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Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-Up

Radioactive Waste Management and Contaminated Site Clean-Up
  • Author : William E Lee,Michael I Ojovan,Carol M Jantzen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2013-10-31
  • Total pages :912
  • ISBN : 085709744X
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Summary : Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up reviews radioactive waste management processes, technologies, and international experiences. Part one explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies. International safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management are also reviewed. Part two highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America. The experience in Japan, with a specific chapter on Fukushima, is also covered. Finally, part three explores the clean-up of sites contaminated by weapons programmes including the USA and former USSR. Radioactive waste management and contaminated site clean-up is a comprehensive resource for professionals, researchers, scientists and academics in radioactive waste management, governmental and other regulatory bodies and the nuclear power industry. Explores the fundamentals of radioactive waste including sources, characterisation, and processing strategies Reviews international safety standards, risk assessment of radioactive wastes and remediation of contaminated sites and irradiated nuclear fuel management Highlights the current international situation across Africa, Asia, Europe, and North America specifically including a chapter on the experience in Fukushima, Japan

Nuclear Decommissioning, Waste Management, and Environmental Site Remediation

Nuclear Decommissioning, Waste Management, and Environmental Site Remediation
  • Author : Colin Bayliss,Kevin Langley
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2003-10-10
  • Total pages :330
  • ISBN : 9780080537788
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Summary : Decommissioning nuclear facilities is a relatively new field, which has developed rapidly in the last ten years. It involves materials that may be highly radioactive and therefore require sophisticated methods of containment and remote handling. The wastes arising from decommissioning are hazardous and have to be stored or disposed of safely in order to protect the environment and future generations. Nuclear decommissioning work must be carried out to the highest possible standards to protect workers, the general public and the environment. This book describes the techniques used for dismantling redundant nuclear facilities, the safe storage of radioactive wastes and the restoration of nuclear licensed sites. * Describes the techniques used for dismantling nuclear facilities, safe storage of radioactive wastes, and the restoration of nuclear licensed facilities. * Provides the reader with decommissioning experience accumulated over 15 years by UKAEA. * Contains valuable information to personnel new to decommissioning and waste management.

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities
  • Author : Robert Noyes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995-12-31
  • Total pages :471
  • ISBN : 0815518455
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Summary : One of the largest, most complicated and expensive environmental problems in the United States is the cleanup of nuclear wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 4,000 contaminated sites covering tens of thousands of acres and replete with contaminated hazardous or radioactive waste, soil, or structures. In addition to high-level waste, it has more than 250,000 cubic meters of transuranic waste and millions of cubic meters of low-level radio-active waste. In addition, DOE is responsible for thousands of facilities awaiting decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantling. DOE and its predecessors have been involved in the management of radioactive wastes since 1943, when such wastes were first generated in significant quantities as by-products of nuclear weapons production. Waste connected with DOE's nuclear weapons complex has been accumulating as a result of various operations spanning over five decades. The cost estimates for nuclear waste cleanup in the United States have been rapidly rising. It has recently been estimated to be in a range from $200 to $350 billion. Costs could vary considerably based on future philosophies as to whether to isolate certain sites (the ""iron fence"" philosophy), or clean them up to a pristine condition (the ""greenfields"" philosophy). Funding will also be based on Congressional action that may reduce environmental cleanup, based on budget considerations.

Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials

Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials
  • Author : Russian Academy of Sciences,National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Development, Security, and Cooperation,Office for Central Europe and Eurasia,Committee on Cleaning Up of Radioactive Contamination: Russian Challenges and U.S. Experience
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-01-23
  • Total pages :234
  • ISBN : 0309177367
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Summary : This publication features papers presented at the Workshop on Cleaning Up Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Materials, held in Moscow in June 2007. This activity was organized by the National Academies in cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences and with funding provided by the Russell Family Foundation. The workshop was designed to promote exchanges of information on specific contaminated sites in Russia and elsewhere and to stimulate greater attention to the severity of the problems and the urgent need to clean up sites of concern to the local and international communities.

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities
  • Author : Robert Noyes
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1995-12-31
  • Total pages :471
  • ISBN : 0815518455
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Summary : One of the largest, most complicated and expensive environmental problems in the United States is the cleanup of nuclear wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 4,000 contaminated sites covering tens of thousands of acres and replete with contaminated hazardous or radioactive waste, soil, or structures. In addition to high-level waste, it has more than 250,000 cubic meters of transuranic waste and millions of cubic meters of low-level radio-active waste. In addition, DOE is responsible for thousands of facilities awaiting decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantling. DOE and its predecessors have been involved in the management of radioactive wastes since 1943, when such wastes were first generated in significant quantities as by-products of nuclear weapons production. Waste connected with DOE's nuclear weapons complex has been accumulating as a result of various operations spanning over five decades. The cost estimates for nuclear waste cleanup in the United States have been rapidly rising. It has recently been estimated to be in a range from $200 to $350 billion. Costs could vary considerably based on future philosophies as to whether to isolate certain sites (the ""iron fence"" philosophy), or clean them up to a pristine condition (the ""greenfields"" philosophy). Funding will also be based on Congressional action that may reduce environmental cleanup, based on budget considerations.

Environmental Remediation and Restoration of Contaminated Nuclear and Norm Sites

Environmental Remediation and Restoration of Contaminated Nuclear and Norm Sites
  • Author : L van Velzen
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2015-02-02
  • Total pages :276
  • ISBN : 1782422382
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Summary : Nuclear sites become contaminated with radionuclides due to accidents and activities carried out without due consideration for the environment. Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) released by industrial processes such as coal power production and fertilizer manufacture may also require clean-up. Environmental remediation and restoration aim to reduce exposure to radiation from contaminated soil or groundwater. This book provides a comprehensive overview of this area. Part 1 provides an introduction to the different types of contaminated site and their characteristics. Part 2 addresses environmental restoration frameworks and processes. Part 3 then reviews different remediation techniques and methods of waste disposal. Explores types and characteristics of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites Provides an in depth guide to environmental restoration frameworks and processes including stakeholder involvement, risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis in the remediation and restoration of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites Offers coverage of remediation techniques and waste disposal from electrokinetic remediation to in situ and ex situ bioremediation of radionuclides contaminated soils

Science and Technology for Environmental Cleanup at Hanford

Science and Technology for Environmental Cleanup at Hanford
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Committee on the Review of the Hanford Site's Environmental Remediation Science and Technology Plan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001-11-23
  • Total pages :192
  • ISBN : 0309075963
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Summary : The Hanford Site was established by the federal government in 1943 as part of the secret wartime effort to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. The site operated for about four decades and produced roughly two thirds of the 100 metric tons of plutonium in the U.S. inventory. Millions of cubic meters of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, the by-product of plutonium production, were stored in tanks and ancillary facilities at the site or disposed or discharged to the subsurface, the atmosphere, or the Columbia River. In the late 1980s, the primary mission of the Hanford Site changed from plutonium production to environmental restoration. The federal government, through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began to invest human and financial resources to stabilize and, where possible, remediate the legacy of environmental contamination created by the defense mission. During the past few years, this financial investment has exceeded $1 billion annually. DOE, which is responsible for cleanup of the entire weapons complex, estimates that the cleanup program at Hanford will last until at least 2046 and will cost U.S. taxpayers on the order of $85 billion. Science and Technology for Environmental Cleanup at Hanford provides background information on the Hanford Site and its Integration Project,discusses the System Assessment Capability, an Integration Project-developed risk assessment tool to estimate quantitative effects of contaminant releases, and reviews the technical elements of the scierovides programmatic-level recommendations.

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination
  • Author : Maria C. Hernandez Soriano
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-03-26
  • Total pages :920
  • ISBN : 953511235X
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Summary : Soil is an irreplaceable resource that sustains life on the planet, challenged by food and energy demands of an increasing population. Therefore, soil contamination constitutes a critical issue to be addressed if we are to secure the life quality of present and future generations. Integrated efforts from researchers and policy makers are required to develop sound risk assessment procedures, remediation strategies and sustainable soil management policies. Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination provides a wide depiction of current research in soil contamination and risk assessment, encompassing reviews and case studies on soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants. The book introduces several innovative approaches for soil remediation and risk assessment, including advances in phytoremediation and implementation of metabolomics in soil sciences.

Nuclear Waste Politics

Nuclear Waste Politics
  • Author : Matthew Cotton
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-14
  • Total pages :252
  • ISBN : 1317665015
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Summary : The question of what to do with radioactive waste has dogged political administrations of nuclear-powered electricity-producing nations since the inception of the technology in the 1950s. As the issue rises to the forefront of current energy and environmental policy debates, a critical policy analysis of radioactive waste management in the UK provides important insights for the future. Nuclear Waste Politics sets out a detailed historical and social scientific analysis of radioactive waste management and disposal in the UK from the 1950s up to the present day; drawing international comparisons with Sweden, Finland, Canada and the US. A theoretical framework is presented for analysing nuclear politics: blending literatures on technology policy, environmental ethics and the geography and politics of scale. The book proffers a new theory of "ethical incrementalism" and practical policy suggestions to facilitate a fair and efficient siting process for radioactive waste management facilities. The book argues that a move away from centralised, high capital investment national siting towards a regional approach using deep borehole disposal, could resolve many of the problems that the high stakes, inflexible "megaproject" approach has caused across the world. This book is an important resource for academics and researchers in the areas of environmental management, energy policy, and science and technology studies.

Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Disposition

Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Disposition
  • Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board,Planning Committee on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Disposition: A Workshop
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017-07-05
  • Total pages :162
  • ISBN : 0309456789
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Summary : The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE) is responsible for the safe cleanup of sites used for nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is the most volumetrically significant waste stream generated by the DOE cleanup program. LLW is also generated through commercial activities such as nuclear power plant operations and medical treatments. The laws and regulations related to the disposal of LLW in the United States have evolved over time and across agencies and states, resulting in a complex regulatory structure. DOE asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to organize a workshop to discuss approaches for the management and disposition of LLW. Participants explored the key physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of low-level waste that govern its safe and secure management and disposal in aggregate and in individual waste streams, and how key characteristics of low level waste are incorporated into standards, orders, and regulations that govern the management and disposal of LLW in the United States and in other major waste-producing countries. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Radioactive Waste Management

Radioactive Waste Management
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1994
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

EPA Workshop on Radioactively Contaminated Sites

EPA Workshop on Radioactively Contaminated Sites
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1990
  • Total pages :171
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary :

Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation

Natural Attenuation for Groundwater Remediation
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Intrinsic Remediation
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-08-31
  • Total pages :292
  • ISBN : 0309069327
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Summary : In the past decade, officials responsible for clean-up of contaminated groundwater have increasingly turned to natural attenuation-essentially allowing naturally occurring processes to reduce the toxic potential of contaminants-versus engineered solutions. This saves both money and headaches. To the people in surrounding communities, though, it can appear that clean-up officials are simply walking away from contaminated sites. When is natural attenuation the appropriate approach to a clean-up? This book presents the consensus of a diverse committee, informed by the views of researchers, regulators, and community activists. The committee reviews the likely effectiveness of natural attenuation with different classes of contaminants-and describes how to evaluate the "footprints" of natural attenuation at a site to determine whether natural processes will provide adequate clean-up. Included are recommendations for regulatory change. The committee emphasizes the importance of the public's belief and attitudes toward remediation and provides guidance on involving community stakeholders throughout the clean-up process. The book explores how contamination occurs, explaining concepts and terms, and includes case studies from the Hanford nuclear site, military bases, as well as other sites. It provides historical background and important data on clean-up processes and goes on to offer critical reviews of 14 published protocols for evaluating natural attenuation.

Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization

Cementitious Materials for Nuclear Waste Immobilization
  • Author : Rehab O. Abdel Rahman,Ravil Z. Rakhimov,Nailia R. Rakhimova,Michael I. Ojovan
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-08-28
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 1118511972
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Summary : Cementitious materials are an essential part in any radioactive waste disposal facility. Conditioning processes such as cementation are used to convert waste into a stable solid form that is insoluble and will prevent dispersion to the surrounding environment. It is incredibly important to understand the long-term behavior of these materials. This book summarises approaches and current practices in use of cementitious materials for nuclear waste immobilisation. It gives a unique description of the most important aspects of cements as nuclear waste forms: starting with a description of wastes, analyzing the cementitious systems used for immobilization and describing the technologies used, and ending with analysis of cementitious waste forms and their long term behavior in an envisaged disposal environment. Extensive research has been devoted to study the feasibility of using cement or cement based materials in immobilizing and solidifying different radioactive wastes. However, these research results are scattered. This work provides the reader with both the science and technology of the immobilization process, and the cementitious materials used to immobilize nuclear waste. It summarizes current knowledge in the field, and highlights important areas that need more investigation. The chapters include: Introduction, Portland cement, Alternative cements, Cement characterization and testing, Radioactive waste cementation, Waste cementation technology, Cementitious wasteform durability and performance assessment.

Soil Contamination

Soil Contamination
  • Author : Marcelo Larramendy,Sonia Soloneski
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-12-21
  • Total pages :356
  • ISBN : 9535128159
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Summary : This edited book, Soil Contamination - Current Consequences and Further Solutions, is intended to provide an overview on the different environmental consequences of our anthropogenic activities, which has introduced a large number of xenobiotics that the soil cannot, or can only slower, decompose or degrade. We hope that this book will continue to meet the expectations and needs of all interested in diverse fields with expertise in soil science, health, toxicology, and other disciplines who contribute and share their findings to take this area forward for future investigations.

Nuclear Waste Management

Nuclear Waste Management
  • Author : Paul W. Wang,Tiffany Zachry
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006
  • Total pages :352
  • ISBN : 09876543XX
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Summary : This symposium series book presents leading-edge research in the area of nuclear waste management conducted through the EMSP.

Improving the Characterization and Treatment of Radioactive Wastes for the Department of Energy's Accelerated Site Cleanup Program

Improving the Characterization and Treatment of Radioactive Wastes for the Department of Energy's Accelerated Site Cleanup Program
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Radioactive Waste Management,Committee on Opportunities for Accelerating Characterization and Treatment of Waste at DOE Nuclear Weapons Sites
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-01-06
  • Total pages :84
  • ISBN : 9780309181945
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Summary : The Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) directs the massive cleanup of more than 100 sites that were involved in the production of nuclear weapons materials during the Manhattan Project and the Cold War. This report offers suggestions for more effectively characterizing and treating the orphan and special-case wastes that are part of EM’s accelerated cleanup program. It identifies technical opportunities for EM to improve the program that will save time and money without compromising health and safety. The opportunities identified include: making more effective use of existing facilities and capabilities for waste characterization, treatment, or disposal; eliminating self-imposed requirements that have no clear technical or safety basis; and investing in new technologies to improve existing treatment and characterization capabilities. For example, the report suggests that EM work with DOE classification officers to declassify, to the extent possible, classified materials declared as wastes. The report also suggests a new approach for treating the wastes that EM will leave in place after cleanup.

Management of Hazardous Wastes

Management of Hazardous Wastes
  • Author : Hosam El-Din M. Saleh,Rehab Abdel Rahman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-10-19
  • Total pages :186
  • ISBN : 9535126164
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Summary : Rapid trend of industry and high technological progress are the main sources of the accumulation of hazardous wastes. Recently, nuclear applications have been rapidly developed, and several nuclear power plants have been started to work throughout the world. The potential impact of released hazardous contaminants into the environment has received growing attention due to its serious problems to the biological systems. The book Management of Hazardous Wastes contains eight chapters covering two main topics of hazardous waste management and microbial bioremediation. This book will be useful to many scientists, researchers, and students in the scope of development in waste management program including sources of hazardous waste, government policies on waste generation, and treatment with particular emphasis on bioremediation technology.

Biotechnology for Waste Management and Site Restoration

Biotechnology for Waste Management and Site Restoration
  • Author : C. Ronneau,O. Bitchaeva
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012-12-06
  • Total pages :248
  • ISBN : 9400914679
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Summary : Biotechnology for Waste Management and Site Restoration covers: waste management - solid, gaseous, liquid; site restoration - radioactivity, organics, toxic metals; educational, economic, social and business aspects; and international collaboration. International collaboration is growing apace and many concrete projects have been started. The body of knowledge is growing. Over the long term, it is envisaged that this international collaboration will result in a long-term scientific and technological strategy, new technologies and alternative solutions, and practical implementations of biotechnology for the nuclear and industrial sectors of the economy.

Longterm care insurance better information critical to prospective purchasers

Longterm care insurance better information critical to prospective purchasers
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2020
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 1428972013
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Summary :

Contaminants in the Subsurface

Contaminants in the Subsurface
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Water Science and Technology Board,Committee on Source Removal of Contaminants in the Subsurface
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005-04-23
  • Total pages :370
  • ISBN : 030909447X
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Summary : At hundreds of thousands of commercial, industrial, and military sites across the country, subsurface materials including groundwater are contaminated with chemical waste. The last decade has seen growing interest in using aggressive source remediation technologies to remove contaminants from the subsurface, but there is limited understanding of (1) the effectiveness of these technologies and (2) the overall effect of mass removal on groundwater quality. This report reviews the suite of technologies available for source remediation and their ability to reach a variety of cleanup goals, from meeting regulatory standards for groundwater to reducing costs. The report proposes elements of a protocol for accomplishing source remediation that should enable project managers to decide whether and how to pursue source remediation at their sites.