressed ways to increase the efficiency of power production and utilisation, and looked at proposals to encourage the development of renewable energy sources. During the Opening Session, 10 keynote addresses were heard from prominent personalities in government, industry and academia. To tackle this very inter-disciplinary problem and to achieve acceptable solutions, it is essential for industry and government to initiate intense dialogue and cooperation. Conferences like this can provide the opportunity for a meeting of minds between engineers and politicians in the face of global challenge. The primary attributes of this global challenge are manifold: the problem is global and international; it is inter-disciplinary, both in substance and approach; it covers technical, political and economic issues and involves government, science, industry and academia; it is complex and non-linear; and it will take the efforts of all parties involved to solve the problem. These proceedings contain ideas for starting demonstration projects and for making better use of the power and flexibility of market measures. They also show it is a problem we can influence and that there is a wealth of ideas. The challenge now is to find the right partners to put these ideas into action.

Carbon Dioxide Capture for Storage in Deep Geologic Formations

Carbon Dioxide Capture for Storage in Deep Geologic Formations
  • Author : David C. Thomas,Sally Benson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :1331
  • ISBN : 0080445721
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Summary : Accompanying CD-ROM contains the results from the CO2 capture projects.

Gas Treating

Gas Treating
  • Author : Dag Eimer
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-25
  • Total pages :440
  • ISBN : 9781118877623
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Summary : Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides anintroduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas andflue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challengesinvolved. The book concentrates in particular on theabsorption–desorption process and mass transfer coupled withchemical reaction. Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistryof CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topicsfrom physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating arepresented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed indetail, column hardware is explained and the traditional masstransfer model mechanisms are presented together with mass transfercorrelations. This is followed by the central point of the text inwhich mass transfer is combined with chemical reaction,highlighting the associated possibilities and problems.Experimental techniques, data analysis and modelling are covered,and the book concludes with a discussion on various processelements which are important in the absorption–desorptionprocess, but are often neglected in its treatment. These includeheat exchange, solution management, process flowsheet variations,choice of materials and degradation of absorbents. The text isrounded off with an overview of the current state of research inthis field and a discussion of real-world applications. This book is a practical introduction to gas treating forpracticing process engineers and chemical engineers working onpurification technologies and gas treatment, in particular, thoseworking on CO2 abatement processes, as well as post-graduatestudents in process engineering, chemical engineering andchemistry.