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Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Pressure Retarded Osmosis
  • Author : Khaled Touati,Fernando Tadeo,Joon Ha Kim,Oscar Andres Alvarez Silva
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-05-16
  • Total pages :188
  • ISBN : 9780128123157
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Summary : Pressure Retarded Osmosis: Renewable Energy Generation and Recovery offers the first comprehensive resource on this method of generating renewable energy. Dr. Khaled Touati and the team of editors combine their expertise with contributions from other leaders in the field to create this well-rounded resource, which discusses and analyses this novel method of creating a controllable renewable energy. The promises of the PRO technique are first clearly presented and explained, and the authors then provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues that remain such as Concentration Polarization, Membrane Deformation, and Reverse Salt Diffusion. Possible solutions to these issues which often restrict industrial implementation are then discussed to mitigate these detrimental effects, and there is also an emphasis on the recovery of energy from desalination processes using PRO, which is able to reduce energy consumption and make it more economically and environmentally efficient. Combines research with experience to deliver a complete resource on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Discusses all areas of PRO in detail Offers solutions to problems commonly experienced and summarizes each method with a clear and concise conclusion Includes case studies from the Great Salt Lake (U.S.A) and Dead Sea (Asia), as well as other rivers from America, Europe, and Asia

Membrane Technology for Osmotic Power Generation by Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Membrane Technology for Osmotic Power Generation by Pressure Retarded Osmosis
  • Author : Tai-Shung Chung,Chun Feng Wan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-02-24
  • Total pages :324
  • ISBN : 9781000027839
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Summary : Osmotic energy can be effectively harvested through pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) which is the most widely investigated technology due to its greater efficiency and higher power density output and effective membranes are the heart of the PRO technology. This book will cover a broad range of topics, including PRO membranes, fouling, module fabrication, process design, process operation and maintenance. It summarizes the progress in PRO researches in the last decade, and points out the directions for future R&D and commercialization of PRO. It will be of great interest to membrane researcher, company and operators to understand and get insights into the state-of-the-art PRO technologies.

Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients

Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients
  • Author : Andrea Cipollina,Giorgio Micale
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-03-01
  • Total pages :362
  • ISBN : 9780081003237
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Summary : Salinity gradient energy, also known as blue energy and osmotic energy, is the energy obtainable from the difference in salt concentration between two feed solutions, typically sea water and river water. It is a large-scale renewable resource that can be harvested and converted to electricity. Efficient extraction of this energy is not straightforward, however. Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients provides a comprehensive review of resources, technologies and applications in this area of fast-growing interest. Key technologies covered include pressure retarded osmosis, reverse electrodialysis and accumulator mixing. Environmental and economic aspects are also considered, together with the possible synergies between desalination and salinity gradient energy technologies. Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients is an essential text for R&D professionals in the energy & water industry interested in salinity gradient power and researchers in academia from post-graduate level upwards. For more than ten years the Editors have been sharing substantial research activities in the fields of renewable energy and desalination, successfully participating to a number of European Union research projects and contributing to the relevant scientific literature with more than 100 papers and 2 books on Desalination technologies and their coupling with Renewable Energy. They are intensely working in the field of Salinity Gradient Power, carrying out research with specific focus o.n open-loop and closed-loop reverse electrodialysis and pressure retarded osmosis. Covers applications of pressure retarded osmosis, reverse electrodialysis, and capacitive mixing for salinity gradient power in one convenient volume Presents the environmental aspects and economics of salinity gradient energy Explores possible synergies between desalination and salinity gradient energy

Membrane-Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation

Membrane-Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation
  • Author : Sarper Sarp,Nidal Hilal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-07-25
  • Total pages :366
  • ISBN : 9780444639622
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Summary : Membrane-Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation focuses on the various types of membrane- based salinity gradient processes that can be applied for desalination. Topics cover salinity gradient processes for desalination, such as Forward Osmosis (FO) and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO), with chapters selected exclusively from a number of world-leading experts in various disciplines and from different continents. Sections include discussions on the theoretical and fundamental approaches to salinity gradient processes, various types of membrane materials and development, i.e., flat sheet and hollow fiber, various salinity water sources for an economically feasible process, and large-scale applications. Finally, the book focuses on economically feasible process optimization when both operational and capital costs are considered. Features specific details on salinity gradient techniques for various desalination applications of industrial and academic interest Contains unique discussions on membrane development and process optimization that normally only appear briefly in research articles Includes examples of internationally best practices for the evaluation of several system parameters, including thermodynamic optimization, high power density membrane development, and more Discusses large-scale applications and provides examples of such implementations, such as Statkraft, Japanese Megaton, and Korean GMVP

Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes

Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes
  • Author : Hongbo Du,Audie Thompson,Xinying Wang
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-03-28
  • Total pages :282
  • ISBN : 9789535139218
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Summary : Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMPs) including forward osmosis (FO) and pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) have attracted increasing attention in fields such as water treatment, desalination, power generation, and life science. In contrast to pressure-driven membrane processes, e.g., reverse osmosis, which typically employs applied high pressure as driving force, ODMPs take advantages of naturally generated osmotic pressure as the sole source of driving force. In light of this, ODMPs possess many advantages over pressure-driven membrane processes. The advantages include low energy consumption, ease of equipment maintenance, low capital investment, high salt rejection, and high water flux. In the past decade, over 300 academic papers on ODMPs have been published in a variety of application fields. The number of such publications is still rapidly growing. The ODMPs' approach, fabrications, recent development and applications in wastewater treatment, power generation, seawater desalination, and gas absorption are presented in this book.

Pressure Retarded Osmosis as a Means of Waste Heat Recovery

Pressure Retarded Osmosis as a Means of Waste Heat Recovery
  • Author : Khan Anjum Akmal
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1979
  • Total pages :432
  • ISBN : OCLC:5383107
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Summary :

Power Generation Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Power Generation Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis
  • Author : Bader Shafaqa Al-Anzi,Ashly Thomas,Jenifer Fernandes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-03-30
  • Total pages :60
  • ISBN : 3330847409
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Summary :

Modeling and Simulation of the Dual Stage Pressure Retarded Osmosis Systems

Modeling and Simulation of the Dual Stage Pressure Retarded Osmosis Systems
  • Author : Roghayeh Soltani
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1199626298
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Summary : Utilization of renewable energy sources, as an approach to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, have been globally popular in the last few decades. Among renewable energy sources, pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) has been scrutinized by scientists since the mid 70's. However, even today, the existing river-sea PRO systems can only marginally meet the generally approved criterion of 5 W/m2 power density, a threshold for an economically feasible PRO system. As an approach to increase the performance of PRO systems, multi-staging of PRO modules are investigated. A mathematical model of the scaled up PRO process is proposed with consideration for internal and external concentration polarization, reverse salt flux, and spatial variations along the membrane. A thermodynamic model is also developed with consideration for entropy generation and losses in the process. It predicts the percentile of each work loss source compared to the net work in the system. Several confi gurations of dual stage PRO system are presented and compared to single stage PRO. The comparison is based on three proposed target functions of power density (PD), specifi c energy (SE), and work per drawn freshwater (Wdrawn). Applied hydraulic pressures and flow rates of draw and feed solutions are optimized for maximizing the target functions. The results indicate that overall performance of the system could be improved by up to 8 % with a dual stage PRO in the case of SE. The system performance is not improved by depressurizing the draw solution before the second module in cases of SE and Wdrawn. The thermodynamic analysis demonstrate the contribution of each work loss and justify the reason of diminishing the net work over the losses. The effect of membrane area and membrane characteristics on the SE target function is also investigated. The distribution of membrane area in each module depends on the selected con figuration and inlet draw solution. In the dual stage systems, the SE value increases up to 14% by improving the membrane characteristics. Reducing the salt rejection coefficient (B) is the most e ective membrane characteristic in our con figurations. Replacing seawater with RO brine in draw solution results in a signifi cant improvement in SE values.

Power Stations Using Locally Available Energy Sources

Power Stations Using Locally Available Energy Sources
  • Author : Lucien Y. Bronicki
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-04-06
  • Total pages :501
  • ISBN : 1493975099
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Summary : This volume covers the utilization of geothermal and related energy resources that exploit variations in temperature, chemistry, etc. and require different plant designs and technologies for each location. Extending beyond power plants using geothermal and ocean energy, coverage includes hot dry rock systems, geothermal conditioning, solar ponds, osmotic power, dry air, and potential future deep sea hydrothermal sources. Some technologies have reached the prototype stage, some not even that, but where much work has been invested, it is important to provide a complete picture if only to prevent others from following a dead-end path. For geothermal power plants, the greatest challenge remains the geothermal resource itself. Power conversion is the least uncertain part of a geothermal project, as it consists of a straightforward engineering design with work executed by experienced manufacturers, engineering firms, and contractors. The issues associated with integrating large amounts of ocean energy into the overall supply are also explored. Collecting more than 20 new articles and updated entries, all peer reviewed, this volume in the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Second Edition, provides an authoritative introduction from exploration techniques to conversion systems for a wide range of locally available energy sources. This comprehensive reference is suitable for those just entering these fields, but also offers new insights for advanced researchers, industry experts, and decision makers.

Technoeconomic Analysis of Pressure-retarded Osmosis

Technoeconomic Analysis of Pressure-retarded Osmosis
  • Author : Hyung Won Chung
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020
  • Total pages :111
  • ISBN : OCLC:1155111852
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Summary : Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is a renewable method of power production from salinity gradients which has generated significant academic and commercial interest. Because PRO is a non-intermittent technology (i.e., the energy output can be actively controlled) and it has huge global capacity (1.4-2.6 TW global salinity gradient power potential), a successful commercialization of PRO can significantly impact the global energy landscape. However, the current status quo has too low energy efficiency and too high capital cost for PRO to be successfully implemented on a large scale. A broad objective of this thesis is to analyze PRO from a system-level perspective to identify major bottlenecks and propose methods to remove these bottlenecks and improve system-level performance. Economic analysis is necessary to ascertain the practical viability of a PRO system for power production, but high complexity and the lack of large scale data has limited such work. Ve provide two methods to overcome such difficulty. First, we investigate lower bound cost scenarios for power generation with PRO to evaluate its economic viability. We build an economic model for PRO with assumptions that minimize the cost of power production, thereby conclusively identifying the operating conditions that are not economically viable. Second, we develop a simple yet powerful economic framework to relate the lower bound of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) to net power density. A set of simplifying assumptions are used to develop an inverse linear relationship between net power density and LCOE. While net power density can be inferred based on experimentally measured power density, LCOE can be used to judge the economic viability of the PRO system. The minimum required net power density for PRO system to achieve an LCOE of $0.074/kWh (the capacity-weighted average LCOE of solar PV in the U.S.) is found to be 56.4 W/m2 Finally, we investigate multistage configurations of PRO as a viable way to improve net power density. We develop a unifying framework to classify and analyze various multistage designs in the literature. Then we identify the optimal multistage configuration that achieves most of the benefit of multistaging without significantly increasing the design complexity.

Biocatalytic Membrane Reactors

Biocatalytic Membrane Reactors
  • Author : Enrico Drioli,Lidietta Giorno
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020-10-08
  • Total pages :211
  • ISBN : 9781000162783
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Summary : This research level reference book has been co-written by Enrico Drioli, perhaps one of the world's best known researchers into membrane technology. The application of membrane technology to chemical transformation and molecular separation are beginning to be exploited in the pharmaceutical science and biotechnology industries, but there is a need for researchers and students to have up-to-date literature - and this book provides it. The book will be of interest to students of chemistry, chemical engineering, pharmacy and biotechnology.

Osmosis Engineering

Osmosis Engineering
  • Author : Nidal Hilal,Ahmad Fauzi Ismail,Mohamed Khayet Souhaimi,Daniel Johnson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-04-01
  • Total pages :612
  • ISBN : 9780128231883
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Summary : Osmosis Engineering provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art surrounding osmosis based research and industrial applications. The book covers the underpinning theories, technology developments and commercial applications. Sections discuss innovative and advanced membranes and modules for osmosis separation processes (e.g., reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, pressure retarded osmosis, osmotic membrane distillation), different application of these osmosis separation processes for energy and water separation, such as the treatment of radioactive waste, oily wastewater and heavy metal removal, draw solutions, pretreatment technologies, fouling effects, the use of renewable energy driven osmotic processes, computational, environmental and economic studies, and more. Covers state-of-the-art osmotic engineering technologies and applications Presents multidisciplinary topics in engineered osmosis, including both fundamental and applied EO concepts Includes major challenges such as fouling mitigation, membrane development, pre-treatment and energy usage

Advanced Nanomaterials for Membrane Synthesis and Its Applications

Advanced Nanomaterials for Membrane Synthesis and Its Applications
  • Author : Woei Jye Lau,Ahmad Fauzi Ismail,Arun M. Isloor,Amir Al-Ahmed
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-11-21
  • Total pages :341
  • ISBN : 9780128145043
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Summary : Advanced Nanomaterials for Membrane Synthesis and Its Applications provides the academic and industrial communities the most up-to-date information on the latest trends in membrane nanomaterials and membrane nanotechnology used in wastewater treatment, environmental technology and energy. The rapid advances in nanomaterials and nanotechnology development over the past decade have resulted in significant growth of the membrane business for various industrial processes, particularly in nanotechnology-based membrane processes. While membrane technology is increasingly being used for liquid and gas separations, it has great potential in a variety of additional applications. As the worldwide academic community has a strong interest in advanced membrane processes, particularly membrane nanotechnology for specific separations, this book provides a timely update on the topic. Presents a unique focus on the use of advanced nanomaterials in membrane fabrication/modification, and in the description of membrane nanotechnologies, such as nanofiltration, thin film nanocomposites and nanofibers for various applications Describes next generation membranes, providing first resource details on the development and commercialization stages of these new membranes Represents the state-of-the-art on the use of nanomaterials in membrane science

Recent Developments in Forward Osmosis Processes

Recent Developments in Forward Osmosis Processes
  • Author : Rodrigo Valladares Linares,Zhenyu Li,Menachem Elimelech,Gary Amy,Hans Vrouwenvelder
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-05-15
  • Total pages :404
  • ISBN : 9781780408118
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Summary : Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane technology with a range of possible water treatment applications (desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery). Recent Developments in Forward Osmosis Processes provides an overview of applications, advantages, challenges, costs and current knowledge gaps. Commercial technology, hybrid FO systems for both desalination and water recovery applications have shown to have higher capital cost compared to conventional technologies. Nevertheless, due to the demonstrated lower operational costs of hybrid FO systems, the unit cost for each m3 of fresh water produced with the FO system are lower than conventional desalination/water recovery technologies (i.e. ultrafiltration/RO systems). There are key benefits of using FO hybrid systems compared to RO: • chemical storage and feed systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost savings, • reduced process piping costs, • more flexible treatment units, • higher overall sustainability of the desalination process, while producing high quality water.

Membrane Separation Principles and Applications

Membrane Separation Principles and Applications
  • Author : Ahmad Fauzi Ismail,Mukhlis A. Rahman,Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman,Takeshi Matsuura
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2018-09-07
  • Total pages :493
  • ISBN : 9780128128169
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Summary : Membrane Separation Principles and Applications: From Material Selection to Mechanisms and Industrial Uses, the latest volume in the Handbooks in Separation Science series, is the first single resource to explore all aspects of this rapidly growing area of study. Membrane technology is now accepted as one of the most effective tools for separation and purification, primarily due to its simple operation. The result has been a proliferation of studies on this topic; however, the relationships between fundamental knowledge and applications are rarely discussed. This book acts as a guideline for those who are interested in exploring membranes at a more progressive level. Covering methods of pressure driving force, partial pressure driving force, concentration driving force, electrical potential driving force, hybrid processes, and more, this volume is more complete than any other known resource on membrane separations. Covers membrane material selection, membrane fabrication, membrane characterization, separation mechanisms and applications in each chapter Authored by contributors who are internationally recognized as experts in their respective fields Organized by the driving force behind each type of membrane separation—a unique approach that more clearly links fundamental principles with their dominant applications

Forward Osmosis

Forward Osmosis
  • Author : Ho Kyong Shon,Sherub Phuntsho,Tian C. Zhang,Rao Y. Surampalli
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-08
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 0784414076
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Summary :

Membrane Technology and Applications

Membrane Technology and Applications
  • Author : Richard W. Baker
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2004-05-31
  • Total pages :538
  • ISBN : 0470854456
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Summary : Table of Contents Preface Acknowledgments for the first edition Acknowledgments for the second edition 1 Overview of Membrane Science and Technology 1 2 Membrane Transport Theory 15 3 Membranes and Modules 89 4 Concentration Polarization 161 5 Reverse Osmosis 191 6 Ultrafiltration 237 7 Microfiltration 275 8 Gas Separation 301 9 Pervaporation 355 10 Ion Exchange Membrane Processes - Electrodialysis 393 11 Carrier Facilitated Transport 425 12 Medical Applications of Membranes 465 13 Other Membrane Processes 491 Appendix 523 Index 535.

Theoretical Framework for Energy Analysis of Hypersaline Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Theoretical Framework for Energy Analysis of Hypersaline Pressure Retarded Osmosis
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : OCLC:1052087171
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Summary : Abstract: Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) has traditionally been focused on the mixing of seawater and river water, but in pilot scale tests, this mixing scheme has been found to be economically unattractive due to power densities that are too low. One way of obtaining higher power densities may be through use of hypersaline draw solutions. In this work, the theoretical framework for calculation of the free energy of mixing, the maximum extractable work in batch and co-current PRO systems, and the potential power densities of hypersaline solutions is presented. Calculations show that very high values in all categories are realizable. By diluting 26 wt% (saturated NaCl) to seawater concentration, 15.7 kW h/m 3 draw is released and a maximum power density of 143 W/m 2 membrane can be obtained with a commercially available FO membrane. In cases where the hypersaline solution is the limiting solution, large losses of energy can be expected if the process is carried out as a constant pressure single stage operation. To minimize losses, a serial setup can be applied. Although the practical challenges for hypersaline PRO may be greater than for seawater based PRO, the high potential gains may make hypersaline PRO a more promising way of making the PRO concept realizable. Graphical abstract: Highlights: We present the theoretical foundation for calculations on hypersaline osmotic power. Mixing energy, extractable energy and power densities are examined. Increasing draw salinity will dramatically increase both energy and power density. For hypersaline draws, traditional PRO systems may operate at low efficiencies. Energy can be more efficiently extracted by applying PRO systems in series.

Membrane Distillation

Membrane Distillation
  • Author : Kang-Jia Lu,Tai-Shung Chung
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-11-05
  • Total pages :410
  • ISBN : 9781000691009
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Summary : This book aims to elaborate the basics and recent advances of membrane distillation (MD) as the same shows promise for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment. Starting with fundamentals of MD processes, including the heat and mass transfer analysis, energy evaluation and mathematical modelling, text includes engineering and molecular design of MD membranes. Various types of hybrid systems, including freeze desalination (FD)-MD, MD-crystallization (MDC), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO)-MD and forward osmosis (FO)-MD, will be discussed in this book. Further, it summarizes the future of MD from both industrial and academic perspectives along with energy sources and economic analysis.

Basic Equations of the Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer

Basic Equations of the Mass Transport Through a Membrane Layer
  • Author : Endre Nagy
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :329
  • ISBN : 9780124160255
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Summary : With a detailed analysis of the mass transport through membrane layers and its effect on different separation processes, this book provides a comprehensive look at the theoretical and practical aspects of membrane transport properties and functions. Basic equations for every membrane are provided to predict the mass transfer rate, the concentration distribution, the convective velocity, the separation efficiency, and the effect of chemical or biochemical reaction taking into account the heterogeneity of the membrane layer to help better understand the mechanisms of the separation processes. The reader will be able to describe membrane separation processes and the membrane reactors as well as choose the most suitable membrane structure for separation and for membrane reactor. Containing detailed discussion of the latest results in transport processes and separation processes, this book is essential for chemistry students and practitioners of chemical engineering and process engineering. Detailed survey of the theoretical and practical aspects of every membrane process with specific equations Practical examples discussed in detail with clear steps Will assist in planning and preparation of more efficient membrane structure separation

Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion

Thermodynamics and Energy Conversion
  • Author : Henning Struchtrup
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-07-02
  • Total pages :597
  • ISBN : 9783662437155
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Summary : This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices. Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools. Topics include: car and aircraft engines, including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet; steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic power plants and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy. The book includes about 300 end-of-chapter problems for homework assignments and exams. The material presented suffices for two or three full-term courses on thermodynamics and energy conversion.