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Receptors in the Evolution and Development of the Brain

Receptors in the Evolution and Development of the Brain
  • Author : Richard E. Fine
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-06-15
  • Total pages :282
  • ISBN : 9780128110133
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Summary : Receptors in the Evolution and Development of the Brain: Matter into Mind presents the key role of receptors and their cognate ligands in wiring the mammalian brain from an evolutionary developmental biology perspective. It examines receptor function in the evolution and development of the nervous system in the large vertebrate brain, and discusses rapid eye movement sleep and apoptosis as mechanisms to destroy miswired neurons. Possible links between trophic deficits and connectional diseases including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and ALS are also discussed. This book is extremely useful to those with an interest in the molecular and cellular neurosciences, including those in cognitive and clinical branches of this subject, and anyone interested in how the incredibly complex human brain can build itself. Provides an understanding of the key role receptors play in brain development and the selection process necessary to construct a large brain Traces the evolution of receptors from the most primitive organisms to humans Emphasizes the roles that REM sleep and apoptosis play in this selection via trophic factors and receptors Describes the role that trophic factor-receptor interactions play throughout life and how trophic deficits can lead to connectional diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and ALS Provides a potential mechanism whereby neuronal stem cells can cure these diseases

Discovering the Brain

Discovering the Brain
  • Author : National Academy of Sciences,Institute of Medicine,Sandra Ackerman
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1992-01-01
  • Total pages :194
  • ISBN : 9780309045292
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Summary : The brain ... There is no other part of the human anatomy that is so intriguing. How does it develop and function and why does it sometimes, tragically, degenerate? The answers are complex. In Discovering the Brain, science writer Sandra Ackerman cuts through the complexity to bring this vital topic to the public. The 1990s were declared the "Decade of the Brain" by former President Bush, and the neuroscience community responded with a host of new investigations and conferences. Discovering the Brain is based on the Institute of Medicine conference, Decade of the Brain: Frontiers in Neuroscience and Brain Research. Discovering the Brain is a "field guide" to the brain--an easy-to-read discussion of the brain's physical structure and where functions such as language and music appreciation lie. Ackerman examines How electrical and chemical signals are conveyed in the brain. The mechanisms by which we see, hear, think, and pay attention--and how a "gut feeling" actually originates in the brain. Learning and memory retention, including parallels to computer memory and what they might tell us about our own mental capacity. Development of the brain throughout the life span, with a look at the aging brain. Ackerman provides an enlightening chapter on the connection between the brain's physical condition and various mental disorders and notes what progress can realistically be made toward the prevention and treatment of stroke and other ailments. Finally, she explores the potential for major advances during the "Decade of the Brain," with a look at medical imaging techniques--what various technologies can and cannot tell us--and how the public and private sectors can contribute to continued advances in neuroscience. This highly readable volume will provide the public and policymakers--and many scientists as well--with a helpful guide to understanding the many discoveries that are sure to be announced throughout the "Decade of the Brain."

From Neurons to Neighborhoods

From Neurons to Neighborhoods
  • Author : Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000-11-13
  • Total pages :612
  • ISBN : 9780309069885
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Summary : How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." The debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media. How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues. The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more. Authoritative yet accessible, From Neurons to Neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. It examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows.

Cumulated Index Medicus

Cumulated Index Medicus
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UIUC:30112001099784
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Summary :

Fundamental Neuroscience

Fundamental Neuroscience
  • Author : Larry Squire,Darwin Berg,Floyd E. Bloom,Sascha du Lac,Anirvan Ghosh,Larry R. Squire,Nicholas C. Spitzer,Susan K. McConnell,James L. Roberts,Michael J. Zigmond
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2002-11-19
  • Total pages :1426
  • ISBN : 9780080521800
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Summary : With over 300 training programs in neuroscience currently in existence, demand is great for a comprehensive textbook that both introduces graduate students to the full range of neuroscience, from molecular biology to clinical science, but also assists instructors in offering an in-depth course in neuroscience to advanced undergraduates. The second edition of Fundamental Neuroscience accomplishes all this and more. The thoroughly revised text features over 25% new material including completely new chapters, illustrations, and a CD-ROM containing all the figures from the text. More concise and manageable than the previous edition, this book has been retooled to better serve its audience in the neuroscience and medical communities. Key Features * Logically organized into 7 sections, with uniform editing of the content for a "one-voice" feel throughout all 54 chapters * Includes numerous text boxes with concise, detailed descriptions of specific experiments, disorders, methodological approaches, and concepts * Well-illustrated with over 850 full color figures, also included on the accompanying CD-ROM

CSA Neurosciences Abstracts

CSA Neurosciences Abstracts
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1999
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UOM:39015050430647
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Summary :

Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution

Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution
  • Author : Agustín González,Fernando Martinez-Garcia,Luis Puelles,Hans J Ten Donkelaar
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2014-10-27
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 9782889193066
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Summary : The brain of each animal shows specific traits that reflect its phylogenetic history and its particular lifestyle. Therefore, comparing brains is not just a mere intellectual exercise, but it helps understanding how the brain allows adaptive behavioural strategies to face an ever-changing world and how this complex organ has evolved during phylogeny, giving rise to complex mental processes in humans and other animals. These questions attracted scientists since the times of Santiago Ramon y Cajal one of the founders of comparative neurobiology. In the last decade, this discipline has undergone a true revolution due to the analysis of expression patterns of morphogenetic genes in embryos of different animals. The papers of this e-book are good examples of modern comparative neurobiology, which mainly focuses on the following four Grand Questions: a) How are different brains built during ontogeny? b) What is the anatomical organization of mature brains and how can they be compared? c) How do brains work to accomplish their function of ensuring survival and, ultimately, reproductive success? d) How have brains evolved during phylogeny? The title of this e-book, Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution, stresses the importance of comparative studies to understand brain function and, the reverse, of considering brain function to properly understand brain evolution. These issues should be taken into account when using animals in the research of mental function and dysfunction, and are fundamental to understand the origins of the human mind.

The Aging Brain

The Aging Brain
  • Author : Ted Burch
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1981
  • Total pages :36
  • ISBN : MINN:319510028718923
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Summary :

Brain, Behavior and Evolution

Brain, Behavior and Evolution
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1989
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : UCLA:L0061548442
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Summary :

Brain Evolution and Cognition

Brain Evolution and Cognition
  • Author : Professor of Zoology/Director of Brain Research Institute Gerhard Roth
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2001
  • Total pages :597
  • ISBN : UOM:39015050522054
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Summary : Publisher Description

Evolution of Nervous Systems

Evolution of Nervous Systems
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2016-11-23
  • Total pages :2007
  • ISBN : 9780128040966
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Summary : Evolution of Nervous Systems, Second Edition is a unique, major reference which offers the gold standard for those interested both in evolution and nervous systems. All biology only makes sense when seen in the light of evolution, and this is especially true for the nervous system. All animals have nervous systems that mediate their behaviors, many of them species specific, yet these nervous systems all evolved from the simple nervous system of a common ancestor. To understand these nervous systems, we need to know how they vary and how this variation emerged in evolution. In the first edition of this important reference work, over 100 distinguished neuroscientists assembled the current state-of-the-art knowledge on how nervous systems have evolved throughout the animal kingdom. This second edition remains rich in detail and broad in scope, outlining the changes in brain and nervous system organization that occurred from the first invertebrates and vertebrates, to present day fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, and especially primates, including humans. The book also includes wholly new content, fully updating the chapters in the previous edition and offering brand new content on current developments in the field. Each of the volumes has been carefully restructured to offer expanded coverage of non-mammalian taxa, mammals, primates, and the human nervous system. The basic principles of brain evolution are discussed, as are mechanisms of change. The reader can select from chapters on highly specific topics or those that provide an overview of current thinking and approaches, making this an indispensable work for students and researchers alike. Presents a broad range of topics, ranging from genetic control of development in invertebrates, to human cognition, offering a one-stop resource for the evolution of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom Incorporates the expertise of over 100 outstanding investigators who provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results Presents areas of disagreement and consensus views that provide a holistic view of the subjects under discussion

The Brain's Sense of Movement

The Brain's Sense of Movement
  • Author : Alain Berthoz
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2000
  • Total pages :337
  • ISBN : 0674009800
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Summary : This interpretation of perception and action allows Alain Berthoz to focus on psychological phenomena: proprioception and kinaesthesis; the mechanisms that maintain balance and co-ordination actions; and basic perceptual and memory processes involved in navigation.

The Mouse Nervous System

The Mouse Nervous System
  • Author : Charles Watson
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2012
  • Total pages :795
  • ISBN : 9780123694973
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Summary : The Mouse Nervous System provides a comprehensive account of the central nervous system of the mouse. The book is aimed at molecular biologists who need a book that introduces them to the anatomy of the mouse brain and spinal cord, but also takes them into the relevant details of development and organization of the area they have chosen to study. The Mouse Nervous System offers a wealth of new information for experienced anatomists who work on mice. The book serves as a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in neuroscience. * Visualization of brain white matter anatomy via 3D diffusion tensor imaging contrasts enhances relationship of anatomy to function * Systematic consideration of the anatomy and connections of all regions of brain and spinal cord by the authors of the most cited rodent brain atlases * A major section (12 chapters) on functional systems related to motor control, sensation, and behavioral and emotional states, * Full segmentation of 170120+ brain regions more clearly defines structure boundaries than previous point-and-annotate anatomical labeling, and connectivity is mapped in a way not provided by traditional atlasesA detailed analysis of gene expression during development of the forebrain by Luis Puelles, the leading researcher in this area. * Full coverage of the role of gene expression during development, and the new field of genetic neuroantomy using site-specific recombinases * Examples of the use of mouse models in the study of neurological illness

Human

Human
  • Author : Michael S. Gazzaniga
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2009-10-13
  • Total pages :464
  • ISBN : 9780061829710
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Summary : What happened along the evolutionary trail that made humans so unique? In his accessible style, Michael Gazzaniga pinpoints the change that made us thinking, sentient humans different from our predecessors. He explores what makes human brains special, the importance of language and art in defining the human condition, the nature of human consciousness, and even artificial intelligence.

Evolution of Nervous Systems: The nervous systems of early mammals and their evolution

Evolution of Nervous Systems: The nervous systems of early mammals and their evolution
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2017
  • Total pages :229
  • ISBN : 0128498668
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Summary :

Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System

Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2011-07-05
  • Total pages :74
  • ISBN : 9780309212243
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Summary : Glutamate is the most pervasive neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Despite this fact, no validated biological markers, or biomarkers, currently exist for measuring glutamate pathology in CNS disorders or injuries. Glutamate dysfunction has been associated with an extensive range of nervous system diseases and disorders. Problems with how the neurotransmitter glutamate functions in the brain have been linked to a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, substance abuse, and traumatic brain injury. These conditions are widespread, affecting a large portion of the United States population, and remain difficult to treat. Efforts to understand, treat, and prevent glutamate-related disorders can be aided by the identification of valid biomarkers. The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders held a workshop on June 21-22, 2010, to explore ways to accelerate the development, validation, and implementation of such biomarkers. Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System: Workshop Summary investigates promising current and emerging technologies, and outlines strategies to procure resources and tools to advance drug development for associated nervous system disorders. Moreover, this report highlights presentations by expert panelists, and the open panel discussions that occurred during the workshop.

The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology

The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology
  • Author : John H. Byrne
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2019-01-29
  • Total pages :608
  • ISBN : 9780190456771
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Summary : Invertebrates have proven to be extremely useful model systems for gaining insights into the neural and molecular mechanisms of sensory processing, motor control and higher functions such as feeding behavior, learning and memory, navigation, and social behavior. A major factor in their enormous contributions to neuroscience is the relative simplicity of invertebrate nervous systems. In addition, some invertebrates, primarily the molluscs, have large cells, which allow analyses to take place at the level of individually identified neurons. Individual neurons can be surgically removed and assayed for expression of membrane channels, levels of second messengers, protein phosphorylation, and RNA and protein synthesis. Moreover, peptides and nucleotides can be injected into individual neurons. Other invertebrate model systems such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans offer tremendous advantages for obtaining insights into the neuronal bases of behavior through the application of genetic approaches. The Oxford Handbook of Invertebrate Neurobiology reviews the many neurobiological principles that have emerged from invertebrate analyses, such as motor pattern generation, mechanisms of synaptic transmission, and learning and memory. It also covers general features of the neurobiology of invertebrate circadian rhythms, development, and regeneration and reproduction. Some neurobiological phenomena are species-specific and diverse, especially in the domain of the neuronal control of locomotion and camouflage. Thus, separate chapters are provided on the control of swimming in annelids, crustaea and molluscs, locomotion in hexapods, and camouflage in cephalopods. Unique features of the handbook include chapters that review social behavior and intentionality in invertebrates. A chapter is devoted to summarizing past contributions of invertebrates to the understanding of nervous systems and identifying areas for future studies that will continue to advance that understanding.

Development and Evolution of Brain Size

Development and Evolution of Brain Size
  • Author : Martin E. Hahn,Craig Jensen,Bruce C. Dudek
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :1979
  • Total pages :393
  • ISBN : MINN:31951000463836H
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Summary : Development and Evolution of Brain Size ...

Neurobehavioral Genetics

Neurobehavioral Genetics
  • Author : Byron C. Jones,Pierre Mormede
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2006-08-30
  • Total pages :496
  • ISBN : 1420003569
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Summary : A complete background to concepts and principles of behavioral genetics, Neurobehavioral Genetics: Methods and Applications, Second Edition features a broad spectrum of the most current techniques in neurobehavioral genetics in a single source. International researchers incorporate several new developments in the field, including: De

From Monkey Brain to Human Brain

From Monkey Brain to Human Brain
  • Author : Fondation Fyssen. Symposium
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2005
  • Total pages :400
  • ISBN : 0262042231
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Summary : Leaders in cognitive psychology, comparative biology, and neuroscience discuss patterns of convergence and divergence seen in studies of human and nonhuman primate brains. The extraordinary overlap between human and chimpanzee genomes does not result in an equal overlap between human and chimpanzee thoughts, sensations, perceptions, and emotions; there are considerable similarities but also considerable differences between human and nonhuman primate brains. From Monkey Brain to Human Brain uses the latest findings in cognitive psychology, comparative biology, and neuroscience to look at the complex patterns of convergence and divergence in primate cortical organization and function. Several chapters examine the use of modern technologies to study primate brains, analyzing the potentials and the limitations of neuroimaging as well as genetic and computational approaches. These methods, which can be applied identically across different species of primates, help to highlight the paradox of nonlinear primate evolution--the fact that major changes in brain size and functional complexity resulted from small changes in the genome. Other chapters identify plausible analogs or homologs in nonhuman primates for such human cognitive functions as arithmetic, reading, theory of mind, and altruism; examine the role of parietofrontal circuits in the production and comprehension of actions; analyze the contributions of the prefrontal and cingulate cortices to cognitive control; and explore to what extent visual recognition and visual attention are related in humans and other primates. The Fyssen Foundation is dedicated to encouraging scientific inquiry into the cognitive mechanisms that underlie animal and human behavior and has long sponsored symposia on topics of central importance to the cognitive sciences.

Neurobiology of the Parental Brain

Neurobiology of the Parental Brain
  • Author : Robert Bridges
  • Publisher :Unknown
  • Release Date :2010-07-28
  • Total pages :584
  • ISBN : 0080559573
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Summary : This book presents cutting edge research on the basic neurobiology of parental behavior as it relates to behavioral disorders, including postpartum depression, anxiety, and inadequate parental bonding to infants. Internationally recognized basic and clinical researchers present new research findings in humans and animals that elucidate the roles of the brain, physiological state, genes and environment in maternal and paternal care. By bridging the gap between basic and clinical research, new understandings of how the biology of the brain and the reproductive state of the parent impact their mental health and the successful rearing of young emerge. * Presents the neural network of motherhood based on fundamental and functional MRI studies of parental care - from rodents to humans * Discusses the role of gene-environment interactions in parenting * Offers parenting strategies and priorities in raising young * Discusses maternal defense - the neurobiology of maternal protection * Examines the significance and underlying causes of postpartum depression * Discusses parenting and anxiety – neurobiological basis for reductions during the postpartum period * Also includes the neurobiology of fatherhood – a fresh evolutionary and biological perspective on paternal behavior * Presents information on maternal neuroplasticity - how reproductive history changes the maternal brain * Translates research – internationally renowned researchers' insights into common factors that regulate mammalian parenting