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Process Safety Calculations

Process Safety Calculations
  • Author : Renato Benintendi
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-02-26
  • Total pages :892
  • ISBN : 9780128235171
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Summary : Process Safety Calculations, Second Edition remains to be an essential guide for students and practitioners in process safety engineering who are working on calculating and predicting risks and consequences. The book focuses on calculation procedures based on basic chemistry, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, conservation equations, kinetics and practical models. It provides helpful calculations to demonstrate compliance with regulations and standards, such as Seveso directive(s)/COMAH, CLP regulation, ATEX directives, PED directives, REACH regulation, OSHA/NIOSH and UK ALARP, along with risk and consequence assessment, stoichiometry, thermodynamics, stress analysis and fluid-dynamics. This fully revised, updated and expanded second edition follows the same organization as the first, including the original three main parts, Fundamentals, Consequence Assessment and Quantitative Risk Assessment. However, the latter part is significantly expanded, including an appendix consisting of five fundamental thematic areas belonging to the risk assessment framework, including in-depth calculations methodologies for some fundamental monothematic macro-areas of process safety. Revised, updated and expanded new edition that includes newly developing areas of process safety that are relevant to QRA Provides engineering fundamentals to enable readers to properly approach the subject of process safety Includes a remarkable and broad numbers of calculation examples, which are completely resolved and fully explained Develops the QRA subject, consistently with the methodology applied in the big projects

Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety

Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety
  • Author : Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS)
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-08-26
  • Total pages :698
  • ISBN : 9780470925119
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Summary : Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety provides guidelines for industries that manufacture, consume, or handle chemicals, by focusing on new ways to design, correct, or improve process safety management practices. This new framework for thinking about process safety builds upon the original process safety management ideas published in the early 1990s, integrates industry lessons learned over the intervening years, utilizes applicable "total quality" principles (i.e., plan, do, check, act), and organizes it in a way that will be useful to all organizations - even those with relatively lower hazard activities - throughout the life-cycle of a company.

STOICHIOMETRY AND PROCESS CALCULATIONS

STOICHIOMETRY AND PROCESS CALCULATIONS
  • Author : K. V. NARAYANAN,B. LAKSHMIKUTTY
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-01-01
  • Total pages :604
  • ISBN : 9788120329928
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Summary : This textbook is designed for undergraduate courses in chemical engineering and related disciplines such as biotechnology, polymer technology, petrochemical engineering, electrochemical engineering, environmental engineering, safety engineering and industrial chemistry. The chief objective of this text is to prepare students to make analysis of chemical processes through calculations and also to develop in them systematic problem-solving skills. The students are introduced not only to the application of law of combining proportions to chemical reactions (as the word ‘stoichiometry’ implies) but also to formulating and solving material and energy balances in processes with and without chemical reactions. The book presents the fundamentals of chemical engineering operations and processes in an accessible style to help the students gain a thorough understanding of chemical process calculations. It also covers in detail the background materials such as units and conversions, dimensional analysis and dimensionless groups, property estimation, P-V-T behaviour of fluids, vapour pressure and phase equilibrium relationships, humidity and saturation. With the help of examples, the book explains the construction and use of reference-substance plots, equilibrium diagrams, psychrometric charts, steam tables and enthalpy composition diagrams. It also elaborates on thermophysics and thermochemistry to acquaint the students with the thermodynamic principles of energy balance calculations. Key Features : • SI units are used throughout the book. • Presents a thorough introduction to basic chemical engineering principles. • Provides many worked-out examples and exercise problems with answers. • Objective type questions included at the end of the book serve as useful review material and also assist the students in preparing for competitive examinations such as GATE.

CHEMICAL PROCESS CALCULATIONS

CHEMICAL PROCESS CALCULATIONS
  • Author : D. C. SIKDAR
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-05-22
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 9788120347823
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Summary : Keeping the importance of basic tools of process calculations—material balance and energy balance—in mind, the text prepares the students to formulate material and energy balance theory on chemical process systems. It also demonstrates how to solve the main process-related problems that crop up in chemical engineering practice. The chapters are organized in a way that enables the students to acquire an in-depth understanding of the subject. The emphasis is given to the units and conversions, basic concepts of calculations, material balance with/without chemical reactions, and combustion of fuels and energy balances. Apart from numerous illustrations, the book contains numerous solved problems and exercises which bridge the gap between theoretical learning and practical implementation. All the numerical problems are solved with block diagrams to reinforce the understanding of the concepts. Primarily intended as a text for the undergraduate students of chemical engineering, it will also be useful for other allied branches of chemical engineering such as polymer science and engineering and petroleum engineering. KEY FEATURES • Methods of calculation for stoichiometric proportions with practical examples from the Industry • Simplified method of solving numerical problems under material balance with and without chemical reactions • Conversions of chemical engineering equations from one unit to another • Solution of fuel and combustion, and energy balance problems using tabular column

Process Safety and Big Data

Process Safety and Big Data
  • Author : Sagit Valeev,Natalya Kondratyeva
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2021-03-01
  • Total pages :312
  • ISBN : 9780128220672
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Summary : Process Safety and Big Data discusses the principles of process safety and advanced information technologies, explaining its application to the process industry and providing examples of applications in process safety control and decision support systems. The book helps address problems that researchers face as the result of increased process complexity. The book shows ways to tackle safety issues by implementing modern information technologies, such as big data analysis and artificial intelligence. It provides an integrated approach to modern information technologies used in the control and management of process safety in industry. In addition, the book considers indicators and criteria in effective safety decision, helps safety managers understand how to make effective safety decisions, addresses the issue of how big data provides support for (autonomous) improved data-driven decisions, and provides indicators and criteria for big data in process safety. Paves the way for the digital transformation of safety science and safety management Takes a system approach to advanced information technologies used in process safety Provides examples on how AI is applied in the contextualization of data streams that are monitored to improve safety performance Applies big data technologies to process safety Includes case studies at the end of the book

Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety

Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety
  • Author : CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-10-12
  • Total pages :573
  • ISBN : 9780470938263
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Summary : Inherently safer plants begin with the initial design. Here is where integrity and reliability can be built in at the lowest cost, and with maximum effectiveness. This book focuses on process safety issues in the design of chemical, petrochemical, and hydrocarbon processing facilities. It discusses how to select designs that can prevent or mitigate the release of flammable or toxic materials, which could lead to a fire, explosion, or environmental damage. All engineers on the design team, the process hazard analysis team, and those who make basic decisions on plant design, will benefit from its comprehensive coverage, its organization, and the extensive references to literature, codes, and standards that accompany each chapter.

Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment

Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment
  • Author : Louis Theodore,R. Ryan Dupont
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-12-19
  • Total pages :636
  • ISBN : 9781439868881
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Summary : Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment: Principles and Calculations explains how to evaluate and apply environmental health and hazard risk assessment calculations in a variety of real-life settings. Using a wealth of examples and case studies, the book helps readers develop both a theoretical understanding and a working knowledge of the principles of health, safety, and accident management. Learn the Fundamentals of Health, Safety, and Accident Management The book takes a pragmatic approach to risk assessment, identifying problems and outlining solutions. Organized into four parts, the text: Presents an overview of the history of environmental health and hazard problems, legal considerations, and emergency planning and response Tackles the broad subject of health risk assessment, discussing toxicology, exposure, and health risk characterization Examines hazard risk assessment in significant detail—from problem identification, probability, consequence, and characterization of hazards/accidents to the fundamentals of applicable statistics theory Uses case studies to demonstrate the applications and calculations of risk analysis for real systems Incorporate Health and Safety in Process Design The book assumes only a basic background in physics, chemistry, and mathematics, making it suitable for students and those new to the field. It is also a valuable reference for practicing engineers, scientists, technicians, technical managers, and others tasked with ensuring that plant and equipment operations meet applicable standards and regulations. A clear and comprehensive resource, this book offers guidance for those who want to reduce or eliminate the environmental health effects and accidents that can result in loss of life, materials, and property.

Hydrocarbon Process Safety

Hydrocarbon Process Safety
  • Author : John Clifford Jones
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : 1593700040
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Summary : The vitally important subject of process safety in the hydrocarbon industry is addressed in this book. The coverage is broad and the author has integrated the various aspects so that the book will be readily accessible to readers of diverse backgrounds. A grasp of the material requires only familiarity with physical and organic chemistry (at first-year undergraduate level) and with heat transfer and fluid flow at the same level. The text is complemented by many numerical examples with full solutions. Contents: Foreword by Dr.Donald Olander, Goodrich Corporation Preface Background to the oil and gas industry Hydrocarbon leakage and dispersion The combustion behaviour of hydrocarbons Offshore oil and gas production Physical operations on hydrocarbons and associated hazards Chemical operations on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives Hazards associated with particular hydrocarbon products Some relevant design principles Some relevant measurement principles Toxicity hazards Safe disposal of unwanted hydrocarbon Means of obtaining hydrocarbon other than from crude oil, and related safety issues Appendix: outline of the Canvey Study Solutions to numerical problems Self-test questions Index.

Chemical Process Safety

Chemical Process Safety
  • Author : Daniel A. Crowl,Joseph F. Louvar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-10-16
  • Total pages :656
  • ISBN : 9780132440554
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Summary : Combines academic theory with practical industry experience Updated to include the latest regulations and references Covers hazard identification, risk assessment, and inherent safety Case studies and problem sets enhance learning Long-awaited revision of the industry best seller. This fully revised second edition of Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications combines rigorous academic methods with real-life industrial experience to create a unique resource for students and professionals alike. The primary focus on technical fundamentals of chemical process safety provides a solid groundwork for understanding, with full coverage of both prevention and mitigation measures. Subjects include: Toxicology and industrial hygiene Vapor and liquid releases and dispersion modeling Flammability characterization Relief and explosion venting In addition to an overview of government regulations, the book introduces the resources of the AICHE Center for Chemical Process Safety library. Guidelines are offered for hazard identification and risk assessment. The book concludes with case histories drawn directly from the authors' experience in the field. A perfect reference for industry professionals, Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, Second Edition is also ideal for teaching at the graduate and senior undergraduate levels. Each chapter includes 30 problems, and a solutions manual is now available for instructors.

The Safety Relief Valve Handbook

The Safety Relief Valve Handbook
  • Author : Marc Hellemans
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-08-31
  • Total pages :326
  • ISBN : 0080961185
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Summary : The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards information relating to safety valves used in the process industry for positive pressure applications. Explains technical issues of safety valve operation in detail, including identification of benefits and pitfalls of current valve technologies Enables informed and creative decision making in the selection and use of safety valves The Handbook is unique in addressing both US and European codes: - covers all devices subject to the ASME VIII and European PED (pressure equipment directive) codes; - covers the safety valve recommendations of the API (American Petroleum Institute); - covers the safety valve recommendations of the European Normalisation Committees; - covers the latest NACE and ATEX codes; - enables readers to interpret and understand codes in practice Extensive and detailed illustrations and graphics provide clear guidance and explanation of technical material, in order to help users of a wide range of experience and background (as those in this field tend to have) to understand these devices and their applications Covers calculating valves for two-phase flow according to the new Omega 9 method and highlights the safety difference between this and the traditional method Covers selection and new testing method for cryogenic applications (LNG) for which there are currently no codes available and which is a booming industry worldwide Provides full explanation of the principles of different valve types available on the market, providing a selection guide for safety of the process and economic cost Extensive glossary and terminology to aid readers’ ability to understand documentation, literature, maintenance and operating manuals Accompanying website provides an online valve selection and codes guide.

Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations

Handbook of Chemical Engineering Calculations
  • Author : Nicholas P. Chopey
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994
  • Total pages :611
  • ISBN : UOM:39015028926262
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Summary : A compilation of the calculation procedures needed every day on the job by chemical engineers. Tables of Contents: Physical and Chemical Properties; Stoichiometry; Phase Equilibrium; Chemical-Reaction Equilibrium; Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design; Flow of Fluids and Solids; Heat Transfer; Distillation; Extraction and Leaching; Crystallization; Filtration; Liquid Agitation; Size Reduction; Drying: Evaporation; Environmental Engineering in the Plant. Illustrations. Index.

Process and Plant Safety

Process and Plant Safety
  • Author : Jürgen Schmidt
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-05-14
  • Total pages :406
  • ISBN : 9783527330270
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Summary : The safe operation of plants is of paramount importance in the chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. Best practice in process and plant safety allows both the prevention of hazards and the mitigation of consequences. Safety Technology is continuously advancing to new levels and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is already successfully established as a tool to ensure the safe operation of industrial plants. With CFD tools, a great amount of knowledge can be gained as both the necessary safety measures and the economic operation of plants can be simultaneously determined. Young academics, safety experts and safety managers in all parts of the industry will henceforth be forced to responsibly judge these new results from a safety perspective. This is the main challenge for the future of safety technology. This book serves as a guide to elaborating and determining the principles, assumptions, strengths, limitations and application areas of utilizing CFD in process and plant safety, and safety management. The book offers recommendations relating to guidelines, procedures, frameworks and technology for creating a higher level of safety for chemical and petrochemical plants. It includes modeling aids and concrete examples of industrial safety measures for hazard prevention.

Generic Construction of Availability Calculation Models for Safety Loops in Process Industry

Generic Construction of Availability Calculation Models for Safety Loops in Process Industry
  • Author : Thomas Gabriel
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011
  • Total pages :200
  • ISBN : 9783832528928
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Summary : A generic approach is proposed in this work that automatically constructs suitable calculation models from a herefore invented formal description language. Two positive effects arise from that: firstly, all inherently and explicitly contained complexity of Safety Instrumented Systems is identified once and condensed into a set of transformation formulas generating the actual calculation models. Secondly, providing a flexible and extensive description language encourages smart and quick engineering processes, enables for non-standard solutions, and relieves safety engineers from the challenge of actually deriving explicit calculation models by hand. A suitable new type of discrete time multiphase markov model is chosen as mathematical basis, and comes along with the required solver algorithms for retrieving the desired unavailability characteristics: the probability of failure on demand (PFD), and the probability of fail-safe (PFS), i.e. an operational unavailability as economical indicator.

Plant Guidelines for Technical Management of Chemical Process Safety

Plant Guidelines for Technical Management of Chemical Process Safety
  • Author : American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Center for Chemical Process Safety
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1992
  • Total pages :382
  • ISBN : UOM:39015032833850
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Summary : Produced by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), this volume provides examples of management systems for chemical process safety programs that are currently in place or that have been successfully used at chemical plants. The guidelines are directed toward all those individuals who are res

Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology

Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology
  • Author : T. David Griffith
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-09-02
  • Total pages :648
  • ISBN : 9780133388350
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Summary : A Practical Guide to Physical and Chemical Principles and Calculations for Today’s Process Control Operators In Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology, author T. David Griffith walks process technologists through the basic principles that govern their operations, helping them collaborate with chemical engineers to improve both safety and productivity. He shows process operators how to go beyond memorizing rules and formulas to understand the underlying science and physical laws, so they can accurately interpret anomalies and respond appropriately when exact rules or calculation methods don’t exist. Using simple algebra and non-technical analogies, Griffith explains each idea and technique without calculus. He introduces each topic by explaining why it matters to process technologists and offers numerous examples that show how key principles are applied and calculations are performed. For end-of-chapter problems, he provides the solutions in plain-English discussions of how and why they work. Chapter appendixes provide more advanced information for further exploration. Basic Principles and Calculations in Process Technology is an indispensable, practical resource for every process technologist who wants to know “what the numbers mean” so they can control their systems and processes more efficiently, safely, and reliably. T. David Griffith received his B.S. in chemical engineering from The University of Texas at Austin and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, then top-ranked in the discipline. After working in research on enhanced oil recovery (EOR), he cofounded a small chemical company, and later in his career he developed a record-setting Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) software package. He currently instructs in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Coverage includes • Preparing to solve problems by carefully organizing them and establishing consistent sets of measures • Calculating areas and volumes, including complex objects and interpolation • Understanding Boyle’s Law, Charles’s Law, and the Ideal Gas Law • Predicting the behavior of gases under extreme conditions • Applying thermodynamic laws to calculate work and changes in gas enthalpy, and to recognize operational problems • Explaining phase equilibria for distillation and fractionalization • Estimating chemical reaction speed to optimize control • Balancing material or energy as they cross system boundaries • Using material balance calculations to confirm quality control and prevent major problems • Calculating energy balances and using them to troubleshoot poor throughput • Understanding fluid flow, including shear, viscosity, laminar and turbulent flows, vectors, and tensors • Characterizing the operation of devices that transport heat energy for heating or cooling • Analyzing mass transfer in separation processes for materials purification

Handbook of Chemical Compound Data for Process Safety

Handbook of Chemical Compound Data for Process Safety
  • Author : Carl L. Yaws
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1997-03-25
  • Total pages :226
  • ISBN : 0080533396
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Summary : This book provides comprehensive safety and health-related data for hydrocarbons and organic chemicals as well as selected data for inorganic chemicals.

Safety Instrumented Systems Verification

Safety Instrumented Systems Verification
  • Author : William M. Goble,Harry Cheddie
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :382
  • ISBN : UOM:39015061462209
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Summary : This book clearly explains how to do probabilistic calculations to accomplish SIL verification for safety systems. Starting with a description of the safety lifecycle, the authors show where and how SIL verification fits into the key activities from conceptual design through commissioning.

Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers

Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers
  • Author : Carl Branan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002
  • Total pages :426
  • ISBN : 0750675675
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Summary : The most complete guide of its kind, this is the standard handbook for chemical and process engineers. All new material on fluid flow, long pipe, fractionators, separators and accumulators, cooling towers, gas treating, blending, troubleshooting field cases, gas solubility, and density of irregular solids. This substantial addition of material will also include conversion tables and a new appendix, “Shortcut Equipment Design Methods.”This convenient volume helps solve field engineering problems with its hundreds of common sense techniques, shortcuts, and calculations. Here, in a compact, easy-to-use format, are practical tips, handy formulas, correlations, curves, charts, tables, and shortcut methods that will save engineers valuable time and effort. Hundreds of common sense techniques and calculations help users quickly and accurately solve day-to-day design, operations, and equipment problems.

Layer of Protection Analysis

Layer of Protection Analysis
  • Author : CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-11-30
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : 9781118216279
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Summary : Layer of protection analysis (LOPA) is a recently developed, simplified method of risk assessment that provides the much-needed middle ground between a qualitative process hazard analysis and a traditional, expensive quantitative risk analysis. Beginning with an identified accident scenario, LOPA uses simplifying rules to evaluate initiating event frequency, independent layers of protection, and consequences to provide an order-of-magnitude estimate of risk. LOPA has also proven an excellent approach for determining the safety integrity level necessary for an instrumented safety system, an approach endorsed in instrument standards, such as ISA S84 and IEC 61511. Written by industry experts in LOPA, this pioneering book provides all the necessary information to undertake and complete a Layer of Protection Analysis during any stage in a processes' life cycle. Loaded with tables, charts, and examples, this book is invaluable to technical experts involved with ensuring the safety of a process. Because of its simplified, quicker risk assessment approach, LOPA is destined to become a widely used technique. Join other major companies and start your LOPA efforts now by purchasing this book.

Guidelines for Determining the Probability of Ignition of a Released Flammable Mass

Guidelines for Determining the Probability of Ignition of a Released Flammable Mass
  • Author : CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety),American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Center for Chemical Process Safety
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-06-09
  • Total pages :264
  • ISBN : 9781118230534
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Summary : "Complemented by an estimating tool spreadsheet based on a fixed set of chemicals to assist in all siting studies, [Guidelines for determining the probability of ignition of a released flammable mass] converts a "best guess" to a calculated value based on available information and current technology. The text provides a technology-based approach to deriving the probability that a flammable mass will find an ignition source and ignite. It offers valuable information in the development of a facility's Emergency Response Plan"--

Food Process Engineering Operations

Food Process Engineering Operations
  • Author : George D. Saravacos,Zacharias B. Maroulis
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-02-22
  • Total pages :594
  • ISBN : 9781420083545
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Summary : A unique and interdisciplinary field, food processing must meet basic process engineering considerations such as material and energy balances, as well as the more specialized requirements of food acceptance, human nutrition, and food safety. Food engineering, therefore, is a field of major concern to university departments of food science, and chemical and biological engineering as well as engineers and scientists working in various food processing industries. Part of the notable CRC Press Contemporary Food Engineering series, Food Process Engineering Operations focuses on the application of chemical engineering unit operations to the handling, processing, packaging, and distribution of food products. Chapters 1 through 5 open the text with a review of the fundamentals of process engineering and food processing technology, with typical examples of food process applications. The body of the book then covers food process engineering operations in detail, including theory, process equipment, engineering operations, and application examples and problems. Based on the authors’ long teaching and research experience both in the US and Greece, this highly accessible textbook employs simple diagrams to illustrate the mechanism of each operation and the main components of the process equipment. It uses simplified calculations requiring only elementary calculus and offers realistic values of food engineering properties taken from the published literature and the authors’ experience. The appendix contains useful engineering data for process calculations, such as steam tables, engineering properties, engineering diagrams, and suppliers of process equipment. Designed as a one or two semester textbook for food science students, Food Process Engineering Operations examines the applications of process engineering fundamentals to food processing technology making it an important reference for students of chemical and biological engineering interested in food engineering, and for scientists, engineers, and technologists working in food processing industries.